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■   I'll.     ■'.■*'}MH    *ifjw T''.  i  i"y 

!i]::"^^''^AL  I n^ihr''^^  'NS'lfttl  i"l 




/    [Founded  1852.  -Incorporatkd  by  Rhval  Charter,   1876.] 


VOL.    LXVL  -  LY-VW 

1915-1916.  -/f// 


newcastle-upon-tynp::  published  by  the  institute. 

Printed  by  Andrew  Reid  <fe  Co.,  Limited,  Newcastle-upon-Ttnk. 

1916.  -^  /^/^ 
\_All  rights  of  puhlication  or  translation  are  reserved.] 



The  Institxite  is  not,  as  a  body,  responsible  for  the  statements  and  opinions 
advanced  in  the  pajwrs  which  may  be  read,  nor  in  the  discussions  which  may 
take  place  at  the  meetings  of  the  Institute. 



Advertisement  ...         .  .         ...         ...  ii 

Contexts  ...         .  .  . .         ...         ...  iii 


1915.  PAGE. 

Aug.   7. — Aumial   Geueral    Meeting    (Nevvca.stle-iipou-Tyue)        ...         ...  1 

Election  of  Officers,  1915-1916         1 

G.    C.    Greenwell    Medal        ...         .         ...         ...  2 

Annual  Report  of  the  Council,   1914-1915  .  ..         ...  2 

Annual  Report  of  the  Finance  Committee,  1914-1915 6 

Account.s  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  .  .  7 

Election  of  Repre-sentatives  on  the  Council  of  The  In.stitution 

of  Mining  Engineers,  1915-1916         13 

Discussion   of  Mr.    Samuel    Dean's   pajier  on   "  Coal-mining 

in  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  United  States  of  America  "■  13 

Discus.sion    of   Mr.    C.    W.    Chafer's    pai>er   on    "  Mining   in 

Burma."     Part    I.  14 

Discu.ssiou   of   Mr.    H.    W.    G.    I^albaum's   paper    on    "The 
Winding-drums  of  Practice  and  of  Theory;  with  Notes 
on  Factors  of  Safety  and  Economy  of  Winding-ropes  ' '  16 

"A  New  Battery  Signalling  Bell."     By  W.  M.  Thornton  ..  19 

Discussion        .  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  26 

Oct..  9. — General  Meeting   (Newcastle-upon-Tyne)  ...         ...         ...         ...  33 

Remarks  on  the  Miner's  "  Safety-lamp  "  on  the  Presentation 
of   Portraits    of   the    Inventors    by   John    Bell    Simpson, 

D.C.L .33 

"Presidential  Address."     By  T.  Y.  Greener 38 

"  Modern     American     Coal-mining     Methods,     with     Some 

Comparisons."     By    Samuel    Dean    ...         ..  ...         .  .53 

Discussion        ...         ...         ...         ...         85 

Dec.  11. — General  Meeting  (Newca.stle-upon-Tyne)  ...         ...         ...  103 

Di.scussion    of   Mr.    C.    W.    Chafer's    pajwr   on    "  Mining    in 

Burma."     Part  I. 104 

Discussion  of  Mr.  Samuel  Dean's  paper  on  "  Modern 
American  Coal-mining  Methods,  with  Some  Com- 
parisons"             106 


Feb.  12. — General  Meeting  (Newcastle-upon-Tyne)...         ..  149 

Discussion  of  Mr.  Samuel  Dean's  paper  on  "  Modem 
American  Coal-mining  Methods,  with  Some  Com- 
parisons."   ...         ...         ...         ...  ...         149 

"The    Hirsch    Portable    Electric    Lamp."        By    Hiram    H. 

Hir.sch  . .         ...         ...         175 

"The  Logic  of  Trams."     By  John  Gibson       l86 

Discussion        ...         ...  . .  ...  . .         198 


ISilG.  PAGE. 

April  8.— Goucial  Mootiug  (Newca.stle-upon-Tyne) 205 

Ui.scUhsioii  of  Mr.  Saimiel  Dfan'.s  pajR-r  on  "  Modern 
American  Coal-mining  MethodN,  with  Some  Coni- 
pari.son.s  "  ...  ...         206    of    Mr.     Hiram     H.     Hirsch'.s    pai>er    on    "The 

Hirsch   Portable  Electric  Lamp  "     216 

Discussion  of  Mr.   John  Gibson's   paper  on   "  The   Logic  of 

Trams"       216 

'■  The   Influence    of   Incombii.stihlf   Substances  on   Coal-dust 

Explosions."     By  A.  S.  Blatchford 235 

Discussion        ...  ...  ...  ...  243 

June   3.— Greneral    Meeting    (Newcastle-upon-Tyne)  ...         252 

Discussion  of  Mr.  Samuel  Dean's  pai>er  on  "  Modern 
American  Coal-mining  Methods,  with  Some  Com- 
parisons "  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         252 

Discussion  of  Mr.  Hiram  H.  Hirsch's  paper  on  "The  Hirsch 

Portable  Electric  Lamj)  "         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         254 

Discussion  of   Mr.  John   Gibson's   pa|)er   on   "  The  Logic   of 

Trams  "        ...         ...         254 

Discussion  of  Mr.  A.  S.  Blatchford's  paper  on  "The  Influ- 
ence of  Incombustil)le  Substances  on  Coal-dust 
Explosions"  ..  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         267 

"  Memoir  of  the  late  George  May."     By  Charles  L.  Dobson         269 


-Notes  of  Papers  on  the  Worjcing  of  Mines,  Metallurgy,  etc.,  from 
the  Transactions  of  Colonial  and  Foreign  Societies  and  Colonial 
and  Foreign  Publications  ...  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...        1-31 

"  Prospecting  for  Gold   in   the   Metalliferous   Strata   of  the 

Black  Mountain."     By  R.   Espar.seil  1 

"  List  of  Canadian  Mineral  Occurrences."  By  A.  A.  Johnston  2 

"Coalfields  of  British  Columbia."     By  D.  B.  Bowling         ...  2 

"Coalfields  of  the   Domain   of  Kebao,   China."        By  Louis 

Ranieau        ...         ...         ...         ...  . .         ...         ...         ...  3 

"Characteristics  of  Fossil  Coal."     By    K.   Weithofer  ...  4 

"  Characteristics   of  Coal-deposits   in   the   Limestone   Strata 

(Germany)."      By   E.    Donath   and   A.    Kzehak 4- 

"  Mining     Fields     of     Western     Australia."     By     A.     Gibb 

Maitland      5 

"Mining  Geology  of  Yerilla.   North  Coolgardie  Goldfield." 

By  J.  T.   Jutson 5 

"  Geological  Ob.servations  and  Remarks  on  the  Pre.sent  State 

of  Mining  in  the  Districts  of  Moimt   Magnet,  Lennon- 

ville   and   Boogardie,   Murchison    Goldfield."     By   J.    T. 

Jutspn  ...  . .         .  .         ...         ...         ...         ...         . .  6 

"Coal     Re.sources     of     Western     Australia."        By     H.     P. 

Woodward  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  6 

"  Certain   Mining  Centres  at  the  South  End  of  the  Yalgoo 

Goldfield."     By  H.  P.  Woodward      7 

"  Knrnalpi.    Coolgardie    Goldfield."        By   J.    T. 

Jutson  .  ..  ...  7 


I. — Notes  of  Papers,  etc. — Continued.  page. 

"  Report  upou  the  Ardlethan  Tiufield."     By  J.   U.   Ciodfrcy  8 

"The  Mayari  Ii'on-Ore  Depo.sit.s,  Cuba."       By  J.   F.   Kemp  8 

"  Working  and  Concentration  of  the  Outjmt  of  a  Coalfield  in 

Bohemia.'         By    L.    Kir.schner         ...  8 

"  Method.s  of  Drawing  Pillars  in  Pitching  Seams."     By  J. 

Somerville  Quigley  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  9 

"  Condensation  of  Gasoline  from  Natural  Gas."       By  G.  A. 

Burrell,  Frank  M.  Seiljert  and  G.  G.  Oberfell     9 

"  Mine-rescue  Apparatus."      By  Charles  Graham       10 

"  Studies  and  Investigations  Relating  to  Various  Exj)losive 

Mixtures,  with  Nitrate  of  Ammonia   as  the  Base."     By 

H.    Schmerlser        11 

"  Occurrence  of  Explosive  in  Coal-mines."     By  N.  H. 

Darton  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  ll 

"  Some  Remarks  on  Gas  in  Coal."     By  G.  A.  Lavoie 12 

"  Limits  of  Intiammability  of  Mixtures  of  Methane  and  Air." 

By  G.  A.  Bunell  and  G.  G.  Oberfell         12 

"  Investigation     of    Certain     Phenomena    Accompanying    a 

Mining   (Air-blast)  Accident.     By  F.   Mrvik       14 

"Explosion  in  a  Coal-mine  near  Neurode,  Prussian  Silesia." 

By  —  Warne         14 

■'  Analysis     of     Natural     Gas     and     Illuminating-gas     by 

Fractional     Distillation     at     Low     Temi>eratures     and 

Pressures."     By  G.  A.  Burrell,  F.  M.  Seiljert  and  I.  W. 

Robertson  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  .  .  15 

"  Addition    of   Lime    to   Briquettes   to  Reduce   the   Sul])hur 

Percentage."     By  E.  Donath 16 

"Utilization   of   Lignite   or  Brown   Coal."     By  J.    Huebers  16 

"Utilization   of  Browu-coal   Dust."        By  —  Herburg       ...  17 

"Notes   on    the    Use    of    Low-grade    Fuel    in    Euroj)e."     By 

R.   H.   Fennald      "..  17 

"  DifiBculties  in  Firing  Explosives,  either  Electrically  or  by 

Hand."     By  T.  Blum      '  ."..  18 

"  Destructive    Force    and    Speed    of    Explosions    of    Modern 

Blasting  Materials."     By  —  East 19 

"Use  of  Liquid  Air  for  Blasting  in  Coal-mines."      By   M. 

Przyborski  ...         ...         ...         ...  19 

"Arrangements   for   Reversing  the   Ventilation   in   Mines." 

By  G.  Ryba  20 

"Rotating    Ventilation-doors    for    Upcast    Shafts."     By    G. 

Ryba  20 

"  Study  of  Mine   Ventilation  :    Combination   of  Natural   and 

Artificial    Ventilation."        By   J.    Bouvat-Martin  21 

"  Some  Considerations  in  Regard  to  the  Internal  Resistance 

of  Ventilators."     By  J.  Bouvat-Martin      21 

"  Irruptions   of   Quicksand   in   the   Brown-coal   Measures   of 

North-west  Bohemia."     By  A.   Padour       ...  22 

"  Application   of  the   Elmore  Apparatus  at   the   Guerrouma 

Mines."     By  D.   Du.ssert  22 

"  Coking  of  Coal  at  Low  Temperatures,  with  Special  Refer- 
ence to  the  Proi^erties  and  Composition  of  the  Products." 

By  S.  W.  Parr  and  H.  L.  Olin  28 



Al'PEN  DICES. —r(*»/i»i(c./. 
I. — Notes  of  Pajtoi-.s,  etc. — Cuntinued. 

"  Exin'iimout.s  on  Wiio  Rojh's.  "     By  J.  l)ivi> 

■  Eiiiploymcnt  of  Mechauieal   Drills   in   tlio    Miucs   of  Con- 

stautiiia."     By   —   Fortier      

•' Eloctiification   of 'the   Mines   of  the   Cleveland-Clitt.-    Iron 

Company."     By    F.   C.   Stanford        

"Loading   of   Mine   Cages   by   Electrical    Means."       By   — 

•■  Modern    Electrically-driven    Ventilators   in    Mines."        By 

^  VVendriner  and  K.   RiJckert 
"  Solenoid   Cables   with   Induction-coils    for   Telephoning   in 

Mines."     By  W.  Sieprawski     

••  I'etrolcum  and  the   War."     By  A.  Gui.selin  

••Movements  of   Manganese   Ore."     By  A.   de    Keppen 

■•  Mineral  Production  of  India  during  11)13  and  l'J14."     By 

H.   H.  Hayden       

■■  Supply     of    Mineral     Fuel     to     Paris     Before     the     War  : 

Importance    of    the    Port    of    Rouen    for    the    Supply    of 

I'aris."     By  A.  de  Kep]>en 
"  Miners'     Wash-and-Change"         By     Josej)h     H 


"  Dimensioning  of  Coal-mines."     By  —  Barvik 
"Safety  in  Stone-quarrying."     By  Oliver  Bf)wles     ... 







II. — List    of   Fatal    and    Non-fatal    Explosions   of   Firedamp    or   Coal- 
dust  for  the  Year  1915.       Compiled  by  Percy  Stmelecki 32-34 

in.— Annual  fieport  of  the  Council  and  Accounts  for  the  Year  1915- 
1916;  List  of  Council,  Officers  and  Menilx>rs  for  the  Year  1916- 
1917;   etc 





List  of  Plates 


84    III. 







Held  in  the  Wood  Memorial  Hall,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

August  7th,  1915. 

Me.  T.  Y.  GREENER,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

ELECTION  OF  OFFICEES,  1915-1916. 

The  President  (Mr.  T.  Y,  Greener)  appointed  Messrs.  N.  B. 
Ridley,  Jolin  Simpson,  W.  B.  Wilson,  Jun.,  and  Allan  Cordner 
as  Scrutineers  of  the  balloting-papers  for  the  election  of  officers 
for  the  year  1915-1916. 

The  Scrutineers  afterwards  reported  the  result  of  the  ballot, 
as  follows ;  — 

President  : 
Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener. 

Mr.  J,  B.  Atkinson. 
Mr.  Samuel  Hare. 

Mr.  R.  S.  Anderson. 
Mr.  Henry  Armstrong. 
Mr.  Sidney  Bates. 
Mr.  R.  W.  Berkley. 
Mr.  C.  S.  Cabnes. 
Mr.  W.  Cochran  Carr. 

Vice-Presidents  : 
Mr.  T.  E.  Jobling. 
Mr.  C.  C.  Leach. 

Councillors  : 
Mr.  Frank  Coulson. 
Mr.  Benjamin  Dodd. 
Mr.  Mark  Ford. 
Mr.  J.  H.  B.  FoRSTER. 
Mr.  A.  M.  Hedley. 
Mr.  A.  C.  Kayll. 

Prof.  Henry  Louis. 
Mr.  F.  R.  Simpson. 

Mr.  John  Morison. 
Mr.  W.  C.  Mountain. 
Mr.  John  Simpson. 
Mr.  Simon  Tate. 
Mr.  R.  L.  Weeks. 
Mr.  E.  Seymour  Wood. 

VOL,  LXtT.— 1915-1910. 


The  Secretary  read  the  minutes  of  the  last  General  Meeting, 
and  repoiled  the  proceedings  of  the  Council  at  their  meetings  on 
July  24th  and  that  day. 

The  President  (Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener),  in  presenting  the  G.  C. 
Greenwell  bronze  medal  to  Mr.  Eobert  Clive  for  his  paper  on 
"Stone-dusting  at  lientley  Colliery:  Eeport  to  the  Doncaster 
Coal-owners'  (Gob-fires)  Committee,"  said  that  Mr.  Clive  had 
been  associated  with  him  for  many  years  in  one  way  and  another, 
and  therefore  it  was  a  personal  gratification  to  him  to  have  the 
pleasure  of  making  the  presentation. 

Mr.  Eobert  Clive  expressed  his  appreciation  of  the  high  hon- 
our that  had  been  conferred  upon  him  by  the  Institute  in  present- 
ing him  with  the  Greenwell  medal.  He  had  received  a  large 
part  of  his  training  in  the  IS'orth  of  England,  and  it  was  a  par- 
ticular pleasure  to  him  that  the  President  of  the  Institute  that 
year  was  Mr.  Greener,  under  whom  he  had  served  a  great  part 
of  his  time.  He  attributed  his  personal  success  to  the  excellent 
training  that  he  had  obtained  under  that  gentleman. 

The  Annual  Eeport  of  the  Council  was  read,  as  follows :  — 


The  Institute  has  sustained  a  great  loss  through  the  death  of 
Mr.  George  May,  who  was  elected  a  member  in  the  year  1862, 
served  on  the  Council  from  the  year  1878,  and  was  elected  Presi- 
dent in  1896.  He  contributed  to  the  Transactions,  and  took  a 
lively  interest  in  the  aifairs  of  the  Institute. 

The  Council  also  deplore  the  deaths  of  Messrs.  James  Eobson 
Brass  and  Eonald  Edwin  White,  who  were  killed  in  action  in 
the  Great  War. 

A  decrease  in  the  membership  has  to  be  reported  for  the  fifth 
year  in  succession.  The  additions  to  the  register,  and  the  losses 
by  death,  resignation,  etc.,  are  shown  in  the  following  table:  — 

Losses  ... 

Lo^        —  19  44  25  31  28 






















1915-1916.]     N.E.INST. — ANNUAL  REPORT  OF  COUNCIL,   1914-1915.  3 

It  will  be  seeii  from  the  table  that  the  fall  in  membership  this 
year  is  again  clue  to  a  decrease  in  the  additions.  This  decrease  is 
no  doubt  in  part  the  result  of  the  removal  of  the  headquarters  of 
The  Institution  of  Mining-  Engineers  to  London  in  1909,  and  an 
effort  must  be  made  to  increase  the  membership  from  local 
sources.  Agents  and  managers  in  the  district  could  materially 
help  by  inducing  their  officials  to  become  members  or  associates 
of  the  Institute. 

The  membership  for  the  last  six  years  is  shown  in  the  follow- 
ing table :  — 

Year  ended  August  1st.  1910.  1911.  1912.  1913.  1914.  1915. 

Honorary  members        ...  26  27  24  23  24  25 

Members 926  921  893  874  846  824      / 

Associate  members        ...  106  107  101  100  97  91 

Associates           214  209  204  205  206  207 

.Students             54  43  43  38  34  31 

Subscribers         35  35  33  33  35  36 

Totals  ...1,361       1,342       1,298       1,273       1,242       1,214 

The  Council  are  compiling  a  list  of  members  serving  with  the 
forces,  of  whom  they  have  record  of  100,  but  the  list  is  by  no 
means  complete. 

The  Library  has  been  maintained  in  an  efficient  condition 
during  the  year;  the  additions,  by  donation,  exchange,  and  pur- 
chase, include  600  bound  volumes  and  26  pamphlets,  reports, 
etc. ;  and  the  Library  now  contains  about  15,339  volumes  and 
557  unbound  pamphlets.  A  card-catalogue  of  the  books,  etc.," 
contained  in  the  Library  renders  them  easily  available  for 

An  exchange  of  Transactions  has  been  arranged,  during  the 
year,  with  the  Anglo-Egyptian  Sudan  Geological  Survey. 

The  courses  of  lectures  for  colliery  engineers,  enginewrights, 
and  apprentice  mechanics  arranged  to  take  place  at  Armstrong 
College  were  suspended  on  account  of  the  war. 

Mr.  Thomas  Douglas  continues  to  represent  the  Institute  as 
a  Governor  of  Armstrong  College,  and  Mr.  John  H.  Merivale,  in 
conjunction  with  the  President  (Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener),  represents 
the  Institute  on  the  Council  of  the  College. 

Mr.  Thomas  Edgar  Jobling  continues  to  represent  the  Insti- 
tute upon  the  Board  of  Directors  of  the  Institute  and  Coal  Trade 
Chambers  Company,  Limited, 

4  TRAXSACTinXS    -TIIK    XORTIl    OF    KXGLAXl)    INSTITUTE.   [Vol.  Ixvi. 

Tlie  Pre.sideiit  continues  a  Representative  Governor  ui)on  the 
Court  of  Governors  of  tlie  University  of  Durham  Collef?e  of 
Medicine  during-  lii.s  term  of  office. 

The  International  (;ongres.s  of  Mining',  Metallurgy,  Applied 
Meclianics,  and  Economic  Geology,  which  was  to  have  taken 
place  in  London  during  the  year  1915,  was  abandoned  ou  account 
of  the  war. 

Under  the  will  of  the  late  Mr.  John  Daglish,  funds  have 
been  placed  at  the  disposal  of  Armstrong-  College  for  founding  a 
Travelling  Fellowship,  to  be  called  the  "  Daglish  "  Fellowship, 
candidates  for  which  must  be  nominated  by  the  Institute.  Mr. 
Samuel  Dean  was,  in  January,  1915,  again  awarded  the  Fellow- 
ship, and  suitable  arrangements  have  been  made  for  Mr.  Dean  to 
gain  knowledge  and  experience  abroad. 

A  G.  C.  Greenwell  bronze  medal  has  been  awarded  to  Mr. 
Robert  Clive  for  his  paper  on  "  Stone-dusting  at  Bentley 
Colliery :  Report  to  the  Doncaster  Coal-owners'  "(Gob-fires) 

Prizes  have  been  awarded  to  the  writers  of  the  following 
papers,  communicated  to  the  members  during  the  year 
1914-1915:  — 

"Coal-mining  in  Mexico."  By  Mr.  Edward  Otto  Forster  Brown,  M.I.M.E. 
"  Notes  on  Coal-mining'  in  the  State  of  Illinois,  United  States  of  America." 

By  Mr.  Samnel  Dean,  M.I.M.E. 
"  Hydraulic  Stowing  in  the  Gold-mines  of  the  Witwat«rsrand."     By  Mr. 

Berent  Conrad  Gullachsen,  M.I.M.E. 
"  The  Prevention  of  Overwinding  and  Overspeeding  in  Shafts."     By  Mr. 

Gordon  George  Thomas  Poole,  M.I.M.E. 

The  papers  printed  in  the  Transactions  during  the  year  are 
as  follows :  — 

"  The  Killingworth  Colliery   (New   South  Wales)  Explosion."     By  Mr. 

James  Ashworth. 
"  Coal-mining  in  Mexico."    By  Mr.  Edward  Otto  Forster  Brown,  M.I.M.E. 
"  The  Maikop  Oilfield,  Soiith  Eussia."    By  Mr.  William  Calder,  M.I.M.E. 
"  Mining  in  Burma."     Part  I.     By  Mr.  Cecil  William  Chater,  M.I.M.E. 
"Winding-engine  Signals."    By  Mr.  Wilfrid  H.  Davis. 
"  Notes  on  Coal-mining  in  the  State  of  Illinois,  United  States  of  America." 

By  Mr.  Samuel  Dean,  M.I.M.E. 
"  Coal-mining  in  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  United  States  of  America." 

By  Mr.  Samuel  Dean,  M.I.M.E. 
"Hydraulic  Stowing  in  the  Gold-mines  of  the  Witwatersrand."     By  Mr. 

Berent  Conrad  Gullachsen,  M.I.M.E. 
"The    Lateral    Friction    of    Winding-ropes."      By    Mr.    Henry    Wallace 

Gregory  Halbaum,  M.I.M.E. 

1915-1916.1     X.E.  INST.— AXxXUAL  KEPOllT  OF  COUNCIL,   1914-1915.  5 

"The    Windiug-drums    of    Practice    and    of    Theory;     with    Notes    on 

Factors  of  Safety  aud  Economy  of  AVindiug-ropes."     By  Mr.  Henry 

Wallace   Gregory   Halbaiim,   M.I.M.E. 
"  The  Prevention  of  Overwinding  and  Oversi^eeding  in  Shafts."     By  Mr. 

Gordon   George   Thomas  Poole,   M.I.M.E. 
"A    Portable    Electrical    Gas-det«ctiug    Device    for    Use    with    Miners' 

Lamps."     By  Mr.  George  J.  Ralph. 

No  excursion  meetings  have  been  held  during  the  year.  The 
Council  hope  to  rearrange  the  postponed  excursion  to  Esknieals 
on  the  conclusion  of  the  war. 

During  the  year  Mr.  AV.  0.  Tate  presented  a  lamp  to  the 
collection  which  the  Institute  is  forming  to  replace  that 
destroyed  by  fire  at  the  Brussels  Exhibition. 

The  rooms  of  the  Institute  have  been  used,  during  the  year,  by 
the  Newcastle-upon-Tyne  Economic  Society;  the  North-East 
Coast  Association  of  Chartered  Secretaries;  the  Armstrong 
College;  the  Newcastle  Local  Section  of  the  Institution  of 
Electrical  Engineers;  the  North  of  England  Branch  of  the 
Association  of  Mining  Electrical  Engineers;  the  British 
Foundrymens'  Association ;  the  Newcastle  Jewish  Literary  and 
Social  Society ;  the  Lawn  Tennis  Association ;  and  the  North  of 
England  Gas  Managers'  Association. 

The  Council  beg  to  report  that  the  North-Eastern  Railway 
Company  have,  for  the  present,  withdrawn  the  privilege  of 
reduced  railway-fares  to  members  attending  general  or  excursion 
meetings  of  the  Institute.  The  Council  hope,  however,  that 
if  the  concession  should  be  renewed  after  the  war  it  will  lead  to 
an  increased  attendance  at  the  meetings. 

The  Institution  of  Mining  Engineers  has  now  completed  its 
twenty-sixth  year,  and  the  members  are  to  be  congratulated  on 
its  progress.  During  the  year  it  has  been  granted  a  Royal  Charter 
of  Incorporation. 

The  President  (Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener)  moved  the  adoption  of 
the  Report, 

Mr.  John  H.  Meeivale  seconded  the  resolution,  which  was 

The  Annual  Report  of  the  Finance  Committee  was  read,  as 
follows :  — 




A  statement  of  accounts  for  the  year  ended  June  30tli, 
1915,  duly  audited,  is  submitted  herewith  by  the  Finance  Com- 

The  total  receipts  were  £2,697  9s.  5d.  Of  this  amount 
£42  8s.  was  paid  as  subscriptions  in  advance,  leaving 
£2,055  Is.  5d.  as  the  ordinary  income  of  the  year,  as  compared 
with  £2,749  17s.  9d.  in  the  previous  year.  The  amount  received 
as  ordinary  subscriptions  for  the  year  was  £1,966  lis.,  and 
arrears  £194  17s.,  as  against  £2,104  12s.  and  £249  13s.  respec- 
tively in  the  year  1913-1914.  Transactions  sold  realized 
£8  17s.  5d.,  as  compared  with  £31  13s.  5d,,  and  the  amount 
received  for  interest  on  investments  was  £396  15s.,  as  compared 
with  £398  Is.  lOd.  in  the  previous  year. 

The  expenditure  was  £2,271  Os.  5d.,  as  against  £2,752  9s.  5d. 
in  the  previous  year.  Increases  are  shown  in  rent,  rates,  and 
taxes,  library  purchases,  postages,  telephones,  etc.,  and  report- 
ing. Decreases  are  shown  in  the  contributions  to  The  Institu- 
tion of  Mining  Engineers,  salaries  and  wages,  insurance,  heat- 
ing, lighting,  and  water,- furniture  and  repairs,  printing  and 
stationery,  incidental  expenses,  travelling  expenses,  prizes  for 
papers,  and  Library  catalogue. 

The  balance  of  income  over  expenditure  was  £426  9s.,  and 
if  to  this  the  amount  of  £674  5s.  6d.  from  the  previous  year 
be  added,  a  credit  balance  remains  of  £1,100  14s.  6d. 

The  names  of  25  persons  have  been  struck  off  the  member- 
ship list  in  consequence  of  non-payment  of  subscriptions.  The 
amount  of  subscriptions  written  off  was  £140  18s.,  of  which  £78 
was  for  sums  due  for  the  year  1914-1915,  and  £62  18s.  for 

It  IS  probable  that  a  considerable  proportion  of  this  amount 
will  be  recovered  and  credited  in  future  years.  Of  the  amount 
previously  written  off,  £49  2s.  was  recovered  during  the  past 

THOS.  Y.  GREENER,  President. 
August  bill,  1915. 


X.E.  IXST. ANNUAL  ACCOUNTS,    1914-1915. 


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Db.  Thb  Tkkasukee  in  Account  with  Tiik  Nokth  of  England 


June  30th,  191 4.  ^     s.    d.       £ 

To  Balance  of  account  at  bankers    ... 
in  Treasurer's  hands 










674    5    6 

June  30th,  1915. 

To  Dividend  of  7^  per  cent,  on  207  shares  of  £20  each  in 
the  Institute  and  Coal  Trade  Chambers  Company, 
Limited,  for  the  year  ending  June  30th,  1915        ...       310  10    0 

„    Interest  on  mortgage  of  £1,400  with  the  Institute  and 

Coal  Trade  Chambers  Company,  Limited 49     0     0 

„  Dividend  on  £340  consolidated  5-per-ceut.  preference 
stock  of  the  Newcastle  and  Gateshead  Water 
Company  ...  ...  •.•  ■•  ■•■  ...  17     0     0 

„    Dividend  on  £450  ordinary  stock  of  the  Newcastle  and 

Gateshead  Gas  Company         20     5     0 

396  15     0 

To  SaXes  oi  Transactions        8  17     5 

Capital  Fund  :  amount  received  on  account  of  £155  15s.  3d. 

paid  by  the  Institute  last  year  ...  ...  ...  125     0     0 

To  Subscriptions  foe  1914-1915,  as  follows  :  — 

664  Members (®  £2  28. 

76  Associate  members  ...         ...         @  £2  2s. 

158  Associates @  £1  5s. 

23  Students @  £1   5s. 

21  New  members       ■•.    ,     ■••         ■•■         (S  £2  2s. 
3  New  associate  members   ...  ...  @  £2  2s. 

8  New  associates      ...         ...         ...         (a'  £1  6s. 

10  New  students         ...  ...  ...  fw  £\  5s. 

1  New  subscribing  firm       ...  ...         (w  £2  2s. 

34  Subscribing  firms... 

1,966  11     0 
Less,  Subscriptions  for  current  year  paid  in  advance 

at  the  end  of  last  year  ...         ...         ...         36  19     0 

1,394  8 


159  12 


197  10 


28  15 


44  2 


6  6 


10  0 


12  10 


2  2 


1,855  5 


111  6 


1,929  12     0 
Add.  Arrears  received    ...         ...         ...  ...         ...       194  17     0 

2.124     9     0 

Add,  Subscriptions   paid  in   advance  during   current 

year        42     8     0 

2,166  17    0 

£3,371  14  11 


X.E.  INST. — AXXUAL  ACCOUKTS,    1914-1915. 

INSTIIUTE    of    MlNlHGt    AND    MkOH.\NICAL     ExuiNEEliS 

JUME  30th,  1915. 


June  30tli,  1915. 
By  Salaries  and  wages 
„  Insurance 
,,  Rent,  rates,  and  taxes 
„  Heating,  lighting,  etc. 
„  Furniture  and  repairs 
,,  Bankers'  charges    ... 
„  Library 

,,  Printing,  stationery,  etc.  ... 
,,  Postages,  telephones,  etc.  ... 
,,  Incidental  expenses 
,,  Travelling  expenses 
„  Prizes  for  papers    ... 
,,  Reporting  general  meetings 
„  Library  catalogue   ... 
,,  Stamping  receipts  for  subscriptions 
„  International  Congress  of  Mining.  Metallurgy,  Applied 

Mechanics,  and  Economic  Geology,  London,  1915, 

7J  per  cent,  of  guarantee 
„  Law  charges 

By  The  Institution  of  Mining  Engineers :    Calls,  etc. 
Less,  Amounts  paid  by  authors  for  excerpts 

£  s. 


438  6 


13  11 


38  19 


15  3 


Q^     3 


21  0 


43  6 


173  1 


91  1 


69  15 


26  8 


5  5 


14  14 


3  0 


20  16 


7  10 


1  1 


1,193  10 
1  14 

1,079     4     5 

1.191  16     0 

By  First  instalment  on  account  of  £500  4^-per-cent.  War 
Loan,  1925  1945  ...         

By  Balance  of  account  at  bankers  :    deposit  account         ...       500     0     0 
„         ,,  ,,  ,,  current  account         ...       520     0     3 

I,         „        in  Treasurer's  hands       ...  ...  ...  ...         55  14     3 

2.271     0     5 
25     0     0 

1,075  14     6 

£3,371  U  11 


Du.  Thk  Tkbasujike  of  Thk  Nokth  of  ENULANij  Institute  ok  Mining 

£       s.    d.       £       •     d.       £       ..    d. 
To  846  Members, 

52  of  whom  have  paid  life-compositions. 


2  not  included  in  printed  list. 

796  @  £2  2s 1,671  12     0 

To     97  Associate  members. 

10  of  wliom  have  paid  life-compositions. 

87  @£2  28 182  14    0 

To  206  Associates, 

1  of  whom  has  paid  a  life-composition. 


1  not  included  in  printed  list. 

206  @  £1  5s 257  10    0 

To     34  Students  @  £1  6s 42  10     0 

To     35  Subscribing  firms  ...  ,      113     8     0 

2,267  14     0 

To     21  New  members  @  £2  2s 44     2     0 

To      3  New  associate  members  @  £2  2s        ...         ...  6     6     0 

To       8  New  associates  @  £1  5s 10    0    0 

To     10  New  students  @  £1  5s 12  10     0 

To       1  New  subscribing  firm  (5)  £2  2s.       ...  ...  2     2     0 

To  Arrears,  as  per  balance-sheet.  1913-1914 231   14     0 

Add,  Arrears  considered  irrecoverable,  but  since  paid  .,,         49     2     0 

75     0     0 

280  16     0 

To  Subscriptions  paid  in  advance  during  the  current  year  ...  ...  ...         42     8     0 

£2,665  18     0 

1915-1916.]  N.E.  INST. — ANNUAL  ACCOUNTS,   1914-1915.  11 

AND  Mechanical  Enginebes  in  Account  with  Subscriptions,  1914-1915.       Cr. 


£       s.   d.        £       s.  d.        £       s.   d. 

By    34  Subscribing  firms,  paid  ...         ...  Ill     6  0           

1           „                 „      unpaid  2     2     0 


By    21  New  members,  paid       ...  @  £2  2s.  44     2  0           

By      3  New  associate  members,  paid  @  £2  2s.  6     6  0           

By      8  New  associates,  paid     ...  @  £1  5s.  10     0  0           

By    10  New  students,  paid        ...  @  £1  5s.  12  10  0           

By       1  New  subscribing  firm,  paid  @  £2  2s.  2     2  0            

By  661.  Members,  paid @  £2  2s.  1,394.     8     0            

"   106  ..  unpaid           ...           @  £2  2s 222  12     0 

7  „  resigned         ...           @  £2  2s 14  14     0 

1  .,  excused  payment        @  £2  2s.           2     2     0 

2  „  dead @  £2  2s 4     4     0 

IG  „  struck  off  list              @  £2  2s 33  12    0 


By    76  .\ssociate  members,  paid  @  £2  2s.       159  12     0           

7  ,.                „         unpaid         @  £2  2s 14  14  0             

1  „                 „         resigned      @  £2  2s 2     2     0 

1  .,  „        dead             @£2  2s 2     2     0 

2  „  „     struck  off  list  @  £2  28 4    4    0 


By  158  Associates,  paid @  £1  5s.       197  10     0            

39  „            unpaid           ...          @  £1  5s 48  15  0             

2         „             resigned         ...  @  £1  5s 2  10     0 

7  „            struck  off  list  @  £1  5s 8  15     0 


By    23  Students,  paid     @  £1  5s.         28  15     0  

8  „          unpaid            ...  @  £1  5s.            10     0     0              

1  „  resigned         ...         @  £1  5s.  15     0 

2  „  dead @  £1  5s 2  10     0 


1,966  11  0       298     3     0         78     0    0 

By  Arrears  194  17  0         23     1     0         62  18     0 

2,161     8  0 
By  Subscriptions  paid  in  advance  during  tbe 

current  year      ...         ...         ...         ...         42     8  0  

2,203  16     0      321     4    0       140  18    0 

_^ v^  ^ 

£2,665  18     0 

12  TKANSAC'TIO.VS       TJIK    .XOUl'll    (»l"    K.V(;LAM)    IVSTITITK    [Vol.  Ixvi. 

The  Pkesident  (Mr.  T.  V.  (ireeiiei),  in  moving  the  adoption 
of  the  Report,  called  attention  to  the  fact  that  during  the  past 
year  the  income  had  exceeded  the  expenditure  by  £426  9s.,  and 
the  Council  were  of  opinion,  so  far  as  they  could  foresee,  that  the 
current  year  would  show  an  equally  favourable  result.  In  these 
satisfactory  financial  circumstances  it  was  felt  that  the  Institute 
was  well  able  to  assist  in  some  way  the  meritorious  work  by 
which  aid  was  being  rendered  to  our  wounded  soldiers,  and  it 
had  been  agreed  at  the  Council  meeting  that  day  that  he  should 
recommend  to  the  members  at  their  annual  general  meeting  that 
the  Institute  sliould  subscribe  the  sum  of  £200  to  the  fund  which 
was  being  raised  by  Mr.  H.  Dennis  Bayley  for  the  Red  Cross 
Motor  Ambulance  Service.  He  had  pleasure  in  including  that 
recommendation  in  his  motion. 

Mr.  JoiinH.  Merivale  (x'Vcklington),  in  seconding  the  motion, 
said  that  he  had  had  considerable  experience  of  the  extra- 
ordinarily good  work  that  was  being  done  by  the  Red  Cross 
Society.  No  doubt  they  knew  that  the  number  of  deaths  from 
disease  was  exceptionally  low  in  this  war  as  compared  with 
former  wars,  and  that  was  largely  due  to  the  great  care  which 
was  being  taken  of  the'  wounded  by  the  St.  John  Ambulance 
Association  and  the  Red  Cross  Society.  The  Institute  had  the 
money,  and  he  thought  they  could  not  do  better  than  aid  this 
good  work.  There  was  no  doubt  that  the  number  of  wounded 
would  be  even  greater  as  the  war  went  on,  and  the  Red  Cross 
Society  would  require  more  money  in  the  future  to  carry  on 
their  work. 

Mr.  J.  W.  Fryar  (Eastwood),  in  supporting  the  recom- 
mendation, was  of  opinion  that  the  Institute  could  not  devote 
its  money  to  a  better  purpose.  He  was  sure  that  in  giving 
financial  assistance  to  the  Red  Cross  Society  the  money  would 
be  well  spent,  and  that  the  wounded  would  receive  the  benefit  of 

The  motion,  coupled  with  the  recommendation,  was  unani- 
mously carried. 



The  President  (Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener)  moved,  and  Mr.  Mark 
Ford  seconded,  a  resolution  that  the  following  g-eutlenien  be 
elected  as  tlie  representatives  of  the  Institute  on  the  Council  of 
The  Institution  of  Mining  Engineers  for  the  vear  1915-1916:  — 

Mr.  R.  S.  Anderson. 
Mr.  SioNKY  Bates. 
Mr.  VV.  C.  Blackett. 
Mr.  W.  Cochran  Cabr. 
Mr.  Allan  Cordner. 
Mr.  Benjamin  Dodd. 
Mr.  J.  W.  Fryar. 
Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener. 

Mr.  Reginald  Guthrie.      Mr.  VV.  C.  Mountain. 

Mr.  Samuel  Hare.  Mr.  R.  E.  Ornsby. 

Mr.  A.  M.  Hedley.  Mr.  Walter  Rowley. 

Mr.  T.  K.  JoBLiNG.  Mr.  F.  R.  Simpson. 

Mr.  J.  P.  KiRKUP.  Mr.  John  Simpson. 

Mr.  Philip  Kirkup.  Mr.  J.  G.  Weeks. 

Mr.  C.  C.  Leach.  Mr.  W.  B.  Wilson. 

Prof.  Henry  Louis.  Mr.  E.  Seymour  Wood. 

Mr.  John  H.  Merivale. 
The  resolution  was  agreed  to. 

The  following  gentlemen  were  elected,  having  been  previously 

nominated :  — 
Members — 

Mr.  John  Coggin  Brown,  Geologist,  Geological  Survey  of  India,  27,  Chow- 
I'ingliee,  Calcutta,  India. 

Mr.  George  Ernest  Gregson,  Surveyor,  Valuer,   and  Mining  Engineer,  13, 
Harrington  Street,  Liverpool. 

Mr.  Edgar  Arthur  Jackson,  Surveyor,  CliiDsley  Lodge,  Haydock,  St.  Helens 

Mr.   Asahiko  Kar.^shima,  Meclianical  Engineer,  c/o  Messrs.   Mitsui  &  Com- 
pany, Limited,  31,  Lime  Street,  London,  E.C. 

Mr.  Griffith  Rees  Morgan,  Land  and  Mineral  Surveyor,   178,  Commercial 
Street,  Senghenydd,  Cardiff. 

Associate  Members — 
Mr.  Edward  Maurice  Gregson,  12,  Hesketh  Road,  Southport. 
Mr.  George  Arthur  Gregson,  12,  Hesketh  Road,  Soutlijiort. 

Student — 
Mr.  Cecil  Edward  William  Shapley,  Mining  Student,  Santry,  Clielston  Road, 


Mr.  Eugene  B.  Wilson  (Scranton)  wrote  that  in  the  third 
line  of  the  fifth  paragraph  of  his  remarks  on  page  538  of  Volume 
XLIX.,  "  Potsdam  Sandstone"  should  read  "  Pocono  Sandstone." 

*  Trans.  Imt.  M.  E.,  1914,  vol.  xlviii.,  page  367  ;    and  1915,  vol.  xlix. ,  pages 
108  and  537. 

14        TRANSACTIOXS—TTIE    XORTH   OF    F.XGLAXD    IXSTTTUTE.     [Vol.lxvi. 

DTSCTTSSION    OF    ME.    C.    W.    CHATER'S   PAPER   ON 

Mr.  ^.  CoGGiN  Brown  (Geological  Survey  of  India,  Calcutta) 
wrote  that  Mr.  Chater's  paper  was  an  interesting  and  useful  sum- 
mary of  the  past  and  present  position  of  the  more  important 
mining  industries  of  Burma,  gained  largely  from  personal 
experience.  It  was  particularly  pleasing  to  note  the  author's 
recognition  of  the  fact  that  so  many  of  the  failures  in  the  province 
had  been  brought  about  in  the  first  place  by  the  neglect  of  local 
financiers  to  seek  good  advice,  and  in  the  second  by  entrusting 
operations  to  men  with  little  or  no  experience  of  mining.  This 
was  undoubtedly  true  to  a  very  great  extent,  and  the  sooner  it 
was  understood  both  by  the  profession  and  by  the  general  public 
the  better  it  would  be  for  the  industry.  He  had  no  remarks  to 
make  on  those  portions  of  the  paper  dealing  with  his  (Mr. 
Chafer's)  observations,  but  as  one  sharing  his  desire  to  see  a 
systematic  exploration  of  such  mining  fields  as  were  really 
deserving'  of  attention,  he  would  like  to  offer  a  few  suggestions 
on  some  of  the  other  localities. 

In  the  first  place,  it  would  have  been  more  cautious  to  wait 
until  the  gravels  of  the  Uyu  or  Uru  River  had  been  sampled  and 
valued  before  making  the  statement  that  they  might  prove  highly 
payable.  The  Uyu  was  an  important  tributary  of  the  Chindwin, 
which  it  entered  on  the  left  bank  some  4  miles  above  Homalin 
(not  Homabin).  The  thick  gravels  of  this  river,  in  the  lower  40 
miles  or  so  of  its  course,  were  examined  in  1912  by  the  late  Mr. 
H.  S.  Bion,t  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  India,  who  concluded 
that  the  payable  gravel  was  so  intimately  mixed  with  barren 
sand,  and  so  inconstant  in  character,  that  both  had  to  be  taken 
together,  and  that  the  mass  average  of  the  material  so  obtained 
was  far  too  low  to  allow  of  work  being  carried  on  at  a  profit.  Of 
course,  it  was  within  the  bounds  of  possibility  that  the  auriferous 
gravels  of  the  upper  reaches  of  the  Uyu  might  turn  out  to  be 
richer;  but  until  this  was  definitely  proved,  it  was  just  as  well 
to  bear  in  mind  that  there  were  two  sides  to  the  question. 

Members  might  possibly  gather  from  Mr.  Chater's  remarks 
that  jadeite  only  occurred  in  alluvial  gravels  along  with  gold, 

*  Tra7is.  Inst.  M.  E.,  1915,  vol.  xlix.,  page  628. 

t  "The  Gold-bearing  Alluvium  of  the  Chindwin  River  and  Tributaries," 
^y  H.  S.  Bion,  Records  of  the  Geological  S^irvey  of  India,  1913,  vol.  xliii.,  page 

1915-1916.]  DISCUSSION — MINING  IN  BTEMA.  15 

platinum,  and  other  precious  luetaLs.  Although  the  jadeite  was 
found  as  boulders  both,  in  the  conglomerates  of  and  in  the  actual 
bed  of  the  Uyu  River,  the  most  important  occurrences  at 
Tammaw  were  in  a  dyke  of  igneous  origin,  intrusive  into  serpen- 
tine, fi'om  which  the  jadeite  was  won.* 

During  tlie  year  1918-1914  the  value  of  jadeite  exported  from 
Burma  was  £36,194.  The  maximum  export  during  the  last  five 
years  was  in  1910-1911,  when  it  reached  a  value  of  £99,601,  and 
the  average  value  of  the  exported  product  for  the  same  period 
was  £72,265. 

Mr.  Chater  had  fallen  into  the  common  error  of  confusing 
jadeite  with  true  jade  (nephrite) ;  the  latter  mineral  had  never 
been  found  in  Burma.  He  agreed  with  the  author  that  the  intro- 
duction of  European  methods  would  add  considerably  to  the  out- 
put, but  whether  the  Chinese  market  would  absorb  a  largely 
increased  supply  at  present  prices  was  a  matter  open  to  dis- 

Having  recently  spent  six  months  at  Bawdwin  and  in  the 
surrounding  country,  he  could  confirm  Mr.  Chafer's  statements 
as  to  the  great  extent  and  comparative  richness  of  the  lead-silver- 
zinc  lode  recently  discovered  there.  This  deposit  occurred  as  a 
replacement  in  rhyolitic  tuffs,  and  not  near  the  contact  of  a 
felspathic  country-rock  with  rhyolite. 

It  would  be  better  if  the  location  of  the  mineral  deposits 
described  had  been  more  accurately  shown. 

Finally,  Mr.  Chater  deserved  the  thanks  of  the  members  for 
drawing  attention  to  a  most  promising  mineral-producing  area ; 
but  the  vriter  could  not  help  thinking  that  the  paper,  interesting 
though  it  was,  would  have  been  greatly  increased  in  value  by 
references  to  the  very  voluminous  literature  on  the  subject  which 
already  existed. 

Mr.  Samuel  Crawshaw  (Tavoy,  Lower  Burma)  wrote  that 
Mr.  Chafer's  paper  was  both  interesting  and  instructive. 

The  reason  given  for  the  so-called  "  failures  "  of  the  numer- 
ous undertakings  which  had  been  floated  from  time  to  time  was 
only  true  in  part.  The  people  sought  "  good  advice,"  but, 
owing  to  the  want  of  qualified  metalliferous  mining  engineers, 

*  "Jadeite  in  the  Kachin  Hills,  Upper  Burma,"  by  A.  W.  G.  Bleeck, 
Records  of  the  Giologlca',  Survey  of  India,,  190S,  vol.  xxxvi.,  page  254. 

10        TUAXSAfTTOXS  -TUK   NORTH    OF    KXCJLAXD    IXSTITUTE.    [Vol.  Ixvi. 

they  fell  iuto  the  hands  ot  tlie  self-constituted  ''  mining  expert  " 
mentioned  by  Sir  Thomas  Holland  in  his  Presidential  Address  to 
the  Manchester  Geolof?ical  and  Mining  Society  in  191-'',,*  and  the 
undertaking-  came  to  grief,  to  the  detriment  of  the  Province  and 
to  the  loss  of  tlie  shareholders.  So  far  as  liis  (the  writer's) 
experience  went,  tlie  failures  in  Tavoy  had  been  due  to  bad 

He  could  confirm  the  author's  statements  as  to  the  present 
unsatisfactory  state  of  wolfram-mining  in  the  Tavoy  district. 
That  was  due  to  the  want  of  Government  control,  and  the  indis- 
criminate issue  of  the  so-called  "  Certificates  of  Approval," 
without  which  no  person  could  take  up  a  mining  concession. 
The  local  Government  was  doing  its  best  to  remove  the  obstacles 
which  in  the  early  days  it  had  set  up,  but  what  was  urgently 
required  was  a  revision  of  the  present  mining  rules. 

The  question  of  transport  was  the  most  important  at  present, 
and,  owing  to  the  war,  the  hopes  of  the  writer  in  the  Public 
Works  Department  programme  had  been  shattered,  as  no  money 
was  to  be  spent  on  roads.  The  rock-drill  plant  mentioned  as 
being  set  up  at  the  Hermyingyi  Mines  had  cost  more  to  trans- 
port it  24  miles  than  the  actual  cost  of  the  plant  in  Tavoy,  and 
this  along  so-called  ''  roa'ds." 

Mr.  T.  Campbell  Futers  (Monkseaton)  said  that  Mr.  Hal- 
baum  had  no  doubt  performed  a  useful  service  in  drawing  atten- 
tion to  a  matter  which,  though  perfectly  well  known,  was  one 
about  which  few  people  troubled  themselves.     At  the  same  time, 
in  his  (Mr.  Futers')  opinion  the  harm  resulting  from  the  lateral 
friction  of  properly-greased  winding-rt)pes  was  not  so  great  as 
might  be  imagined,   and  there  were  at  present  many  hundreds 
of    ropes    which    coiled    quite    satisfactorily    on    plain    parallel 
drums.   Where  difficulty  had  been  experienced,  the  conical  drum 
had  been  installed  more  as  a  makeshift  to  overcome  what  was 
regarded  rather  as  a  nuisance  than  as  a  mechanical  difficulty  ;  but 

*  Trans.  Innt.  M.  E.,   1913,  vol.  xlvi.,  page  339. 
f  Ibid.,  1915,  vol.  xlix.,  page  557. 

1915-1916.]  DISCUSSION — WINDING-DRUMS.  17 

whilst  it  obtained  the  object  aimed  at,  it  did  not  entirely  remove 
lateral  friction,  because  the  conical  drum  became,  so  to  speak, 
a  fleeting  pulley ;  and  he  thought  that  the  same  conditions  would 
apply  in  all  conical  drums,  even  those  designed  according  to 
Mr.  Halbaum's  rules.  Ropes  would  coil  evenly  on  plain  parallel 
drums  without  serious  lateral  friction,  if  the  engine  were  placed 
far  enough  back  from  the  shaft,  so  that  the  angle  of  rope-travel 
would  not  exceed  2  degrees  on  either  side  of  the  centre-line  of 
the  pulley.  Where  these  conditions  could  be  obtained,  or  where 
it  was  desired  to  eliminate  entirely  lateral  friction,  the  proper 
remedy  and  the  only  perfectly  satisfactory  one  was  to  screw-cut 
the  drum.  In  his  opinion  it  would  pay  to  screw-cut  every  drum, 
and  he  could  not  imagine  why  this  perfectly  simple  and  well- 
known  method  of  guiding  a  winding-rope,  in  which  every  coil 
was  properly  bedded  and  supported,  was  not  more  generally 
adopted . 

With  regard  to  the  Koepe  and  AVhiting  systems  of  winding, 
so  strongly  advocated  by  Mr.  Halbaum,  the  chief  trouble  with 
the  latter  was  the  heavy  deterioration  of  the  ropes,  due  to  the 
excessive  bending  stresses.     This  system  was  in  use,  he  believed, 
on  both  the  Edinburgh  Tramways  and  the  Glasgow  and  District 
Underground  Railway,  and  in  both  cases  he  understood  that  the 
wear  on  the  rope  was  very  heavy.     The  system  was  also  used  for 
underground  endless-rope  haulage,  and  was  much  more  suitable 
for  that  class  of  work,   as  the  strain  upon  the  rope  was  more 
constant  and  continuous.     In  winding,  the  rope  had  frequently 
sudden  strains  put  upon  it,  varying  from  a  maximum  to  zero, 
and  it  was  really  this  condition  that  was  responsible  for  all  rope 
troubles.     The  harder  the  steel  was  from  which  the  rope  was  con- 
structed, the  more  quickly  the  deterioration  took  place.     In  this 
country,  at  any  rate,  owing  to  legal  requirements  in  regard  to 
the   capping   of  ropes   and   the   provision   of  keps,   it   was   very 
unlikely  that  either  the  Koepe  or  the  Whiting  system  would  be 
used  to  any  extent.     In  Germany  the  Koepe  system  was  certainly 
used,  but  mostly  in  connexion  with  electric  winders,  for  which, 
owing  to  the  more  even  turning  movement,  it  was  much  more 
suitable  than  with  a  steam-engine.     The  reasons  for  and  against 
the  use  of  sheave-winders  were  very  fully  dealt  with  in  chapter 
iv.   of  "  Winding' Engines  and  Winding  Appliances,"   by  Mr. 
George  McCulloch  and  himself,  and  these  might  be  of  interest 
to  Mr.  Halbaum,  but  were  too  lengthy  to  recapitulate  here. 

TOL.  LIVI.-1815-1916.  2    E 

18        TRANSACTIONS — THE   NORTH   OF    EN(iLAXD   INSTITUTT:.    [Vol.lxvi. 

The  only  way  to  wind  minerals  in  a  vertical  shaft,  with  the 
maximum  economy  of  steam  and  with  the  least  wear  and  tear 
on  ropes  and  machinery,  was  to  lift  as  heavy  a  net  load  as  possible 
at  as  slow  a  rate  as  the  required  output  in  the  given  time  would 
permit.  Speed  was  a  huge  mistake.  By  speed  was  meant  the 
velocity  of  the  cages,  and  undoubtedly  the  present  legal  restric- 
tions and  requirements  in  regard  to  winding-ropes  were  entirely 
due  to  neglect  of  this  fact.  By  all  means  let  the  inertia  of  the 
drums  and  the  moving  masses  be  kept  as  low  as  possible;  but  the 
effect  of  inertia  was  much  more  difficult  to  deal  with  in  the  case 
of  high  velocities  than  when  the  speed  was  low.  The  drum 
should  be  kept  to  a  minimum  diameter,  and  in  cases  of  deep 
shafts  in  his  (Mr.  Futers')  opinion  the  very  best  arrangement  for 
preventing  the  angling  of  the  rope  was  the  Morgans  traversing 
engine.  No  other  method  yet  suggested  was  its  equal,  and  for 
electrical  winding  it  had  very  many  advantages.  Mr.  Morgans 
kept  the  diameter  of  the  drum  to  a  minimum,  and,  when  winding 
from  a  depth  of  3,000  feet,  it  measured  only  10  feet  in  diameter 
and  21  feet  in  length.  The  rope  coiling  on  took  the  place  of  the 
rope  uncoiling  off  the  drum.  Its  advantages  in  many  respects  were 
so  undoubted  that  it  had  always  appeared  to  him  strange  that 
the  design  had  so  far  not,been  repeated.  In  any  winding  instal- 
lation, in  order  to  secure  the  maximum  economy  and  safety,  the 
designer  should  aim  at  lifting  a  maximum  net  load  of  coal  with 
a  minimum  speed,  and  with  the  least  possible  inertia  of  the 
moving  masses.  Thirty  years  ago  the  mechanics  of  winding  were 
not  thoroughly  understood,  and  the  result  was  that  winding 
plants  were  badly  designed  and  roughly  operated.  Mr.  Halbaum 
had  not  mentioned  the  human  factor,  but  the  type  of  man 
employed  at  the  handles  was  of  supreme  importance  in  the  whole 
operation  of  winding,  especially  where  speed  was  the  chief 
consideration.  With  low  speeds  and  heavy  loads  his  influence 
was  reduced,  and  as  the  mechanics  of  winding  were  now  gener- 
ally well  known,  there  was  not  the  same  excuse  for  faulty  design 
or  dangerous  operation.  When  these  facts  became  recognized, 
as  they  ought  to  be,  there  would  not  be  the  same  reason  for  the 
legal  restrictions  and  requirements  which  existed  at  present. 

Prof.    W.    M.    Thornton's    paper    upon    "A    New   Battery 
Signalling  Bell  "  was  read  as  follows : — 

1915-1916.]     THORNTON — A   NEW    BATTERY    SIGNALLING   BELL.  19 


By  W.  M.  THORNTON,  D.Sc,  D.Exg.,  Professor  of  Electrical 
Engineering  in  Armstrong  Collegk,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Nature  of  the  Spark,  and  Limits  of  Igniting  Power. — The 
recent  important  Home  Office  Report  by  Dr.  R.  V.  Wheeler,  on 
the  risks  of  ignition  of  methane  by  battery  signalling  bells,*  has 
proved  beyond  reasonable  doubt  that  the  spark  in  the  bell  or  on 
the  wires  is  a  danger  that  must  be  dealt  with. 

Before,  however,  this  can  be  done  effectually,  it  is  necessary  to 
know  the  nature  of  the  spark  and  the  limits  to  its  igniting  power. 
Dr.  Wheeler  has  given  in  his  Report  several  ways  of  improving 
the  safety  of  bells  and  much  useful  information  for  the  guidance 
of  bell  manufacturers.  The  present  paper  is  a  statement  of  the 
chief  points  which  arise  in  the  working  of  such  bells,  and  affect 
sparking ;  and  an  arrangement  is  described  by  which  danger  from 
the  spark  is  prevented. 

In  the  first  place,  the  spark  at  the  trembler-contact  is  not  con- 
tinuous. If  viewed  in  a  revolving  mirror,  it  is  seen  to  be  regu- 
larly intermittent;  and  if  the  current  is  observed  by  an  oscillo- 
graph, it  is  found  to  have  the  general  form  shown  in  Fig.  1. 

^      \/_ ^V^ l_ \jm£-t 

0\* Af/i/Cf X    BREAK  ^ 

Fig.  1. — Curve  of  Cxjeeent  in  a  Battery-bell  Ciectjit  in  Full  Ringing. 

In  the  case  of  an  electric  circuit  of  resistance  r  and  inductance 

JP  /  —Ti\ 

At  the  curve  OA  has  the  form  i  =  -M  -  e  ^  j,  where  ^  is  the  battery 

*  Report  on  Battery-hdl  Signalling  Systems  as  Regards  the  Danger  of  Ignition 
of  Firedamp-air  Mixtures  by  the  Break-flash  at  the  Signal-wires,  by  R.  V.  Wheeler, 
D.Sc,  1915. 

t  The  inductance  of  an  electric  circuit  is  defined  as  the  number  of  lines  of 
force  which  are  linked  with  the  circuit  when  unit  current  is  passing  through  the 
wires.     It  is  measured  in  henries. 


voltajre,  and  £=-2-718,  the  base  of  the  natural  logarithms.  EIr 
is  the  final  steady  value  of  the  current  i  if  the  circuit  is  closed  for 
a  long  time. 

In  bells  this  curve  is  modified  by  the  movement  of  the  arma- 
ture and  by  eddy-currents  in  the  solid  parts  of  the  magnetic  cir- 
cuit of  tlio  windings,  and  may  become  a  straight  line,  as  in  Fig. 

—  MAKE >^BRtAK> 

Fig.  2. — Form  of  Ctjrrent-cttrve  occasionally  Fottnd. 

The  voltage  e^  which  causes  the  spark  at  the  trembler-contact 
is  produced  by  the  rush  of  magnetism  out  of  the  coils  when  the 

current  is  broken.  It  is,  in  fact,  L-^.,  where  L  is  the  self-induc- 
tion and  dijdt  the  rate  of  break  of  the  current.  When  L  is 
in  henries  and  dildt  in  amperes  per  second,  L  dijdt  is  the  voltage 
on  the  spark.  At  the  moment  of  break  the  battery  voltage  is  all 
absorbed  in  the  resistance,  and  does  not  affect  the  initial  value  of 
e«.  The  gap-voltage  as  observed  is  that  shown  in  Fig.  3;  after 
the  spark  has  ceased,  the  voltage  across  the  spark-gap  is  that  of 
the  batterv  alone. 




BREAK  — MAKE »^  BREAK  >- 

Fig.  3. — Voltage  across  Spark-gap  at  Trembler-contact. 

In  good  bells  the  time  of  break  is  found  to  be  about  half  that 
of  make,  and  the  maximum  voltage  v  is  about  ten  times  that 
of  the  battery  e.  The  spark  at  the  trembler-contact  is  a  series  of 
ordinary  break-sparks  of  short  duration,  in  which  both  current 
and  voltage  are  greatest  at  the  instant  of  break. 

1915-1916.]     THORNTOX A    NEW    BATTERY    SIGXALLIXG    BELL. 


Now,  the  ig-niting  power  of  an  electric  break-spark  depends  on 
the  voltage  with  which  it  is  associated.  It  has  been  shown  that 
the  product  of  these  is  roughly  constant,*  as  in  Fig.  4. 

When  the  voltage  is  high,  a  small  current  becomes  danger- 
ous, and  the  degree  of  danger  increases  with  the  inductance  in 
the  circuit.  With  single  continuous-current  break-sparks  on  a 
20-volt  battery  circuit,  0"5  henry  causes  ignition  of  the  most 
inflammable  mixtures  of  illuminating  gas  with  a  current  of  0"5 
ampere,  t 

Another  factor  of  great  importance  is  the  duration  of  the 

spark.  It  is  clear 
from  the  curves  of 
Figs.  1,  2,  and  3 
that  the  duration 
of  the  high  voltage 
is  small  compared 
with  the  period  of 
the  bell.  Measure- 
ments of  curves 
taken  show  that  it 
is  sometimes  as 
low  as  a  fiftieth  of 
the  period,  so  that 
in  a  bell  ringing 
twenty  times  a 
second  the  time  of 
high  voltage  is  a 
thousandth  of  a 
second.  So  short 
a  duration  is  less  favourable  to  ignition  than  an  ordinary  non- 
inductive  break-spark,  and  this  may  account  to  some  extent  for 
the  rarity  of  accidents  in  coal-mines  which  might  have  arisen 
from  bells. 

The  power  w  of  the  bell-spark — that  is,  the  product  Li-r.   of 

volts  and  amperes  in  it — is  given  in  Fig.  5,  and  is  seen  to  be  even 


Fig.  4.— Charge  of  least  Igniting  Current  with 
Voltage  in  a  Non-inductive  Continuous- 
current  Circuit. 

*  See  "The  Ignition  of  Coal-gas  and  Methane  by  Momentary  Electric  Arcs," 
by  Prof.  W.  M.  Thornton,  Trans,  hist.  M.  E.,  1912,  vol.  xliv.,  page  145,  and 
figs.  2  and  3,  pages  iSO  and  151. 

t  Ibid.,  fig.  5,  page  154. 



TlIK    NOUTll    OF    KX(iLAXl)    INSTITUTE.    [Vol.  Ixvi. 

less  imitorm  tliau  the  voltage.  As  shown  in  Fig.  4,  the  ease  of 
iguitiou  of  a  given  mixture  by  break-sparks,  as  measured  by  the 
product  Li,  is  approximately  constant.  So  long  as  lo  does  not 
reach  the  critical  value,  the  bell  is  safe.  In  order  to  keep  iv  low, 
it  is  advisable  to  make  the  product  Li  as  small  as  possible,  for  the 
speed  of  break  depends  to  a  great  extent  on  the  mechanical  design 
and  setting  of  the  bell. 

Measm-ements  of  L  have  been  given  in  the  Home  Office  Ee- 
port,  and  have  since  been  found  to  reach  the  high  value  of  1 
henry.  There  is  an  upper  limit  to  the  current,  depending  on  the 
kind  of  battery  used.  It  may  be  taken  that  signalling  currents 
range  on  an  average  between  01  and  05  ampere,  and  the  value  of 
Li  from  005  to  01.     There  is  no  limit  to  the  number  of  turns 




Fig.  5. — Volt-ampeees  of  Teembler  Spaek. 

on  the  bell,  that  is,  to  the  self-induction  L.  Expressed  in  terms 
of  dimensions,  L  =  ^irT"\R,  where  T  is  the  number  of  turns  on  the 
windings  and  i?  the  reluctance  of  the  magnetic  circuit,  which  is 
equal  to  the  average  length  of  the  magnetic  lines  of  force  divided 
by  the  sectional  area  of  the  core  and  by  its  magnetic  permeability. 
The  air-gap  has  a  greater  reluctance  than  the  iron  of  the  magnetic 

The  total  energy  of  the  break-spark  is  \  Li-  = „ — .     It 

therefore  'varies  as  the  square  of  the  amperes  and  turns  on  the 
coils    for   a   given  magnetic  circuit.      For  a  given  number  of 

ampere  turns  it  varies  inversely  as  jR  =  -j-,  where,  since  the  air- 

gap  has  much  greater  magnetic  resistance  than  the  core  of  the 
coils,  I  is  the  double  length  of  the  air-gap,  A  the  mean  area  of  the 
magnetic  field  in  the  gap,  and  /«,  =  1,  when  /  and  A  are  in  centi- 
metre measure. 

1915-1916.]     TIIOENTOX — A   NEW    BATTERY    SIGNALLING    BELL.  28 

The  product  Li  is  the  number  of  lines  of  force  iV  linked  with 
the  coil-windings.     N  only  affects  the  spark  when  changing,  for 

g,  =  -jp  =  L  -r.      Li=  — o — ^>  «iid  is,  therefore,  proportional 

to  the  current  and  to  the  square  of  the  turns. 

A        mo         ^• 

The  voltage  e^  =   — ^ —  •  j.      The  speed  of  break  depends  so 

much  on  the  mechanical  adjustments  that  it  is  the  least  definite 
of  all  the  important  factors  in  sparking.  For  a  fixed  setting 
it    is   nearly   proportional    to    the   current    broken.         Writing 

-J  =  ki,  the  result  is  e^  =  — ^—  ?',  following  the  same  law  as  Li. 

The  Influence  of  Resistance. — How  does  sparking  depend 
upon  the  working  resistance  in  the  circuit?  The  greater  the  re- 
sistance r,  the  greater  is  the  drop  of  voltage  in  the  wires  for  a 
given  current,  and  the  less  of  it  there  is  for  the  gap  while  the  cur- 
rent lasts.    The  equation  of  the  current  in  the  bell  at  break  may 

E  -'hi 
be  written  ^  =  — c   x  ,  where   r-^    is  the  resistance   after   break, 

including  that  of  the  spark.  From  this  w=  ~,  and  the  resis- 
tance of  the  spark  r^,  which  is  ?i  —  r  =  r  f  ^  —  Ij.     The  resistance 

of  the  spark  is  not  independent  of  the  current  in  the  circuit,  but 
it  is  clear  that  the  greater  is  the  resistance  r  of  the  circuit  the 
smaller  is  the  sparking  voltage  e^  for  a  given  size  of  spark.  Ee- 
sistance  in  the  battery  or  line,  or  bell-windings,  therefore, 
diminishes  the  igniting  power  of  the  spark.  Wet  Leclanche 
cells  having  a  higher  resistance  than  dry  cells  are  from  this  point 
of  view  safer.  To  ring  over  a  long  distance  is  safer  than  over  a 
short  distance,  because  the  ratio  r^^jr  is  less  for  the  same  ringing 

From  observed  values  of  e^  the  resistance  of  the  spark  at  break 
can  be  found.  A  common  ratio  of  CslE  is  about  10.  Thus  if 
r  =  6  ohms,  r.s  =  54  ohms  at  the  moment  of  break.  This  rapidly 
increases  as  the  spark  is  drawn  out  and  breaks. 

Resistance  Inserted  Across  the  Spark-gap. — For  the  purpose 
of  preventing  ignition  of  gas  by  a  signalling  bell,  the  first  sug- 
gestion is  to  bridge  the  spark-gap  by  a  resistance,  but  this  may 
be  in  practice  a  positive  danger,  for  by  it  a  large  part  of  the 

2i        TIIANSACTIDXS— THE   NORTH   OF    K.V{;LAXJ)    INSTnTTK.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

energy  of  the  spark  at  the  trembler  is  handed  on  to  the  signalling 
point  on  the  ivires.  These  wires  are  near  the  roof,  and  there  is 
probably  more  risk  of  inflammable  mixtures  being  formed  there 
than  at  a  bell  in  a  hanlage-house.  AVhen  the  gap  is  bridged, 
there  is  no  free  gap  at  a,  but  tliere  is  at  h,  and  it  has  been  shown 
by  Mr.  C.  P.  Sparks,*  and  also  by  Dr.  Wheeler,  that  there  is 
daiiger  of  ignition  there  equal  to  that  at  a  under  normal  working 
conditions  (Fig.  6). 



Fig.  6. — Shunt  Eesistance  aceoss  Spark-gap  diminishes  Spark  at  a,  but 

INCREASES   THAT    ON   LiNE    AT    b. 

Resistance  in  Parallel  u-itJi  the  Magnetizing  Coils. — When, 
however,  a  suitable  resistance  is  placed  across  the  terminals  of  the 
coils,  and  the  gap  left  uubridged,  a  break  there  gives  rise  to  a 
spark  of  much  less  magnitude.  The  resistance  r^  may  be  always 
connected  (Fig.  7),  or  it  may  be  so  arranged  that  it  is  joined  up 




Fig.  7. — Eesistance  across  Magnet-coils  suppresses  Sparks  both  at 

a  and  at  h. 




Fig.  8. — Resistance  connected  at  c  just  before  Break  at  a. 
Journal  of  the  Institution  of  Electrical  Engineers,  1915,  vol.  liii.,  page  389. 

1915-191().]     THORNTON — A    NEW    JJATTERY    SIGNALLING    BELL.  2o 

b}-  the  movenieut  of  the  armature  just  before  break  (Fig.  8),  so 
avoiding  the  small  current  which  passes  through  r^  continually 
while  the  bell  is  ringing.  The  value  of  ra,  so  as  to  give  the  best 
results  in  practice,  is  found  to  vary  from  20  to  150  ohms,  de- 
pending on  the  design  of  the  bell. 

This  resistance  provides  a  path  for  the  "  extra  current  "  at 
break.  In  other-  words,  the  voltage  e^  at  the  gap  is  checked  at 
the  moment  when  it  begins,  for  the  cuiTent  and  magnetism  in  the 
coils  die  down  slowly  instead  of  being  broken  suddenly.  Oscillo- 
graph records  such  as  those  illustrated  in  Fig.  9  show  that  the 
voltage  across  the  gap  never  rises  above  the  battery  volts,  and  the 
igniting  power  of  the  spark  is  reduced,  or  the  factor  of  safety 
increased,  by  at  least  4  or  5  to  1 ;  and  by  10  to  1  if  the  voltage 
only  is  considered. 

The  effect  of  the  suppression  of  the  sparking  voltage  is  very 
marked.     It  is  possible  to  work  any  bell  in  full  ringing  in  the 





Fig.  9. — Voltage  across  Spark-gap  when  Resistance  is  connected,  as  in 

Figs.  7  or  8. 

most  inflammable  mixture  of  illuminating-gas  and  air  without 
igniting  the  mixture  while  the  shunt  path  is  connected.  Ignition 
occurs  the  moment  that  it  is  disconnected.  By  having  a  scraping 
contact  in  the  box,  it  can  be  shown  that  the  same  increase  of 
safety  is  obtained  on  the  signalling  wires  as  at  the  trembler- 

When  applied  for  the  purpose  of  preventing  ignition  of 
gas,  there  is  another  important  point  to  consider  which  is  not 
well  known.  It  is  only  within  the  last  five  or  six  years  that  the 
currents  which  will  ignite  gas  have  been  determined,  and  it  is 
only  as  a  result  of  long  and  laborious  trials  that  one  is  able  to  say 
by  inspection  whether  or  not  a  certain  spark  will  ignite  gas. 
When  the  use  of  a  resistance  across  bell-coils  (and  not  across  the 
gap)  was  first  tried  by  the  author  in  discussion  with  his  colleague, 
Mr.  W.  W.  Firtji,  who  had  suggested  shunting  the  gap,  he  was 
able  to  say  from  previous  work — of  which  accounts  have  been 
given  to  the  Institute — that  from  its  appearance  the  nature  of 



the  spark  was  completely  cliauyed,  and  tliat  ignition  would  not 
occur.  This  was  soon  verified  by  enclosing  the  bell  in  a  large 
explosion-box,  and  the  method  has  never  been  found  to  fail. 
The  device  does  for  electric  signalling  bells  what  gauze  does  for 
a  miner's  safety-lamp  :  so  long  as  it  is  in  normal  action,  ignition 
cannot  occur. 

This  arrangement,  which  was  first  demonstrated  at  the 
Senghenydd  enquiry,  although  it  greatly  diminishes  wear  at  the 
sparking  contacts,  does  not  appear  to  have  ever  been  used  on 
electric  bells,  although  Mr.  H.  R.  Ivempe*  recently  states  that 
the  principle  is  well  known  to  telegraphists.  It  has  the  advantage 
that  it  can  be  fitted  to  any  existing  bell,  so  making  it  incapable 
of  igniting  the  most  inflammable  pit-gas. 

The  author  ventures  to  submit  the  device  to  the  consideration 
of  those  concerned  with  the  management  of  coal-mines,  as  a  con- 
tribution to  the  safety  of  underground  working. 

After  reading  his  paper,  Prof.  Thornton  carried  out  a 
number  of  experiments  with  an  explosion-box  and  an  oscillo- 

Mr.  H.  E.  Kempe  (Betchworth,  Surrey)  wrote  that,  in  regard 
to  "  The  Influence  of  Resistance,"  he  thought  that  when  Prof. 
Thornton  stated  that  "  Resistance  in  the  battery  or  line,  or 
bell-windings,  therefore,  diminishes  the  igniting  power  of  the 
spark,"  he  did  not  sufficiently  define  what  he  meant  by  "  resist- 
ance ijQ  bell-windings."  High  resistance  covild  be  obtained  by 
winding  the  electromagnet  with  a  great  number  of  convolutions 
of  wire,  but  this,  while  giving  the  bell  a  high  resistance,  would 
also  give  it  a  high  inductance,  which  was  certainly  not  desirable, 
unless  the  electromagnet  was  shunted,  which,  at  this  part  of  the 
paper.  Prof.  Thornton  did  not  seem  to  suggest. 

He  (Mr.  Kempe)  did  not  consider  the  arrangement  suggested 
in  Fig.  8  was  at  all  good.  It  introduced  three  contacts  in  the 
place  of  one,  and  the  amount  of  current  which  such  a  device 
saved  was  insignificant,  as  the  proper  resistance  for  the  shunt 
would  be  ten  times  that  of  the  bell-coils  which  it  shunted. 

He  thought  that  Prof.  Thornton  should,  when  speaking  of  the 
shunt    as    a    "suitable"    resistance,     have    pointed    out    that 

*  Electrical  Recitw,  1915,  vol.  Ixxvi.,  page  886. 

1915-1916.]         DISCITSSION — A    NEW    BATTERY    SIGNALLING    BELL.  27 

"  suitable  "  included  "  double  winding  "  ;  also  it  would  have  been 
better  to  have  stated  that  the  value  of  the  shunt  should  be  about 
ten  times  the  resistance  of  the  coils  that  it  shunted,  rather  than 
to  have  made  the  rather  indefinite  statement  that  the  value  might 
be  from  20  to  150  ohms.  The  "ten-times"  value  was  the  one 
adopted  by  the  Post  Office  for  all  local  apparatus,  such  as 
sounders.  The  object  of  the  shunt  was  to  get  rid  of  sparking  at 
the  relay  contacts ;  such  shunts  had  been  in  use  for  the  last  30  or 
40  j^ears. 

With  regard  to  the  statement  that  the  shunt  device  had  never 
been  used  on  electric  bells,  this  statement  was,  he  thought,  prac- 
tically correct,  the  necessity  for  such  shunting  not  having 
hitherto  arisen.  He  might  mention,  however,  that  the  Post 
Office  had  arranged  some  time  ago  to  fit  a  number  of  bells  for  a 
special  purpose  with  spark  shunts  (bell-coils,  100  ohms ;  shunt, 
1,000  ohms),  and  he  believed  tliat  these  were  being  installed. 
The  bells  were  rather  large,  and  were  to  be  worked  from  relays. 

The  use  of  bells  shunted  to  prevent  gas-ignition  was  novel, 
and  should  be  made  compulsory.  "Double  winding"  of  the 
shunts  should  be  specifically  mentioned  in  the  specification  of 
such  bells. 

Dr.  R.  V.  AViiEELEE,  (Eskmeals)  wrote  that  it  was  a  great 
regret  to  him  that  he  was  unable  to  be  present  at  the  meeting  and 
express  in  person  his  admiration  of  the  manner  in  which  Dr. 
Thornton  had  presented  the  theory  of  the  common  form  of 
battery-bell.  The  paper  should  give  valuable  information  to  bell- 
makers  as  to  the  manner  in  which  they  could  improve  both  the 
ringing  efficiency  and  the  safety  of  bells. 

He  had  had  the  pleasure  of  examining  a  bell  fitted  with  this 
device  for  preventing  sparking,  and  could  testify  to  its  efl&ciency. 
The  tests  were  referred  to  in  his  Report  to  Sir  Richard  Redmayne 
in  connexion  with  the  Senghenydd  Colliery  explosion,  where  it 
would  be  seen  that  no  ignition  of  an  8'5-per-cent.  methane-air 
mixture  could  be  obtained  with  a  battery  of  24  wet  Leclanche 
cells  (current  on  closed  circuit,  10  ampere;  voltage  on  open 
circuit,  34"5). 

There  was,  however,  a  jjractical  disadvantage  attaching  to 
the  use  of  any  device  for  preventing  sparking  which  involved  a 
circuit  other  than  the  ringing  circuit.     If  the  additional  circuit 

28        TUAXSACTIONS       TllK   NOlMII    OF    EXCiLA.N'D    IN'STITITK.    [Vol.lxvi, 

should  by  soino  iiiiscluince  become  broken,  the  bell  would  become 
unsafe,  and  yet  continue  to  ring.  For  this  reason  he  (Dr. 
AVheeler)  favoured  any  device  which,  though  not  theoretically 
as  efiicient  as  Prof.  Thornton's,  formed  an  integral  part  of  the 
ringing  circuit,  and  could  not  be  separated  from  the  bell  without 
destroying  it. 

The  problem  of  obtaining  a  sate  system  of  underground 
signalling  without  eliminating  bare  wires  (which  it  was 
expedient  to  retain  for  the  sake  of  their  convenience)  presented 
several  complications,  but  the  difficulties  were  certainly  not 
insuperable.  He  hoped  that,  as  a  result  of  the  investigation 
now  being  conducted  by  the  Home  Office,  several  methods  alter- 
native to  those  already  outlined  in  their  recent  Report  would 

Mr.  W.  C".  MorxTAix  (Xewcastle-upon-Tyne)  said  that  the 
experiments  which  they  had  seen  were  conclusive  evidence  that 
Dr.  Thornton  had  practically  produced  a  bell  which  appeared  to 
be  almost  free  from  the  risk  of  causing'  an  explosion.  So  far  as 
the  formulae  given  and  the  paper  itself  were  concerned,  prob- 
ably those  were  of  more  interest  to  scientific  men,  and  men  con- 
nected with  electrical  work  ;  but,  as  a  practical  mining  man, 
he  thought  that  Dr.  Thornton  had  overcome  any  danger  there 
might  be  with  a  bell  working  in  an  explosive  mixture.  It 
seemed  to  him  that  the  application  of  the  device  was  needful, 
and  moreover  it  was  produced  at  very  small  expense.  The  cost 
of  a  bell  fitted  with  Dr.  Thornton's  device  was  little  more  than 
the  cost  of  the  present  ordinary  commercial  bell,  and  there- 
fore was  of  considerable  value.  If  he  had  produced  an  article 
on  a  more  elaborate  scale,  one  would  have  been  doubtful  as  to 
its  useful  application ;  but  seeing  that  it  could  be  produced  at 
little  expense,  it  should  find  considerable  use.  He  was  not 
making  these  remarks  because  he  thought  that  the  device 
should  be  made  compulsory :  the  use  of  this  class  of  bell  should 
be  determined  by  the  prevailing  conditions  in  each  colliery, 
rather  than  be  made  generally  compulsory. 

Mr.  John  H.  Merivale  (Broomhill)  said  he  understood  that 
in  his  apparatus  Dr.  Thornton  put  in  a  resistance,  and  part  of 
the  energy  which  would  otherwise  go  to  cause  the  spark  was 
absorbed  by  this  resistance;    if  that  was  so,   one  would  fancy 

1915-1916.]         DISCUSSIOX — A    XF.W    BATTERY    SIGXALLIXG    BELL. 


that  a  decrease  in  the  battery  power  would  have  tlie  same  effect. 
He  asked  Dr.  Thornton  whether  this  assumption  was  correct? 

Dr.  TiiORXTOx  replied  that  the  device  niipht  be  simply  ex- 
plained by  hydraulic  analogy.  Everybody  knew  that  the 
sudden  closing  of  a  cock  on  a  water-main  caused  water-hammer. 
This  could  be  prevented  by  providing  a  bye-pass  across  the  cock 
consisting  of  a  veiy  small-bore  water-pipe,  the  effect  of  which 
was  to  prevent  entirely  the  sudden  rise  of  pressure  and  knock 
that  followed  from  it. 

Mr.  H.  W.  Clothier  (AVallsend)  wrote  that  the  addition  of 
a  small  non-inductive  resistance  to  all  bell-coils  seemed  to  be  an 
obvious  and  at  the  same  time  a  very  effective  method  for  elimina- 
ting risks  of  dangerous  open  sparking  on  bell-circuits.  He  had  no 
doubt  that,  if  the  danger  had  been  realized  earlier,  something  of 
the  kind  would  have  been  standardized  before  now.  The  prin- 
ciple was  well  known,  not  only  to  the  telegraphist,  as  stated  by 
the  author,  but  also  to  the  power-station  engineer,  with  whom  it 
was  universal  to  use  non-inductive  resistances  in  conjunction 
with  generator  field-switches.  In  this  case,  owing  to  the  large 
amount  of  self-induction  on  the  held-coils,  the  sparking  on  the 
switch-contacts  was  found  to  be  very  vicious,  and.  what  was 
perhaps  more  serious,  the  excessive  voltage  caused  by  a  sudden 
break  was  apt  to  pierce  the  insulation. 

One  warning  note  he  would  sound,  and  that  was  in  regard 
to  the  reliability  of  the  electrical  connexions.  Seeing  that  the 
spark  was  dangeraus  with  ordinaiy  bells  and  safe  with  the 
addition  of  the  shunted  resistance,  a  great  responsibility  rested 
with  the  latter,  though  only  an  insignificant  part  in  the  bell :  a 
loose  or  bad  connexion  might  prove  to  be  its  undoing.  In  bell 
mechanism  these  parts  were  "out  of  sight."  He  would  be  very 
reluctant  to  trust  a  metal-to-metal  make-and-break  contact  for 
the  shunted  resistance  circuit  as  shown  in  Fig.  8.  It  would  be 
too  easy  to  put  it  out  of  action  by  accidentally  bending  some 
little  spring  or  other.  A  little  dirt  across  the  contact-surface 
would  also  have  the  same  deleterious  effect. 

The  general  principle  was  excellent,  provided  that  it  could 
be  relied  upon  to  be  always  in  operation,  and  there  should  be 
no  difficulty  in  this  if  the  system  in  Fig.  7  was  used,  and  steps 
were  taken  to  make  it  impossible  to  connect  up  the  coil  without 
the  resistance. 

30       TRANSACTIONS— THE   XOHTII   OF   F.XGLAXI)   IXSTITTJTE.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

Perhaps  tlie  surest  way  would  be  to  make  a  strong  sweated 
connexion  to  the  actual  wire  of  the  coil,  so  that  the  resistance 
could  never  be  disconnected  unless  the  coil-circuit  was  also 
incomplete,  when  no  harm  other  than  the  non-ringing  of  the 
bell  would  result. 

He  thought  that  it  would  improve  the  paper  if  the  amounts 
of  currents  and  voltages  were  shown  on  Figs.  3,  4,  and  5. 

Dr.  Thorxtox  said  that  he  was  glad  to  have  heard  the  re- 
marks of  Mr.  Kempe,  who  was  the  consulting  electrical  engi- 
neer to  the  Post  Office.  He  thought  it  would  be  understood 
from  the  earlier  part  of  the  paper  that  inductance  was  the  chief 
cause  of  the  trouble,  and  was  to  be  avoided.  High  resistance 
obtained  by  winding  the  coils  with  brass  wire,  had  a  distinct 
effect  in  suppressing  the  spark,  as  shown  by  Dr.  Wheeler. 
Since  it  was  the  effect  of  inductance  which  had  to  be  overcome,  it 
was  not  sufficient  to  make  the  shunt  always  the  same  multiple 
of  the  resistance.  It  was  no  doubt  satisfactory  where  the  type 
of  coil  and  magnetic  circuit  was  always  the  same,  but  in  bells 
these  varied  so  much  that  it  did  not  cover  every  case,  and  he 
had  found  the  difference  between  Cjuick  and  slow-ringing  bells 
sufficient  to  make  it  unreliable  as  a  preventive  of  ignition  under 
working  conditions.  Each  bell  or  type  of  bell  should  be  tested 
in  explosive  mixtures.  "Without  some  such  test  it  was  only 
possible  by  experience  of  the  igniting  power  of  sparks  to  say 
whether  even  the  small  spark  obtained  after  fitting  the  shunt 
was  safe  or  not.  He  gathered  that  the  Post  Ofiice  had  decided 
to  fit  the  bells  mentioned  by  Mr.  Kempe  with  non-spark  shunts 
after  attention  had  been  directed  to  the  device  in  the  paper  at 
the  Senghenydd  enquiry.  All  electric  battery -bells  were 
improved  by  its  use.  and  the  patent  covered  its  application  to 
electric  bells  for  the  prevention  of  wear  at  the  sparking  contacts. 

Dr.  Wheeler  in  his  very  kind  remarks  had  raised  a 
possible  objection  to  the  device,  and  had  stated  that  there 
should  be  some  device  to  prevent  sparking  which  formed 
an  integral  part  of  the  ringing  circuit  and  could  not  be 
separated  from'  the  bell  without  destroying  it.  No  doubt  that 
would  be  ideal,  but  here  they  had  what  was  equivalent  to  a 
naked  miner's  lamp,  round  which  was  put  a  gauze,  and 
they  staked  their  lives  on  that  gauze,   although  if  the  gauze 

1915-1916.]         DISCUSSION A    NEW    BATTERY    SIGNALLING    BELL. 


broke  an  explosion  might  result.  In  order  to  combat  the 
danger  of  the  gauze  or  of  the  glass  breaking,  frequent  inspec- 
tions were  made.  Inspection  holes  could  be  arranged  on  the 
front  of  bell-boxes  for  frequent  inspection  in  order  to  see  that 
the  spark  was  riglit,  although  he  could  not  see  why  the  shunt 
should  break  or  become  disconnected  any  more  than  the  bell- 

He  was  also  glad  to  hear  Mr.  Mountain's  remarks.  Person- 
ally, he  thought  that  there  was  not  a  great  risk  from  ignition 
by  bell-wires,  but  they  could  not  take  any  risk  whatever.  If 
the  smallest  risk  could  be  overcome,  it  was  the  wisest  plan  to 
overcome  that  risk,  especially  when  it  could  be  done  at  a  small 
cost — a  mucli  smaller  cost  tlian  the  initial  cost  of  the  bell  itself. 

In  reply  to  Mr.  Clothier,  he  agreed  that  the  non-sparking 
bell  was  a  new  application  of  an  old  principle.  "\¥hat  rather 
surprised  him  was  that  bell-makers  had  not  thought  of  using  it 
before,  not  only  for  relays  where,  as  in  the  Povst  Office,  it  had 
been  used,  but  on  ordinary  bells  for  the  preservation  of  the 
sparking  contacts.  The  sweating  of  the  ends  of  the  bell-winding 
and  shunt  together,  as  Mr.  Clothier  had  suggested,  would  be  the 
surest  guarantee  against  any  possible  disconnexion  due  to  bad 

The  President  (Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener)  proposed  a  vote  of 
thanks  to  Dr.  Thornton  for  his  paper.  He  (the  speaker)  was 
not  an  electrician,  and  could  not  criticize  the  paper,  but  the 
device  appeared  to  him,  as  a  practical  man,  to  be  a  step  forward. 
It  might  be  true,  as  Dr.  Wheeler  had  stated,  that  accidents 
might  conceivably  take  place  by  reason  of  the  fact  that  electric 
bells  as  at  present  constructed  were  unsafe ;  but,  after  all, 
during  past  years  they  had  been  employing  bells  which  had  no 
such  protection  as  that  referred  to ;  but  if  this  bell  was  an 
improvement  on  the  old  bell  and  was  distinctly  safer,  as  they 
had  seen  that  it  was  by  actual  demonstrations  that  day,  then 
whether  it  was  ideal  in  its  present  form  or  not,  it  was  certainly 
much  safer  than  the  bells  wJiich  they  were  using.  It  could  not 
be  said  that  the  present  system  was  unsafe,  because  so  far  as  he 
was  aware,  no  explosion  had  been  traced  to  a  bell ;  but  as  sensible 
people  they  were  bound  to  take  advantage  of  this  device  if  it 
rendered  the  system  of  signalling  still  safer  than  it  was  at 

32        TTIAVSACTIOXS-    TIIK   XORTTI   OF    F.Xr.LAXI)    IXSTTTFTE.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

Mr.    W.    (".    Mor.vTAix   siMondcd   llio   vote  of  tliaiiks,   whicli 
wji.s    licnrtilv   ciiiried. 

The  Pkksidext  (Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener)  moved,  and  Mr.  J.  G. 
Weeks  seconded,  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  Scrutineers  for  their 
services,  and  tlie  resolution  was  carried  unanimously. 

Mr.  T.  Campbell  Fitters  proposed,  and  Mr.  N.  B.  Ridley 
seconded,  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  President,  Yice-Presidents, 
Councillors,  and  Oificers  for  their  services  during  the  past  year, 
and  this  resolution  was  cordially  adopted. 

Mr.  Frank  Coulson  proposed,  and  Mr.  J.  Kenneth  Guthrie 
seconded,  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  representatives  of  the  Insti- 
tute on  the  Council  of  The  Institution  of  Mining  Engineers 
for  their  services  during  the  past  year,  and  the  resolution  was 
carried  unanimously. 




Held  in  the  Wood  Memorial  Hall,  Newcastle- cpox-Ttne, 

OcroBER  9th,    1915. 

Mb.  T.   Y.  GREENER,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  Secretary  read  the  minutes  of  the  last  General  Meetings 
and  reported  the  proceedings  of  the  Council  at  their  meetings  on 
August  21st,  September  25th,  and  that  day. 

The  following  gentlemen  were  elected,  having  been  previously 
nominated  : — 

Member  — 
Mr.  Edward  Carl  Joachim  Meyer,  Mining  Engineer,  P.O.   Box  57,  East 
Rand,  Transvaal. 
Associate — 
Mr.  Ernest  Hughes  Suggeit,  Colliery   Under-iuanager,   The  Villas,  West 
Rainton,  Fence  Houses. 


As  this  year  was  the  centenary  of  the  invention  of  the  so- 
called  "  safety  "-lamp  by  Sir  Humphry  Davy,  and  about  the 
same  time  of  the  Clanny  and  Stephenson  lamps,  it  seemed  to  him 
that  it  was  a  fitting  opportunity  to  review  the  great  advantages 
which  had  accrued  to  this  country  by  the  development  of  its  coal 
industries  and  by  the  increased  security  of  the  miner'.s  life  in 
consequence  of  these  inventions. 

He  might  say  that  the  annual  output   of  this   country,   100 

VOL.  LXVI.— 1915-1916. 

84        TKA.NSAn  IONS        I  UK    \(tKriI    OK    KN(.IJ-\.\I)    INSTITITK.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

years  ago,  was  nut  iiioic  than  '21  millions  of  tons,  while  now  it 
had  reached  the  enormous  total  of  280  millions.  Evidently  the 
present  output  could  not  have  been  reached  if  the  safety-lamp 
had  not  been  invented.  The  railway  system  oould  never  have 
been  developed  as  it  had  been  if  this  lamp  had  not  been  invented, 
an  invention  which  also  <>ave  an  impetus  to  otiier  industries  and 
enabled  man}'  new  ones  to  be  introduced. 

A  few  years  ag'o  (in  1891),  in  a  Presidential  Address  which  he 
had  delivered  to  the  Institute,  he  had  g-iven  a  brief  account  of  the 
introduction  of  the  safety-lamp,  and  he  now  proposed  to  quote 
a  few  extracts  therefrom. 

He  had  mentioned  that  The  North  of  England  Ins'ltute  of 
Mining-  and  Mechanical  Engineers,  which  was  founded  in  1852 
after  the  serious  loss  of  life  caused  by  an  explosion  at  Reaton 
Colliery,  had  as  one  of  its  chief  objects  "  to  meet  at  fixed  times 
to  discuss  the  means  for  the  ventilation  of  collieries,  for  prevent- 
ing- accidents,  and  for  general  purposes  connected  with  the  win- 
ning and  working  of  collieries."  He  had  added  that  in  1813  a 
society  for  preventing  accidents  in  coal-mines  was  formed  after 
a  serious  explosion  at  Felling  Colliery,  in  which  there  had  been 
great  loss  of  life.  The  Duke  of  Northumberland  was  the  Patron 
and  Sir  Ralph  Milbanke-  its  President.  It  was  also  under  the 
patronage  of  the  Man^uess  of  Bute,  the  Bishop  of  Durham,  Lord 
Percy,  Sir  Matthew  White  Ridley,  the  Rev.  Robert  Grey,  Dr. 
Clanny,  John  Buddie,  Matthias  Dunn,  the  Rev.  J.  Hodgson 
(who  was  the  Honorary  Secretary),  and  many  others. 

Mr.  John  Buddie,  at  the  request  of  the  Society,  in  1813  made 
a  report  to  them  explaining  the  condition  of  mining,  etc.  He 
concluded  his  report  in  the  following  words  :  — 

"  On  the  streugtli  of  my  own  experience  ....  I  freely  hazard  my  opinion 
that  any  further  application  of  mechanical  agency  towards  preventing  explo- 
sions in  coal-mines  would  be  ineffectual,  and  therefore  conclude  that  the  hopes 
of  this  Society  ever  seeing  its  most  desirable  object  accomplished  must  rest 
upon  the  event  of  some  method  being  discovered  of  producing  such  a  chemical 
change  upon  carburetted  hydrogen  gas,  as  to  render  it  innocuous  as  fast  as 
it  is  discharged,  or  as  it  approaches  the  neighbourhood  of  lights.  In  this 
view  of  the  subject,  it  is  to  scientific  men  only  that  we  must  look  up  for 
assistance  in  providing  a  cheap  and  effectual  remedy." 

At  this  time  the  Rev.  J.  Hodgson  and  some  of  the  mem- 
bers of  the  society  and  others  fortunately  appealed  to  Sir 
Humphry  Davy,  giving  him  an  account  of  the  great  loss  of  life 
which  was  so  frequently  taking  place  in  coal-mines.     They  were 


successful  in  inducing  liim  to  visit  Xewcastle  to  gain  some  know- 
ledge of  the  conditions  under  which  inflammable  gas  was  found 
in  underground  workings. 

Davv  visited  the  north  in  1815,  and  had  several  interviews 
with  Mr.  Hodgson  and  others,  and  Hodgson  introduced  the 
illustrious  visitor  to  Mr.  Buddie,  who  had  charge  of  many  col- 
lieries. They  visited  several  of  the  dangerous  mines  in  the 
north ;  Mr.  Buddie  assisted  Davy  in  the  investigation  of  the 
conditions  of  mining,  and  pointed  out  the  necessity  for  some  safe 
method  of  dealing  with  inflammable  gas  in  the  working  of  the 

When,  on  leaving,  he  said  to  Mr.  Buddie,  from  whom  he  had 
got  all  the  information  that  he  wanted.  "  I  think  I  can  do  some- 
thing for  you,"  Mr.  Buddie  looked  at  him  with  considerable 

However,  within  a  few  months,  Davy  did  produce  a  lamp 
which  was  destined  to  make  a  great  revolution  in  mining-,  and  to 
add  greatly  to  the  development  of  the  coal-trade. 

In  1816  the  Sunderland  Society  was  apparently  disbanded,  as 
it  was  thought  that  its  objects  had  been  accomplished  by  the 
invention  of  the  safety-lamp.  Whatever  one  might  think  of  the 
wisdom  of  breaking  up  so  important  a  society,  it  must  be  ad- 
mitted that  it  had  achieved  a  triumph  which  has  seldom  fallen 
to  any  society  to  accomplish  in  so  short  a  time ;  and  Mr.  Buddie, 
who  before  had  expressed  himself  so  despairingly,  afterwards 
wrote  as  follows  :  — 

"  I  first  tried  the  lamp  in  au  explosive  mixture  on  the  surface,  and  then 
took  it  into  a  mine,  and  to  my  astonishment  and  delight,  it  is  impossible  for 
me  to  express  my  feelings  at  the  time  when  I  first  suspended  the  lamp  in  the 
mine  and  saw  it  red  hot.  If  it  had  been  a  monster  destroyed  I  could  not  have 
felt  more  exultation  than  I  did.  I  said  to  those  around  me,  '  We  have 
subdued  the  monster.'  " 

Davy  accompanied  Mr.  Buddie  into  some  of  the  fiery  mines, 
and  saw  his  lamj)  in  actual  use,  and  was  delighted;  and  Mr. 
Buddie  expressed  himself  as  "  overwhelmed  with  the  feeling  of 
gratitude  to  that  great  genius  which  had  produced  it." 

Mr.  Buddie  spoke  feelingly,  and  his  colliery  diaries,  which 
were  kept  up  daily  and  with  great  exactness,  gave  graphic  details 
of  his  own  frequent  hairbreadth  escapes,  and  the  difiiculties 
which  the  viewers  of  those  days  had  to  encounter  from  inflam- 
mable gas.       The  present  generation  could  hardly  realize  the 

VOL,  LXVI.-lgis-iDir;.  4     E 

3G       TRAXS.VCTIOXS— TlIK    NOKTIl    OF    ENGLAND    IXSTITUTE.      [Vol.lxvi. 

(lan<>-eruus  comlitions  of  niiniug  before  the  invention  of  the 

Since  the  time  of  Chuiny,  Davy,  and  Stephenson,  who  were 
the  first  inventors,  their  lamps  liad  undergone  many  modifica- 
tions. In  their  day.  there  was  great  controversy  between  the 
friends  of  ])avy  and  tiiose  of  Steplienson.  There  was  no  doubt 
that  they  weie  both  working  at  the  same  time  witli  the  same  end 
in  view,  but  on  rather  different  lines:  Davy  went  into  the  matter 
in  a  i)urely  scientific  way,  and  Stephenson  proceeded  on  more 
mechanical  and  practical  lines.  He  (Dr.  Simpson)  thought  that 
the  opinion  of  the  late  Nicliolas  Wood,  wlio.  from  his  friendship 
for  Stephenson  might  have  been  more  partial,  might  be  accepted, 
namely,  that  they  should  be  considered  as  parallel  inventors. 
There  could  be  no  doubt,  however,  that  Clanny  was  the  first  man 
to  produce  a  lamp  enclosing  a  light  which  was  safe  in  an  inflam- 
mable mixture.  The  original  was  not  portable  enough,  but  after- 
wards he  produced  a  lamp  which,  with  the  Davy  and  Stephenson 
lamps,  was  the  foundation  of  all  the  lamps  now  in  use. 

No  invention  since  the  application  of  steam  for  the  draining 
of  our  mines  and  for  the  winding  of  coal  gave  to  the  coal-trade, 
and.  he  might  add.  to  the  industries  of  the  country,  so  great  a 

Time  would  not  allow  him  to  go  in  any  length  into  those  diffi- 
culties :  but,  in  order  to  consider  one  of  them,  let  them  imagine 

our  fiery  mines  having  to  be  lighted  by  the  flickering  sparks  from 
the  old  flint-and-steel  mill  (which  sometimes  produced  explo- 
sions), and  they  would  easily  realize  how  restricted  the  output  of 
coal  would  be. 

lie  would  not  say  anything  more  on  the  subject,  as  two  of  the 
members  were  engaged  on  a  comprehensive  history  of  the  safety- 
lamp,  with  an  account  of  its  improvements,  which  permitted  of 
the  lamp  being  more  properly  designated  a  "  safety  "-lamp,  and 
thus  able  to  cope  with  the  additional  difficulties  from  inflammable 
gas  consequent  on  the  working  of  coal  at  greater  depths. 

He  would  also  refer  the  members  to  the  very  extensive 
remarks  on  snfety-lamps  by  the  late  R.  L.  Galloway  (who  was  a 
member  of  the  Institute)  in  his  Annals  of  Coal  Mining. 

Without  further  comment,  he  had  now  to  ask  the  acceptance 
by  The  ^'^orth  of  England  Institute  of  Mining  and  Mechanical 
Engineers  of  portraits  of  Davy,  Clanny,  and  Stephenson,  to  hang 


ou  the  walls  of  the  Institute,  as  well  as  a  steel  mill  (which  was 
in  use  at  Beuwell  Colliery)  to  be  placed  beside  them.  And  under- 
neath each  portrait,  he  understood  that  the  Institute  had 
kindly  offered  to  place  a  safety-lamp  of  each  inventor,  which  they 
had  in  their  possession.  He  had  also  to  present  the  portraits  of 
John  Buddie.  Xicholas  Wood,  and  the  Rev.  John  Hodgson  (the 
historian),  who  all  took  an  enormous  amount  of  trouble  in  the 
introductioM  and  development  of  the  safety-lamp. 

The  President  (Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener)  proposed  a  vote  of  thanks 
to  Dr.  Simpson  for  presenting  the  engravings  and  the  steel  mill. 

Mr.  -J.  G.  Weeks  (Bedlington),  in  seconding  the  vote  of 
thanks,  said  that  as  a  former  official  (under-viewer),  he  was 
qualified  by  long  experience  to  state  that  Dr.  Simpson  had  taken 
the  greatest  interest,  not  only  in  the  safety-lamp,  but  in  all 
matters  connected  with  mining.  He  hoped  that  the  portraits 
presented  would  adorn  the  walls  of  the  Institute,  and  refresh  the 
memories  of  present  and  future  members  with  the  features  of 
the  inventors  of  the  safety-lamp,  to  whose  discoveries  the  mining 
community  owed  so  much. 

Dr.  Simpson  said  he  hoped  that  the  presentation  would  be  of 
interest  to  the  members. 

Mr.   T.   Y.   Greener  delivered   the  following   "  Presidential 
x\ddress  "  :  — 

38         TRANSACTIOXS — THE   NORTH   OF    KXGLAND   IXSTITUTE.    [Vol.  Ixvi 


By  T.  Y.  greener. 

I  have,  in  the  first  phiee,  to  thank  you  for  electing  me 
President  of  the  Institute.  You  have  conferred  upon  me  the 
highest  honour  that  the  members  can  bestow  upon  one  of  their 
colleagues.  My  predecessors  have  been  the  most  eminent 
members  of  the  profession,  and  I  feel  some  hesitation  in  taking 
my  place  among  that  honourable  body  of  gentlemen.  I  will, 
however,  endeavour  during  my  term  of  office,  with  the  assistance 
of  the  Council  and  of  the  members,  to  do  all  that  I  can  to  uphold 
the  interests  of  the  Institute,  and  to  maintain  its  traditions  and 
the  high  standard  of  its  scientific  attainments. 

The  present  is  a  very  difficult  time,  by  reason  of  the 
European  War  now  raging,  and  I  am  afraid  that  we  must  look 
for  some  rediiction  in  the  membership  of  the  Institute.  It  is, 
however,  to  be  hoped  that  members  will  not  allow  their  interest 
in  its  proceedings  to  fiag,  although  I  quite  realize  that  their 
minds  must  necessarily  be  preoccupied  and  full  of  anxieties 
connected  with  the  war.  It  is  just  a  hundred  years  since  the 
Battle  of  Waterloo,  which  established  the  supremacy  of  the 
British  Empire  on  so  sound  a  basis  that  the  last  century  has 
been  a  period  of  uninterrupted  freedom  from  great  wars,  and  of 
such  prosperity  as  was  previously  unknown  in  the  history  of  this 
country.  It  is  earnestly  to  be  hoped  that  a  similar  victory  will 
follow  our  efforts  now,  and  that  it  will  be  succeeded  by  equally 
satisfactory  results.  Many  members  of  the  Institute  are  sei-ving 
their  country  on  military  and  other  duties  connected  with  the 
war,  and  are  doing  their  part  to  bring  about  the  victory  for 
which  we  are  all  hoping.  The  Institute  has  also  added  its  con- 
tribution to  the  Roll  of  Honour  of  those  who  have  fallen  in  the 
defence  of  their  country. 

I  must  thank  Dr.  John  Bell  Simpson  for  the  very  handsome 
gift  that  he  has  presented  to  the  Institute  in  the  shape  of 
engravings  of  Sir  Humphry  Davy,  George  Stephenson,  Dr. 
W.    Reid    Clanny,    John    Buddie,    Nicholas    AVood,    and    the 

1915-1916]  GREENER — PKESIDfiNTIAL   ATlllRESS.  39 

Rev.  John  Hodg'son,  and  also  for  a  Hint-and-steel  mill  aelually 
used  in  Benwell  Colliery.  The  portraits  of  these  illustrious 
men  will  greatly  enhance  the  value  and  interest  of  the  collection 
of  portraits  now  belonging-  to  the  Institute,  and  the  gift  which 
Dr.  Simpson  has  just  made  will  be  much  appreciated  and  valued 
by  all  its  members.  It  is  in  my  opinion  very  right  and  proper  that 
the  services  which  these  men  rendered  to  humanity  and  to  the 
coal-trade  should  always  be  remembered.  They  were  all  more  or 
less  connected  with  the  introduction  of  the  safety-laiiii)  into  coal- 
mines; without  it  numerous  lives  would  have  been  sacriticed  in 
attempts  to  work  niines  which  would  ultimately  have  been 
abandoned:  hence  the  invention  which  they  were  the  means  of 
producing  has  been  one  of  the  most  important  factors  in  the 
development  of  collieries  generally,  and  in  raising  the  output  of 
the  country  from  about  26  to  27  million  tons  in  1815  to  its  present 
output  of  280  million  tons  per  year. 

The  earliest  record  of  a  fatal  accident  from  an  explosion  of 
firedamp  in  a  British  coal-mine  is,  I  understand,  contained  in 
the  register  of  St.  Mary's  Church,  Gateshead,  in  which  it  is 
stated  that  on  October  14th,  1621,  the  burial  took  place  of 
Richard  Backas,  who  was  burned  in  a  pit.  It  is  quite  possible 
that  there  may  have  been  similar  cases  at  a  much  earlier  period, 
because  the  records  of  coal-mining  in  the  ]Vewcastle  district  go 
back  to  the  12th  or  13th  centuries.  In  those  days,  however,  seams 
near  to  the  surface  only  were  being  worked,  which  did  not,  as  a 
rule,  contain  firedamp,  and  it  was  not  until  the  early  part  of  the 
nineteenth  century  that  the  presence  of  firedamp  in  mines  became 
a  serious  danger  and  the  cause  of  large  losses  of  life  in  collieries. 
At  that  time  the  celebrated  High  Main  Seam,  which  had  been 
extensively  worked  at  Wallsend  and  at  other  collieries  on  the 
Tyne,  was  becoming  exhausted  near  the  outcrop,  and  the 
workings  were  being  continued  at  greater  depths.  Large  quan- 
tities of  firedamp  were,  therefore,  encountered,  and  the 
difficulty  of  ventilating  the  mines  was  further  aggravated  by 
"  creeps,"  which  were  constantly  occurring  in  those  days  by 
reason  of  the  small  size  of  the  pillars  of  coal  that  were  left. 

An  explosion  took  place  in  1801  in  the  High  Main  Seam  at 
the  "A"  Pit  of  the  AYallsend  Colliery,  which  caused  extensive 
damage  to  the  shaft  and  destroyed  a  number  of  lives.  Other 
similar  explosions,   accompanied   by  loss  of  life,   followed,   and 

40        TRAXSACTIOXS       THE    NORJ'll    OV    KXl.LAND    IXSTITUTE.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

l)ublic  attention  was  not  unnaturally  diiet-ted  to  the  matter,  with 
the  result  that  tlie  ((jal-owners  and  viewers  took  up  the  (luestion 
in  order  to  tiiid  a  laiiii)  wliicli  niig-ht  safely  be  used  in  tiery  mines. 
Up  to  that  time  various  expedients  had  been  tried  for  providing 
light  in  mines  in  whicdi  it  was  not  safe  to  use  a  candle,  and  in 
Flanders  fungus  tinder  had  been  occasionally  used  under  those 
conditions ;  but  the  light  was  much  too  feeble  for  working  pur- 
poses, and  was  just  barely  sufficient  to  enable  the  pitmen  to  find 
their  way  in  and  out  of  the  mine.  The  phosphorescent  light  from 
decaying  fish  was,  I  believe,  also  occasionally  utilized  ;  but  it  is 
perfectly  obvious  that  none  of  the  expedients  mentioned  could  be 
of  any  use  for  practical  purposes.  A  more  important  appliance 
was  the  flint-and-steel  mill,  which  is  supposed  to  have  been  in- 
vented by  James  Spedding  of  Workington,  Cumberland,  in  the 
year  1760,  who  was  described  by  John  Buddie  in  his  evidence 
before  the  Select  Committee  on  Mines  in  1835  as  the  most  able 
pitman  of  his  day.  The  light  from  that  mill  was  produced  by 
sparks  obtained  by  means  of  a  steel  wheel  revolving  against  a 
piece  of  flint.  That  method  of  obtaining  light  was  undoubtedly 
safer  than  a  ciuidle,  but  explosions  have  been  known  to  follow 
from  sparks  from  the  steel  mill,  and  the  system  had  the  further 
disadvantage  that  it  required  the  services  of  a  lad  in  each 
working'-place  to  do  nothing  but  work  the  mill ;  hence  the  system 
was  not  only  inefficient  but  costly. 

The  need,  therefore,  of  an  improved  light  in  gassy  mines  was 
urgent  and  imperative,  and  it  was  further  emphasized  by  the 
fact  that  on  May  25th,  1812,  a  tremendous  explosion  occurred 
in  the  Low  Main  Seam  of  the  Felling  Colliery,  by  which  92 
persons  lost  their  lives.  The  Rev.  John  Hodgson,  who  was  at 
that  time  Vicar  of  the  Parish  of  Heworth,  in  which  the  colliery 
was  situated,  w^as  naturally  very  much  concerned  at  the  loss  of 
life  among  his  parishioners  caused  by  the  disaster,  and  appar- 
ently assisted  to  the  best  of  his  ability  in  obtaining  relief  for 
the  dependants  of  the  deceased  workmen,  and  further,  by  means 
of  correspondence  and  meetings,  did  everything  in  his  power 
to  give  publicity  to  the  occurrence,  with  the  view^  of  calling  the 
attention  of  the  Government  to  the  matter,  and  of  making  sure 
that  steps  should  be  taken  for  the  prevention  of  similar  accidents 
in  the  future.  For  that  purpose,  a  society,  the  object  of  which 
was  to  devise  means  for  the  prevention  of  accidents  in  coal-mines, 


was  tormed  at  Sunderland  iu  the  latter  part  of  1813,  and 
although  I  have  not  been  able  to  obtain  a  complete  list  of  the 
names  of  its  members,  it  is  clear  that  the  Rev.  Dr.  Grey,  at  that 
time  Rector  of  Bishopwearmouth  and  Prebendary  of  Durham, 
and  afterwards  Bishop  of  Bristol,  Cuthbert  Ellison,  M.P., 
of  Hebburn  Hall,  and  the  Rev.  John  Hodgson  were  among  itw 
most  active  members.  The  society  was  under  the  patronage  of 
the  ]3uke  of  Northumberland,  the  Marquis  of  Bute,  and  other 
distinguished  colliery-owuers.  I  have  not  seen  any  records  of 
the  proceedings  of  the  society,  but  the  chief  object  which 
Hodgson  had  in  view  was  undoubtedly  the  production  of  a 
lamp  which  might  be  used  safelj-  in  the  presence  of  gas.  He 
appears  to  have  discussed  the  question  very  earnestly  and  ex- 
haustively with  John  Buddie,  at  that  time  the  most  eminent 
viewer  of  his  day,  and  to  have  made  experiments  himself  with 
the  object  of  devising  a  safety-lamp.  jN'othing,  however,  came 
of  Hodgson's  experiments;  but  on  August  21st,  1815,  the  Rev. 
Robert  Grey  wrote  to  Hodgson  the  following  letter :  — 

To  the  Rev.  Mr.  Hodgson, 

He  worth,  Newcastle. 


Aii(ju<t  21.-;/,  1815. 
Dear  Sir, 

Having  been  informed  by  a  letter  from  Sir  Humphry  Davy  that  he  is  to 
be  in  Newcastle  on  Wednesday  or  Thursday  next,  I  have  felt  desirous  that  he 
should  have  some  conversation  with  you  and  Mr.  Buddie  on  the  subject  of  the 
accidents  in  the  collieries,  that  he  may  be  the  better  able  to  furnish  us  with 
his  opinion.  I  have  therefore  written  to  him  to  express  the  hope  that  he  may 
see  you ;  and  if,  on  the  receipt  of  this  letter,  you  would  address  a  few  lines  to 
him  at  the  post  office,  Newcastle,  saying  where  you  might  be  seen  on  those 
days,  it  might  contribute  to  promote  the  objects  which  the  Society  (for  the 
prevention  of  Accidents  in  Coal  Mines)  has  in  view.  I  have  written  to  Mr. 
Buddie  with  a  similar  design.  Sir  Humphry  comes  from  the  North.  Whether 
he  travels  by  post  or  mail  I  know  not.  With  many  apologies  for  giving  you 
this  trouble, 

I  remain,  dear  Sir, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

KoBT.  Grey. 

In  consequence  of  that  letter,  Hodgson  called  upon  Sir 
Humphry  Davy  on  August  23rd,  at  the  Turk's  Head  Hotel, 
Newca-stle,  and  laid  before  him  such  information  as  he  possessed 
with  regard  to  the  ventilation  and  lighting  of  coal-mines,  and 
explained  the  experiments  that  he  had  made  to  show  that  the 
explosive  gas  of  mines  was  a  mixture  of  common  air  and  coal-gas 
spontaneously  evolved  from  the  coal.       He  and   Sir  Humphry 

42       ruAXSACTlONS — tllK   NOinil    of    ENGLAXI)   institute.      [Vol.lxvi. 

J)avy  then  proceeded  to  Jiuddle's  house  at  Wallsend,  and  the 
hitter  and  Hodf^'sou  discussed  the  subject  of  a  safety-hiinp  for 
mines  with  Sir  Humphry  ])avy  at  great  length.  Davy  did  not 
consider  it  necessary  to  go  down  the  pit,  and  left  them  with  the 
statement  that  he  ''  thoug-ht  he  could  do  something  for  them." 

In  the  meantime,  William  Reid  Clanny,  a  doctor  in  Sunder- 
land, who  was,  of  course,  well  acquainted  with  the  coal-trade 
and  with  the  condition  of  the  collieries  in  the  district,  had  pro- 
duced a  lamp  in  which  the  light  was  enclosed  in  a  cylinder  con- 
taining water,  through  which  air  was  circulated  to  support 
combustion  by  means  of  bellows.  The  process,  however,  was 
too  cumbersome  for  practical  work,  and  the  lamp  never  went 
beyond  the  experimental  stage.  Subsequently,  however,  Clanny 
perfected  the  glass  and  gauze  lamp  which  bears  His  name,  and  has 
been  adopted  as  the  model  on  which  other  lamps  now  in  use  are 

I  do  not  propose  to  comment  upon  the  steps  which  led  Sir 
Humphry  Davy  to  the  discovery  of  his  lamp  ;  his  experiments 
and  his  deductions  from  those  experiments  are  all  fully  described 
in  his  treatise  on  Researches  un  Flattie.  The  experiments  were, 
however,  so  successful  that  before  the  end  of  1815  Sir 
Humphry  Davy  had  produced  the  wire-gauze  lamp  w-liich  bears 
his  name,  and  which  lias  been  successfully  used  in  coal-mines 
(with  various  modifications)  during  the  past  hundred  years. 
Hodgson,  Buddie,  and  Matthias  Dunn  were  among  the  first 
to  try  the  lamp  practically  in  January,  1816,  at  the  Hebburn 
Colliery,  and  Hodgson  describes  how  it  behaved  in  the  presence  of 
gas  in  a  letter  to  Sir  Humphry  Davy  dated  January  9th,  1810. 
About  the  same  time,  George  Stephenson,  then  enginewright  at 
Killingworth  Colliery  under  the  late  Nicholas  Wood,  was  also 
making  experiments  with  the  view  of  discovering  a  safety-lamp, 
and  although  he  had  not  the  scientific  attainments  of  Sir 
Humphry  Davy,  he  apparently'  arrived  at  very  much  the  same 
conclusion  as  the  latter  as  a  result  of  his  own.  observations  and 
experiments.  It  is  no  part  of  my  province  to  enter  into 
the  question  of  whether  Sir  Humphry  Davy  or  George 
Stephenson  was  the  actual  discoverer  of  the  safety-lamp,  or 
whether  (as  seems  likely)  they  were  parallel  discoverers.  George 
Stephenson's  fame  does  not  depend  upon  his  experiments  with 
lamps,  but  upon  the  fact  that  he  was  the  father  of  the  railway 


system  and  the  inventor  and  manufacturer  of  locomotive  engines 
on  a  practical  basis.  On  the  other  hand,  Sir  Humphry  Davy 
will  always  be  remembered  in  mining  circles  as  the  producer  of 
a  safety-lamj)  whicli  in  its  essential  features  is  still  being  used  in 
coal-mines  to-day,  notwithstanding  tlie  fact  that  its  details  have 
been  considerably  modified  and  improved. 

A  very  acrimoniou>s  correspondence  was  conducted  about  tliat 
time  in  the  Newcastle  papers  as  to  the  merits  of  the  Davy  and  the 
Stephenson  lamps  respectively,  and  as  to  the  time  at  which  they 
were  put  upon  the  market.  Hodgson  took  his  part  in  that 
correspondence,  and  upheld  the  claims  of  hiri  friend  Sir  Humphry 
Davy.  Xo  further  reference  need  be  made  to  the  matter ;  the  con- 
flict has  long  since  ceased,  and  has  no  interest  at  the  present  time. 
I  do  not  pro})Ose  to  pursue  the  subject  of  safety-lamps  further,  as 
I  understand  that  a  paper  is  being  written  on  it  by  two  gentle- 
men who  .are  more  comjjetent  to  discuss  it  in  all  its  bearings  than 
I  am. 

It  is  always  a  difficult  matter  to  find  a  subject  for  a  Presi- 
dential Address  which  is  not  already  threadbare,  having  regard 
to  the  number  of  mining  institutes  in  the  country  and  the  num- 
ber of  addresses  on  all  manner  of  subjects  which  have  from  time 
to  time  been  written.  In  looking  over  the  Transactions  of  the 
Institute,  however,  I  have  come  to  the  conclusion  that  I  might  be 
able  to  contribute  some  useful  information  concerning  the  manu- 
facture of  coke  in  bye-product  ovens,  more  especially  as  members 
have  not  written  largely  on  the  subject. 

The  late  A.  L.  Steavenson  was  undoubtedly  an  authority  on 
the  manufacture  of  coke  in  beehive  ovens,  and  he  has  de- 
scribed in  the  highly  instructive  series  of  papers  which  he  from 
time  to  time  contributed  to  the  Institute  the  methods  of  manu- 
facturing coke  in  those  ovens,  from  the  earliest  periods  of  the 
history  of  coke  manufacture  up  to  the  time  at  which  bye-product 
ovens  were  introduced.  I  will,  therefore,  endeavour  to  take  up 
the  story  at  the  point  at  which  he  left  it,  and  to  bring  it  up  to 
date,  without,  if  possible,  entering  into  too  much  wearisome 

John  Percy,  in  his  Metallurgy,  alludes  to  the  fact  that  in 
1852  F.  Jossa  of  Witton-le-Wear  was  taking-  out  a  patent 
for  extracting  salts  of  ammonia  from  the  smoke  and  gases  evolved 

44     TRAXSACTIONS    -THK    XoKTIl    OF    KNCiL.VM)    INSTITUTE.         fVol.  livi. 

from  ihe  iiiamit'iiclurc  of  L-oke,  so  that  it  appears  that  at  that 
(•onii)araliv<'ly  early  period  attention  was  being  directed  to  the  re- 
covery of  l)ye-products  from  coke-oven  gases.  I  do  not  know  any- 
thing about  the  process,  nor  whether  it  was  ever  tried  on  a  large 
scale,  but  I  believe  not.  At  all  events,  the  system  was  not  adopted 
in  any  coke-yard,  and  nothing  further  appears  to  have  been 
accomplished  until  about  1873.  In  that  year — or  thereabouts — 
Messrs.  Bell  Brothers  determined  to  abandon  laboratory  experi- 
ments, and  to  test  practically,  on  a  fairly  large  scale,  the  nature 
and  iiuautity  of  bye-products  to  be  obtained  from  the  waste  gases 
from  coke-ovens :  for  this  purpose  they  treated  the  gases  from 
thirty-six  beehive  ovens  for  a  period  of  five  months  or  more.  The 
(juautities  of  ammoniacal  liquor  and  of  sulphate  of  ammonia 
which  they  obtained  were,  however,  so  small  that  it  was 
not  worth  while  to  continue  manufacturing  them,  and  the 
process  was  (for  the  time  being)  abandoned.  It  was  un- 
successful, not  only  because  of  the  small  quantity  of  bye- 
products  recovered,  but  also  because  the  quality  of  the  coke 
for  blast-furnace  purposes  was  greatlj-  depreciated.  The 
coke  was  soft,  spongy,  and  full  of  black-ends,  and  the  cost 
of  maintaining  the  ovens  was  very  heavy.  Steavenson 
remarks  that  each  oven  required  thorough  repair  every  four 
months  :  hence,  though  the  scheme  was  not  altogether  successful, 
valuable  experience  was  gained  which  paved  the  way  for  eventual 
success.  Bell  Brothers  continued  to  persevere  in  their 
endeavours  to  solve  the  problem  of  recovering  bye-products  from 
waste  gases,  and  in  1882  the  Jameson  oven,  having  been  previous- 
ly patented,  was  introduced  to  a  small  extent  at  their  Pagebank 
Colliery.  The  process  was  exceedingly  simple — the  coal  was 
coked  in  a  beehive  oven  of  the  ordinary  type,  and  the  gases  were 
conducted  from  the  back-ej-e  by  means  of  a  flue  connected  with 
a  series  of  flues  underneath  the  floor  of  the  oven,  similar  to  those 
in  the  Dixon  and  Brecon  oven.  The  gases  were  drawn  off  by 
means  of  an  exhaust-engine,  and  they  were  treated  in  the  usual 
manner  for  tar  and  sulphate  of  ammonia.  The  results  were  not 
equal  to  the  sanguine  estimates  of  the  patentee,  but  they  were 
not  altogether  unsatisfactory,  and  the  system  might  have  been 
perfected  and  extended  if  it  had  not  been  for  the  fact  that  the 
manufacture  of  coke  in  bye-product  ovens  was  by  that  time  fully 
established  on  the  Continent,  and  the  first  installation  of  twenty- 


fire  of  such  ovens  was  being  erected  by  Messrs.  Pease  & 
Partners  at  their  Bankfoot  works,  together  with  a  recovery- 
plant  for  tar  and  sulphate  of  ammonia.  The  results  ob- 
tained by  Pease  &,  Partners  were  so  satisfactory  that,  in 
the  succeeding  nine  years,  they  built  eighty-three  additional 
Simon-Carves  ovens  similar  to  the  first  twenty-five  installed, 
and  more  than  doubled  their  recovery-plant  and  extended  it 
to  include  the  production  of  benzol.  The  installation  of  ovens 
at  Peases  West  was  ([uiekly  followed  by  a  similar  installation  at 
Bearpark,  but  for  some  years  afterwards  little  or  no  progress  was 
made  with  the  extension  of  the  system,  chiefly,  I  believe,  by 
reason  of  the  prejudice  at  that  time  current  against  the  appear- 
ance of  coke  manufactured  in  bye-product  ovens.  The  coking 
process  in  those  ovens  commences  at  the  side  walls  and  proceeds 
laterally  in  both  directions,  until  it  meets  in  the  middle,  so  that 
there  is  always  a  parting  in  the  coke,  and  the  columnar  structure 
of  the  beehive  coke,  to  which  manufacturers  at  one  time  attached 
considerable  importance,  is  altogether  destroyed.  Further,  the 
coke  from  the  retort  oven  must  be  cooled  on  the  bench,  and, 
therefore,  the  silvery  appearance  which  coke  cooled  inside  tiie 
oven  possesses  entirely  disappears.  Consumers,  therefore,  were 
very  difficult  to  persuade  that  retort-oven  coke  was  in  all  respects 
as  good  as  beehive  coke,  having  regard  to  its  smaller  size  and 
indifferent  appearance.  The  prejudice  against  that  coke  is  only 
now  disappearing,  and  I  believe  that  even  yet  certain  consumers 
prefer  to  pa 3'  an  enhanced  price  for  beehive  coke. 

About  twenty  years  ago,  however,  the  necessity  for  improv- 
ing the  manufacture  of  coke  was  forced  upon  the  attention  of 
colliery-owners  by  reason  of  the  fact  that  the  best  coking  coal 
in  Durham  was  being  rapidly  exhausted,  and  that  the  remaining 
workable  seams  were  not  capable  of  producing  good  coke  without 
careful  washing.  The  effect  of  such  washing  was  to  remove  the 
free  dirt  in  the  coal,  amounting  in  some  instances  to  1-3  to  20 
per  cent,  of  the  produce,  with  the  result  that,  whilst  a  clean  coal 
was  obtained,  its  cost  was  so  high  that  it  was  impossible  to 
manufacture  coke  in  beehive  ovens  at  a  profit,  having  regard  to 
its  comparatively  small  yield  and  to  the  market  price  of  the  coke. 
A  great  impetus  was  therefore  given  to  the  erection  of  bye- 
product  ovens,  because  the  manufacture  of  coke  in  such  ovens 
had  very  distinct  advantages  over  the  manufacture  of  coke  in 

46  Transactions— TiiK  south  of  knmjlaxd  institute.      [Vol.ixvi. 

beehive  ovens.  The  yield  was  generally  Hi  per  cent,  higher 
Ihaii  ill  (lie  beehive  oven,  and  the  hye-producls  from  the  waste 
gase-s — tar,  sulpiiate  of  ammonia,  and  benzol  were  recovered, 
whereas  tliey  were  absolntely  lost  in  the  beehive  oven.  The 
diffteulty  of  iinding  a  market  for  the  coke  1o  a  great  extent 
settled  itself,  because  consumers,  whether  they  liked  it  or  not, 
were  compelled  to  use  coke  from  retort-ovens,  by  reason  of  the 
fact  that  they  could  not  obtain  sufficient  supplies  from  beehive 
ovens,  hence  the  Drejudice  against  the  nse  of  bye-product  coke 
has  by  this  time  almost  entirely  disappeared.  Large  numbers 
of  bye-product  ovens  were  from  that  time  onward  installed  in 
the  several  coalfields,  and  I  should  think  that  it  is  more  than 
likely  that  all  the  coke  in  the  country  will  eventually  be  manu- 
factured in  such  ovens,  and  that  the  beehive  oven  will  in  process 
of  time  be  entirely  superseded,  as  it  has  been  in  Germany. 

The  bye-product  oven  is  a  retort,  and  the  recovery  of  the 
bye-products  in  the  most  recent  installations  approaches  as 
nearly  as  possible  the  best  practice  at  gas-works.  There  is  a  large 
number  of  different  makes  of  ovens,  in  which  there  are  important 
differences  of  detail,  but  substantially  they  may  be  divided  into 
two  classes — those  that  are  constructed  with  vertical  flues,  and 
those  that  are  constructed  with  horizontal  flues.  I  do  not 
propose  to  enter  into  the  consideration  of  the  question  whether 
the  horizontal  or  the  vertical  flue  is  better;  there  is  considerable 
difference  of  opinion  on  the  subject,  but,  so  far  as  I  am  aware, 
the  results  from  both  descriptions  of  ovens  are,  in  practice, 
eminently  satisfactory.  The  best-known  types  of  ovens  with 
vertical  flues  tliat  I  know  of  are  the  Otto-Hoffmann,  the  Otto- 
Hilgenstock,  the  Coppee,  the  Ivoppers,  the  Collin,  and  the  Simon- 
Carves,  but  there  may  be  others  with  which  I  am  not  acquainted. 
The  original  Simon-Carves  oven  was  constructed  with  hori- 
zontal side  flues,  but  of  recent  years  that  system  has  been 
abandoned  in  favour  of  the  vertical  flue.  Of  the  ovens  now  in 
operation  having  side  flues,  the  best-known  makes  are  the  Semet- 
Solvay  and  the  Huessener.  Installations  of  most  of  the  ovens  to 
which  I  have  referred  are  working  in  this  country,  and  can  be 
seen  by  those  who  are  interested  in  the  subject.  The  general 
principles  regulating  the  manufacture  of  coke  in  all  bye-product 
ovens  are  the  same.  The  theory  is  that  coal  should  be  carbonized 
in  a  retort  from  which  all  atmospheric  air  is  excluded,  that  the 

1915-1916]  (iREEXEE PRE8IDKXTIAL  ADDEESS.  47 

gases  as  they  are  ^'iven  oil'  from  the  coal  shouhl  be  drawn  by 
means  of  exhausters,  first  into  the  hydraulic  main  in  which  the 
tar  is  deposited,  thence  to  the  sulphate-of-ammonia  factory, 
from  there  to  the  benzol  house,  and  finally  shouhl  return  to  the 
oven,  there  to  be  burned  in  the  flues  for  the  purpose  of  carbon- 
izing" the  coal  in  the  retorts.  The  operations  to  be  conducted, 
and  the  results  to  be  achieved,  are  precisely  the  same  in  each 
description  of  oven,  although  there  ;ire  important  diiferences  in 
the  methods  of  obtaining-  the  results. 

The  ammoniacal  lic^uor  from  coke-ovens  may  be  dealt  with 
in  two  ways — either  by  the  older  method  of  obtaining  the 
sulphate  of  ammonia  b}'  bringing  the  ammoniacal  liquor  into 
contact  with  live  steam,  or  by  the  recovery  of  the  sulphate  direct 
from  the  coke-oven  gases.  The  former  process  was  always 
adopted  in  this  country  until  about  six  years  ago.  By  that 
method,  the  ammonia  from  the  gases  is  obtained  by  passing  the 
gases  through  scrubl)ers,  in  which  water  is  dropping  against  the 
ascending  gases  and  by  circulating  the  water  until  it  attains  a 
given  strength  ;  the  liquor  is  then  brought  into  contact  with 
live  steam  and  lime  in  a  still.  The  ammonia-gas  is  driven  off 
by  the  heat  of  the  steam  and  the  action  of  the  lime,  and  passes 
through  a  bath  of  sulphuric  acid,  in  which  sulphate-of-ammonia 
crystals  are  formed,  the  latter  being  discharged  from  the  bath 
either  automatically,  as  in  the  self-discharging  saturators,  or 
removed  by  hand  bj'  means  of  a  ladle.  The  crystals  are  then 
stored  and  dried,  and  are  sold  as  the  ordinary  sulphate  of 
ammonia  of  commerce.  The  liquor  which  remains  after  the 
ammonia  is  recovered  is  removed  from  the  stills,  and  at  all  coke- 
yards  with  which  I  am  acquainted  is  very  difficult  to  dispose 
of.  It  is  absolutely  waste,  and  contains  various  free  acids  which 
ought  not  to  be  turned  into  any  stream  used  for  drinking 
purposes  either  b}-  human  beings  or  cattle.  The  difficulty  of 
dealing  with  this  liquor  was,  I  believe,  to  a  large  extent  an  incen- 
tive to  the  adoption  of  the  direct-recoveiy  process.  In  that 
process  the  gas,  having  been  first  freed  from  tar,  is  passed  at 
high  temperature  directly  into  saturators  containing  a  bath  of 
sulphuric  acid,  in  which  the  salt  is  deposited,  the  great  advan- 
tage of  the  system  being  that  no  steam  or  lime  is  required  for 
distillation  purposes.  Consequently,  there  is  no  waste  liquor 
to  deal  with  :  hence  the  difficulty  of  providing  an  outlet  for  such 

48     TRAXSACTIONS THE   NORTH    OF    EXGLAXD    IXSTITUTE.        [Vol.  Ixvi. 

liquor  is  entirely  obviated.  So  far  as  I  am  aware,  the  output 
of  salt  is  aboui  the  same  wiiiehever  process  is  adopted;  hut  I  am 
inoliued  to  think  from  my  own  observation  that  the  appear- 
ance of  the  salt  manufactured  by  the  direct-recovery  process  is 
not  quite  so  o-ood  as  that  manufactured  from  ammoniacal  liciuor, 
althou<>h  for  commercial  purposes  the  two  classes  of  salt  are 
('([ual  in  the  market. 

The  out])ut  of  bye-products  at  any  <?iven  yard  depends,  of 
course,  upon  the  quality  of  the  coal  carbonized ;  a  highly 
bituminous  coal  will  contain  more  bye-products  than  a  lean 
coal;  but,  on  the  other  hand,  the  yield  of  coke  from  the  former 
will  be  very  much  less  than  from  the  latter.  It  may,  however, 
be  interesting  to  quote  figures,  which  I  think  from  my  own 
exjierience  are  fairly  representative  of  tlie  results  obtained  from 
the  seams  in  Durham.  I  should  say  that  it  would  be  reason- 
able to  expect  an  output  of  tar  varying  from  8A  to  4  per  cent, 
of  the  coal  carbonized;  an  output  of  sulphate  of  1  to  Ij  per  cent, 
of  the  coal  carbonized;  and  about  1  per  cent,  of  benzol.  These 
figures  are  necessarily  approximate,  and  will  vary  with  the 
quality  of  the  coal  in  each  coke-yard.  The  output  of  coke  will 
depend  upon  the  size  of  the  OA^en,  the  nature  of  the  coal  carbon- 
ized, and  whether  the  oven  is  of  the  regenerative  or  non-regenei'fl- 
tive  type  ;  but  over  a  period  the  output  per  oven  in  operation  in 
Durlunn  from  non-regenerative  ovens  will  generally  be  about  30 
tons  per  week,  and  in  some  few  instances  rather  more. 

One  of  the  most  important  points  to  consider  in  the  installa- 
tion of  bye-product  ovens  is  the  disposal  of  the  surplus  power 
to  be  derived  from  the  ovens.  In  all  installations  consisting  of 
not  less  than  fifty  ovens  there  is  a  considerable  amount  of  surplus 
power  to  dispose  of,  and  that  power  may  either  be  utilized  in  the 
form  of  gas  or  in  the  form  of  waste  heat,  whichever  is  most  suit- 
able for  the  purpose  in  view.  If  it  were  more  convenient  and 
more  profitable  to  deal  with  it  in  the  form  of  gas,  naturally  the 
regenerative  oven  would  be  installed.  If,  however,  it  was  pro- 
posed to  raise  steam  in  boilers  fired  by  waste  heat  from  the  ovens, 
the  non-regenerative  oven  would  be  adopted.  In  the  former  case, 
the  air  is  pre-'heated  to  a  tempei'ature  of  900°  to  1,000°  Cent,  be- 
fore being  admitted  to  the  flues  in  the  sides  of  the  chamber  in 
which  the  coal  is  carbonized,  so  that  the  consumption  of  gas  is 
reduced  by  about  one-half,  and  it  it  be  assumed  that  a  ton  of 

1915-1916.]  GEEENEE PRj:SinEXTIAL   ADDRESS. 


cokino'  coal  usiially  contains  about  10,000  cubic  feet  of  gas,  it  is 
obvious  that  there  will  be  about  half  that  quantity  to  spare,  say 
about  5,000  cubic  feet  per  ton  of  coal  carbonized.  TTndoubtedly 
tlie  most  economical  method  of  usino-  the  p'as  for  power  purposes 
would   be  to  instal   o-as-engines,   and  if  it  be  assumed   that  an 
oven  would  carbonize  40  tons  of  coal  containing  not  more  than 
10  per  cent,  of  moisture  per  week  of  seven  days     quite  a  moderate 
assumption — there  would  be  produced  2,380  cubic  feet  of  gas  per 
hour,  having-  a  heat  value  of,  say,  500  British  thermal  units. 
Half  that  quantity  of  gas  would  be  available  for  power  purposes, 
say  1,100  cubic  feet  per  hour.     Gas-engines  would,  I  understand, 
require  25  to  30  cubic  feet  of  such  gas  per  horsepower,  in  which 
case   there   could    be  produced    36   to  44   horsepower   per   oven. 
Such  ovens  have   not  been   largely    u^sed    at   collieries    in    this 
country,  although  there  are  many  in  operation  on  the  Continent, 
because,   generally  speaking,  gas-engines  are  not  so  reliable  as 
steam-engines,  and  the  responsible  persons  at  pits  have,  as  a  rule, 
no  experience  of  such  engines.       There  is  always,   therefore,   a 
very  proper  reluctance  to  introduce  a  new  method  until  it  has 
been  thoroughly  tested  elsewhere.    The  Powell-Duff ryn  Company 
have  installed-  a  number  of  gas-engines  actuated  by  spare  gas 
from    Koppers    coke-ovens    at    their    Bargoed    Colliery,    South 
Wales,  and,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  they  are  quite  satisfied  with 
the  working  of  the  .system.     I  think  there  is  no  doubt  that  the 
use  of  gas-engines  will  be  greatly  extended,  and  that  regenera- 
tive ovens   will   be  more   largely  built   in   the  future  than  they 
have  been  in  the  past.     It  would,   of  course,  be  quite  feasible 
to    raise     steam     from     spare     gas,     and    I     calculate    that   95 
cubic  feet   would   be  required  to   produce   ■'*()   pounds   of   steam 
having  a  pressure  of  160  pounds,   and  on  that  assumption  11^ 
horsepower   would   be   available   per  oven.      I   cannot,    however, 
imagine  that  any  person  wishing  to  raise  steam  would  adopt  the 
regenerative  oven  for  that  purpose:    it  is  essentially  a  gas-pro- 
ducer, and  is  not,  therefore,  suitable  for  raising  steam  by  means 
of  spare  gas.  Such  gas  might,  however,  be  purified,  and  if  the 
coke-yard  was  within  reasonable  reach  of  a  town,  it  might  be  sold 
for  lighting  and  power  purposes.  I  believe  that  some  of  the  iron- 
masters in   the    Middlesbrough   district,   who    have    bye-product 
ovens  in  operation  at  their  works,  are  selling  spare  gas  to  the 
Corporation,   and  that  it  is  being  utilized  for  the  purposes  to 

50    TRANSACTIONS — THE   NORTH    OF    KXCiLAXn   IXSTITTTTK.        [Vol.  Ixvi. 

wliicli  1  linve  referred.  The  niiijorily  ot  the  ovens  in  this  country 
are  of  the  non-regenerative  type,  chiefly,  I  think,  because 
colliery  inanaf^ers  are  doubtful  of  the  reliability  of  gas-eng-ines, 
and  theiefoie  i)refer  to  make  use  of  the  surplus  power  from  ovens 
foi'  the  ])urpose  of  raising  steam,  either  by  means  of  Lancashire 
boilers  or  by  water-tube  boilers.  1  tliink  tliat  it  is  generally 
admitted  by  those  who  have  experience  of  the  matter  that  there 
may  be  obtained  in  LaiK  asliirc  or  in  watei-tube  boilers,  from  the 
waste-heat  oven,  1  pound  of  steam  per  pound  of  coal  carbonized ; 
so  that  if  it  be  assumed  that  a  bye-product  oven  is  capable  of  car- 
bonizing 40  tons  of  coal  per  week  of  7  days,  or  53'^  pounds  per 
hour,  there  will  be  produced  5'33  pounds  of  steam  per  hour  per 
oven,  or  17'76  horsepower,  in  an  engine  having  a  steam- 
consumption  of  30  pounds  per  horsepower.  If  the  steam  were 
used  for  generating  electricity  by  means  of  turbines,  an  output 
of  24  kilowatts  per  hour  might  be  produced.  I  have  known  that 
output  to  be  obtained  continuously  for  over  a  week  in  actual 
practice  in  a  large  power-station,  but  I  should  prefer  to  estimate 
20  to  22  kilowatts,  or  26  to  29  horsepower,  as  more  likely  to  be 
produced  over  a  long  period. 

The  quality  of  the  coke,  and  the  output  of  bj'e-products  per 
ton  of  coal  carbonized, -are  the  same  whether  the  coal  be  coked 
in  a  regenerative  or  in  a  non-regenerative  oven ;  hence  it  would 
appear  that,  w^hen  the  gas-engine  is  perfected,  the  regenerative 
type  ought  to  a  large  extent  to  supersede  the  non-regenerative 
oven,  if  we  consider  the  relative  amounts  of  power  to  be  de- 
rived from  the  surplus  gases  in  each  description  of  oven,  and 
the  fact  that  larger  outputs  of  coke  and  bye-products  are  capable 
of  being  produced  in  a  given  time  in  the  regenerative  than  in  the 
non-reg-enerative  oven.  By  pre-heating  the  air  admitted  to 
the  flues  of  the  regenerative  oven,  the  charge  can  be  carbonized 
in  a  shorter  time  than  in  the  non-regenerative  oven,  so  that  the 
production  per  oven  in  the  regenerative  system  is  probably  25 
per  cent,  higher  than  in  the  non-regenerative  system. 

There  is  only  one  other  matter  to  which  I  propose  to  refer,  and 
that  is  the  so-called  "  low-temperature  "'  carbonization  of  coal. 
So  far  as  I  understand  the  process,  it  is  intended  to  produce  the 
largest  output  of  bye-products — tar,  ammonia  liquor,  and  gas — 
and  to  manufacture  a  coke  containing  10  to  12  per  cent,  of 
bituminous    matter.       The    appearance    of     such     coke     would 


more  or  less  resemble  half-burned  coal,  and  would  be  quite  un- 
suitable for  blast-furnace  or  for  foundry  purposes.  It  is  said, 
however,  that  it  would  take  the  place  of  coal  to  a  large  extent  in 
the  ordinary  household  fires,  that  in  burning  it  would  not 
give  off  smoke,  and  that  therefore  the  smoke  nuisance  would  be 
absolutely  cured.  The  output  of  bye-products,  however,  would,  it 
is  expected,  be  greatly  increased,  and  at  the  same  time  their 
quality  would  be  considerably  improved.  I  do  not  know  whether 
these  sanguine  estimates  will  be  realized  in  practice,  but  I  under- 
stand that  a  plant  is  in  course  of  erection  in  Yorksliire  to  test  the 
matter  practically,  and  no  doubt  in  process  of  time  the  results 
will  be  made  known. 

My  object  in  preparing  these  notes  was  to  provide  the  colliery 
manager  who  may  have  no  previous  knowledge  of  the  subject 
with  reliable  data  derived  from  actual  experience,  so  that 
should  he  be  called  upon  to  deal  with  the  installation  of  bye- 
product  ovens  in  connexion  with  his  colliery,  he  may  have  facts 
before  him  to  enable  him  to  come  to  a  conclusion  as  to  whether 
it  would  be  worth  while  to  incur  the  expenditure  required  for 
the  erection  of  a  plant  of  that  kind. 

Prof.  Henry  Louis  (Xewcastle-upon-Tyne)  said  that  he  had 
been  privileged  to  move  that  a  very  hearty  vote  of  thanks  be 
accorded  to  the  President  for  the  excellent  Address  with  which 
he  had  favoured  them.  Addresses  such  as  this  were  of  the  best 
type  possible  for  the  Institute.  They  had  had  before  them  in 
the  course  of  the  past  year  many  excellent  papers  dealing 
specifically  with  matters  of  detail  in  connexion  with  various 
subjects  in  which  they  were  interested.  These  papers  were  given 
by  specialists  in  the  particular  subjects  dealt  with,  but  such 
papers  exposed  them  to  dangers  from  which  Addresses  like  that 
of  the  President  would  go  a  long  way  to  save  them.  In  papers 
written  by  specialists  tlie  writers  were  apt  to  put  their  subject 
forward  from  too  favourable  a  point  of  view,  but  it  was  an 
advantage  to  have  an  Address  like  the  one  just  delivered  in 
which  the  subject  was  considered  from  the  point  of  view,  not 
of  the  inventor,  but  of  the  man  who  had  had  to  use  the  invention 
and  who  had  gre^t  experience  in  the  use  of  it.  In  the  papers 
presented  by  specialists,  owing  to  the  amount  of  detail,  there  was 

52        TKAXSACTIOXS — TIIK    XOKTIl    OK    KXtiLAM)    IXS'J'ITUTK.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

a  clanger  of  losing  sight  of  the  wider  outlook,  lu  the  Address 
that  they  had  just  heard  they  had  a  review  of  what  had  been  done 
over  a  long  period  of  time,  and  this  enabled  them  to  "  take  stock  " 
and  see  what  progress  had  been  made  and  what  progress  had  yet 
to  be  made.  They  could  not  overestimate  the  value  of  reviews  of 
this  kind  when  put  before  them  by  one  who  had  a  practical  know- 
ledge of  the  subject.  He  had  no  doubt  that  the  President's 
Address  would  be  consulted  frequently  by  a  large  number  of  the 
members  and  would  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  useful  of  the 
Addresses  that  had  been  presented  to  the  Institute. 

Mr.  W.  0.  Wood  (South  Hetton)  seconded  the  vote  of  thanks, 
which  was  unanimously  accorded. 

The  Peesidext  (Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener)  said  that  he  was  very 
much  obliged  to  Prof.  Louis  for  proposing  and  to  Mr.  AVood  for 
seconding  the  vote  of  thanks.  The  object  which  he  had  in  view 
in  his  Address  was  to  give  the  members  the  benefit  of  his  know- 
ledge on  a  subject  with  which  he  was  practically  acquainted,  and 
he  thought  that  it  might  be  useful  to  the  members  generally  to 
have  some  figures  on  which  thev  could  relv  with  confidence. 

Mr.  Samuel  Dean's  paper  on  "  Modern  American  Coal-mining 
Methods,  with  Some  Comparisons,"  was  taken  as  read,  as 
follows :  — 




Introduction. — The  feature  wliicli  stands  out  above  all  others, 
when  comparison  is  made  between  coal-mining  methods  in  differ- 
ent countries,  is  the  output  per  man  in  American  mines.  A  few 
weeks  previous  to  the  war  the  writer  visited  mines  in  Germany, 
Belgium,  and  France,  and  revisited  mines  in  Great  Britain,  and 
he  again  affirms  his  opinion  that  the  principal  reason  why  the 
United  States  of  America  leads  in  production  per  man  is  because 
large-capacity  mine-cars  are  used  in  American  mines. 

Mr.  S.  F.  Sopwith,  in  discussing  Mr.  S.  H.  Cashmore's  paper 
on  "  The  Reduction  of  Working-costs  at  the  Coal-face,"*  said 
that  his  experience  was  that  fillers  earning  6s.  9d.  to  7s.  a  shift 
considered  that  they  had  done  a  day's  work  when  they  had  filled 
fifteen  tubs.  It  is  assumed  that  he  referred  to  tubs  of  a  capacity 
of  10  cwts.  each,  which  equals  T^  tons  per  shift.  Mr.  Cashmore 
had  shown  that  only  about  a  fifth  of  the  filler's  time  was  actually 
occupied  in  filling,  nearly  the  whole  of  the  remainder  being 
spent  (or  wasted)  in  topping  up,  tramming,  and  in  waiting  for 

If  Mr.  Sopwith  had  used  tubs  of,  say,  3|  tons  capacity,  it 
would  only  have  been  necessary  for  the  filler  to  load  two  tubs  to 
equal  the  output  of  fourteen  10-cwt.  tubs.  It  is  quite  reasonable 
to  expect  also  that,  if  the  filler  is  not  engaged  in  topping,  tram- 
ming, or  in  waiting,  he  will  be  filling,  and  will  have  little  diffi- 
culty in  loading,  at  least,  three  3i-ton  tubs. 

The  writer  quite  expects  to  hear  the  following  objections  to 
the  use  of  such  large  tubs  : — "  Large  tubs  would  not  be  practic- 
able, on  account  of  bad  roofs  and  unevenness  of  strata ;  and, 
where  large  trams  are  used,  as  in  South  Wales,  the  output  per 
man  is  no  more  than  in  the  districts  where  small  tubs  are  in  use." 

•  Trans.  List.  M.  E.,  1915,  vol.  xlix.,  page  63. 

VOL.  LXTI.- 19)4-1916.  5     E 

54       TRAXSACTIOXS — THE   NORTH   OF    EXGLAXD    IXSTITUTE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

In  the  anthracite  regions  of  Pennsylvania  the  seams  pitch  at 
all  angles  from  tlie  horizontal  to  the  vertical;  the  roofs  in  some 
anthracite-mines  could  not  be  much  worse,  and  the  roofs  in 
South  AVales  are  bad.  In  the  anthracite  regions  the  capacity 
of  the  mine-cars  ranges  from  2  to  5  tons,  the  average  being  about 
3|  tons.  One  of  the  principal  reasons  why  the  output  per  man 
is  not  higher  in  South  Wales  is  because  comparatively  few  coal- 
cutting  machines  and  face-conveyors  are  in  use.  Locomotives 
and  large  cars  are  used  with  single  tracks,  except  at  the  "  pass- 
byes,"  and  the  main  haulage-ways  are  not  as  wide  as  similar 
roads  in  mines  where  endless-rope  haulage  is  employed. 

Machine-mining  difficulties  have  been  overcome  to  a  large 
extent  in  the  United  States,  and  coal-cutting  machines  are  being 
improved  and  introduced  so  rapidly  that  it  would  appear  to  be 
only  a  matter  of  a  few  years  before  hand-mining  becomes  nearly 
extinct  in  the  bituminous  mines.  Methods  of  haulage,  or 
transportation,  are  being  developed  to  a  high  degree,  in  order 
to  ensure  plentiful  supplies  of  empties  at  the  coal-face. 

The  modern  mining  man  uses  care  in  planning  his  roads,  and 
chooses  the  best  rolling-stock.  In  order  to  secure  greater 
efficiency,  he  has  (1)  increased  the  weight  of  the  coal  hauled 
in  proportion  to  the  weight  of  the  car  containing  it ;  (2) 
decreased  the  amount  of  drawbar  pull  due  to  friction;  and  (3) 
decreased  the  delay  due  to  derailments  and  wrecks,  and  increased 
the  number  of  cars  hauling  coal  in  proportion  to  the  number  kept 
in  the  repair-shop. 

Large  car  capacity  is  not  attained  by  increasing  the  height  of 
the  car,  but  by  increasing  the  length  and  width,  along  with 
wide-gauge  tracks.  The  introduction  of  roller-bearing  wheels 
has  reduced  the  drawbar  pull  due  to  friction.  Brass  journals 
or  brass-bushed  wheels  are  also  an  improvement.  Cars  fitted 
with  spring  draught  gear  are  now  being  used  so  as  to  reduce  the 
heavj'  starting  load.  Compressed-air  or  electric  locomotives  are 
emploj'ed  to  haul  the  long  heavy  trains  of  cairs  underground, 
and  cases  are  on  record  of  starting  50  per  cent,  more  cars  with 
spring  draught  than  with  solid  bumpers.  Some  of  the  best 
principles  of  railroad  engineering  are  being  applied  to  under- 
ground haulage. 

The  opinion  exists  in  some  countries  that  great  danger  is 
attached  to  the  use  of  electric  trolley-locomotives  in  coal-mines, 

1915-1916.]  DEAX AMERICAN    COAL-MIXIXG    METHODS.  55 

but  it  i*  well  to  remember  that  electric  locomotives  are  used  in  the 
mines  in  "Westphalia,  and  the  accident  rate  has  not  increased 
since  their  introduction.  Countries  that  prevent  by  law  the 
operation  of  trolley-locomotives  are  handicapped  in  world  com- 
petition, and  the  same  remark  applies  to  countries  where  pit-tubs 
of  small  capacity  are  used. 

The  output  per  man  in  Germany  is  low,  coal-cutting  by 
machinery  is  in  its  infancy,  and  the  mine-cars  and  track-gauges 
are  ridiculously  small  and  narrow.  In  the  United  States  over 
50  per  cent,  of  the  total  production  of  bituminous  coal  is  mined 
by  machines,  and  large-capacity  cars  and  wide-gauge  tracks  are 
used.  The  output  per  man  per  annum  in  Germany  was  about 
300  tons,  and  the  average  in  the  Fnited  States  760  tons,  despite 
the  fact  that  the  mines  do  not  work  with  by  any  means  the  same 
regularity  as  European  mines.  German  mines  work  on  an  aver- 
age 300  days  a  year,  and  American  mines  238  days.  There  is 
food  for  much  thought  in  this  comparison,  because  Germany  is, 
in  many  ways,  more  efficient  than  the  ITnited  States  of  America. 

Keen  competition  and  low  selling  prices,  especially  in  States 
east  of  the  Mississippi.  Eiver.  are  finding  work  for  the  efficiency 
expert.  An  address  delivered  before  the  Coal  Mining  Institute 
of  America  by  Mr.  Harrington  Emerson,  a  Xew  York  efficiency 
engineer,  is  well  worth  c-onsideration.  The  figures  given  show 
how  startlingly  low  are  selling-prices  and  costs  of  production, 
despite  the  high  wages  paid  to  the  workmen. 

Mine-car  Design. — The  modern  mine-car  is  built  of  steel. 
The  opinion  that  steel  cars  are  easily  damaged  and  difficult  to 
repair  is  disappearing  in  most  localities :  small  bends  and  dinges 
can  be  taken  out  with  a  sledge  hammer;  while  heating  with  a 
blow-torch  helps  materially.  Bent  sides  and  ends  can  be 
straightened  with  a  rail-bender  or  special  appliance.  "Wooden 
cages,  large  enotigh  to  admit  a  car,  and  jacks  acting  in  opposite 
directions,  are  used  to  straighten  out  the  worst  cases  of  dis- 

Opinions  vary  as  to  the  best  design,  and  the  steel-bottom  car 
has  been  discarded  at  some  mines,  the  practice  being  to  have  an 
oak  bottom  with  sides  and  ends  of  steel.  It  is  claimed  that  the 
disadvantage  of  t'he  steel  bottom  is  that  it  makes  the  car  too 
stiff,  the  truck  gets  knocked  out  of  shape,  the  bottom  plates  rust 
quickly  away,  and  the  truck  becomes  loose  on  the  car-bottom. 

56      TIL4XSACTI0XS — THE   NORTH   OF   EXGLAXD   INSTITUTE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

A  car  with  the  pLates  bolted  to  the  binder,  instead  of  being 
riveted,  is  preferred  by  many,  with  the  sides  made  in  separate 
sections,  so  that  they  can  be  taken  off  and  repaired  quickly  and 
easily  in  case  of  a  wreck.  Figs.  1  to  4  (Plate  IV.)  show  a  steel 
car  with  an  oak  bottom;    it  has  a  capacity  of  S^yjt  cubic  feet 

Fig.  17. — Mine-cab  Showing  the  End  Door  Raised. 

Fig.  18. — Mine-car  with  Outside  Bearings  of  Railway  Construction. 

with  a  track-gauge  of  56^  inches — the  standard  railway-gauge. 
The  cost  of  this  car,  fitted  with  "  Whitney  Wonder  "  roller- 
bearing  wheels,  is  £17  10s.  6d.  ($  85).  It  is  in  use  at  a  mine  in 
the  State  of  West  Tirginia,  the  thickness  of  the  seam  being  4 
feet,  the  method  of  working  room-and-pillar,   and  the  average 




in  AVest  Yirginia,  and  it  is  significant  that  the  cost  of  produc- 
pitch  of  the  seam  2  degrees.  This  car  has  an  end  door,  which  is 
raised  automatically  in  the  tippler  or  self-dumping  cage.  This 
wide  track-gauge  of  56|  inches  can  be  seen  at  numerous  mines 

Fig.  10.— il:.NE-CAE  used  in  Thin  Se.\ms. 

Fig.  20. — Mine-cae  with  Automatic  Coupling  Device. 

tion  is  lower  in  this  State  than  in  any  other  coal-mining  region 
in  the  United  States.  The  average  total  cost  per  short  ton  (2,000 
pounds)  is  3s.  "3d.  (79  cents). 

Figs.  5  to  8  (Plate  TV.)  show  the  type  of  cars  used  by  the 


Lathrop  Coal  Company,  AVest  Virginia.  They  are  all  of  steel 
^vith  bodies  9  feet  4  inches  long',  6  feet  8  inches  wide,  and  2  feet 
deep  The  14-ineh  wheels  are  pressed  on  to  axles  of  miniature 
railroad  type,  with  M.C.B.  type  boxes  and  springs.  Spring 
draught  gear  is  used  with  non-jamming  couplmg-lmks  and 
pins  The  body  is  so  sloped  as  to  facilitate  operation  on  inclines 
without  excessive  spilling  of  coal,  and  back-end  corners  are 
angled  off  in  order  to  prevent  injury  to  the  trip-rider  m  setting 
the  brakes.  The  cars  stand  only  35  inches  above  the  rails,  are 
11  feet  4  inches  long  over  the  bumpers,  and  weigh  about  4,000 
pounds.     They  run  on  the  comparatively  narrow  track-gauge  of 

Fig.  21. — Another  type  of  Mine-car. 

36  inches.  The  seam  varies  between  6^  and  7  feet  in  thickness, 
and  the  pitch  is  usually  IJ  in  100  in  the  mine  where  these  cars 
are  used. 

Figs.  9  to  12  (Plate  IV.)  show  a  car  that  is  used  in  very  thin 
seams.  It  stands  only  19  inches  above  the  rail,  and  has  a  capa- 
city of  IGr'V  cubic  feet.  This  car  is  sometimes  made  with  a 
flare  board  only  6  inches  wide,  instead  of  11|  inches  as  shown, 
bringing  the  height  of  the  car  above  the  rail  down  to  about  15 

inches.     This  car  runs  on  a  36-inch  track-gauge,  and  the  cost 

complete  is  approximately  £5  (|25). 

Figs.  13  to  16  (Plate  IV.)  show  a  car  used  by  the  Houston 

Coal  &  Coke  Company  in  the  Pocahontas  coalfield.       This  car 

has  a  wooden  bottom  and  steel  sides,  is  fitted  with  roller-bearing 


wheels,  and  costs  approximately  £22  12s.  (8110).  It  lias  a 
capacity  of  104^  cubic  feet,  and  runs  on  a  44-inch  track-gauge. 

Fig.  17  in  the  text  shows  a  car  with  the  end  door  raised. 
This  car  has  a  solid  round  bumper  and  single  link-coupling, 
both  of  which  are  very  satisfactory  features.  The  brake-lever 
is  at  the  end  of  the  car,  instead  of  at  the  side,  the  end  position 
being  preferable. 

Fig.  18  shows  a  car  with  outside  bearings  of  railway  con- 
struction, with  springs  over  the  boxes.  These  cars  are  strong  and 
run  easily,  and  are  said  to  follow  an  uneven  track  with  little 
danger  of  derailment.  Fig.  19  shows  a  car  used  in  thin  seams, 
while  a  car  with  the  automatic  coupling  device  is  shown  in 
Fig.  20.       Fig.  21  shows  another  type  of  mine-car. 

Fig.  22. — Hyatt  Roller-beaeixg  Coxtini:oi:s-sleeve  Jourxal-box. 

The  dust-proof  steel  car  witliout  end  door  is  rapidly  coming 
into  use,  and  is  emptied  in  a  rotary  tippler.  But  where  trains 
of  cars  are  hauled  to  the  outside  from  drift  or  slope  openings, 
long  tipplers,  capable  of  dumping  eighteen  to  tweoty  cars  at  a 
time  without  detachment  from  the  haulage-rope,  are  being  in- 
stalled, where  main  or  main-and-tail-rope  haulage  is  used.  With 
this  arrangement  a  trip  of  empty  cars,  standing  on  the  surface, 
is  not  necessary,  and  fewer  cars  are  required. 

Mine-car  Wheels. — As  a  rule,  both  the  axles  and  the  wheels 
revolve.  There  are  numerous  types  of  wheels  in  use.  Fig.  22 
shows  the  Hyatt  flexible  roller-bearing  continuous-sleeve  journal- 
box.  The  advantages  claimed  for  this  type,  with  rollers  in 
the  box,  over  the  other  types,  with  rollers  in  the  hub,  is  that, 
in  the  case  of  heavy  loads,  the  thrust  against  the  flange  of  the 
wheels,    when    rounding    curves,     cannot    pinch    the    ends    of 

60       TRAXSACTIOXS — THE   NORTH   OF    EXGLAXD   IXSTITUTE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 


Fig.  23.—' 

Whitney  Wonder  "  Kollee-eearing  Wheel,  with  Hand-greasino 

Fig.  24. — Underside  of  Mine-car,  with  "  Whitney  Wonder  "  Koller-bearing- 





the  rollers ;  and  it  does  uot  take  up  as  much  room  from 
the  centre  of  the  axle  to  the  bottom  of  the  car.  Rollers  in 
the  wheels  are  preferred  by  some  on  the  smaller  cars,  and  in  the 
box  for  the  larger  and  heavier  cars.  The  Hyatt  flexible  roller- 
bearing-  is  comparatively  new  in  mine-car  work,  but  has  given 
successful  service  for  many  years  in  shafting  and  machine  work. 
It  is  also  used  in  the  rear  axles  of  automobiles.  It  consists 
of    a    steel    sleeve    or    casing,     a    cage    or    roller-chase,     and 


Fig.  25. — Heavy  Duty  "  Whitney  Wondee  "  Rollee-beaeing  Wheel. 

a  number  of  flexible  spiral-wound  steel  rollers.  As  the  rollers 
are  hollow,  each  acts  as  a  reservoir  for  oil,  and,  being  wound 
alternately  right  and  left,  they  serve  to  distribute  the  oil  across 
the  entire  bearing  service.  Cars  fitted  with  these  roller-bearings 
have  been  known  to  start  and  run  on  a  gradient  of  1  in  200. 

A  popular  wheel  is  the  "Whitney  Wonder,"  which  is  shown 
in  Figs.  23  to  25.  Prior  to  1908,  roller-bearing  wheels  had  not 
proved  to  be  very  successful,  and  it  was  only  in  1913  that  this 
wheel  came  into  prominence.     It  has  proved  to  be  so  satisfactory 

62       TRANSACTIONS — THE   NORTH   OF    ENGLAND    IXSTITTTE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

that  the  raanufactuieis  give  a  five-years'  written  guarantee, 
which  covers  both  the  wheel  and  the  roller-bearing.  Actual  tests 
have  shown  that  this  wheel  has  doubled  the  speed  of  locomotive 
haulage  and  saved  58  per  cent,  of  electric  power  consumed,  in 
comparison  with  the  solid-hub  wheel  working  under  similar 

Through  the  courtesy  of  Mr.  J.  C.  Amis,  Engineer  of  the 
Virginia  Iron,  Coal,  &  Coke  Company,  the  following  particu- 
lars are  given  of  a  test  carried  out  at  the  Toms  Creek  Mine, 
Virginia.  At  this  mine  the  cars  weigh  about  3,000  pounds  and 
hold  31  tons  of  coal.  On  the  haulage-road  where  the  test  was 
made  the  gradient  varies  from  level  to  lA  in  100.  The  track  was 
in  fairly  good  condition.  Twenty  loaded  cars  were  taken  and 
hauled,  with  a  trolley-locomotive,  3,250  feet  and  back  three 
times.  An  average  of  thirty-six  electrical  readings  were  made 
on  each  trip,  and  the  voltmeter  and  ammeter  readings  were 
checked  with  a  wattmeter. 

Average  for  Three 
Time,  in  minutes            


Solid  Hub. 




Average  amperes 

,,         volts      

,,         kilowatts 





,,         kilowatt-honrs- 

21  0 


It  will  be  readily  seen  that  all  the  conditions  necessary,  so  far 
as  gradient  is  concerned,  were  present.  At  first  sight,  it  would 
seem  that  the  amount  of  power  consumed  depended  upon  the  time 
taken  to  make  the  trip.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  with  the  solid  hubs 
it  was  necessary  to  use  a  great  deal  of  sand,  and  the  locomotive 
wheels  slipped  on  the  rails  considerably,  so  that  time  was  certain- 
ly not  the  greatest  factor.  In  the  train  with  the  solid  hubs  there 
were  many  different  kinds  of  wheels.  They  were  in  fairly  good 
condition,  and  had  been  in  use  for  about  the  same  length  of  time 
as  the  roller-bearings.  The  statement  of  the  engineer  regarding 
the  test  was  as  follows  : — 

"  After  all,  the  problem  is  to  get  the  greatest  number  of  tons  over  the 
line  in  the  shortest  time  with  the  least  power.  Time  is  most  important,  for 
miners  will  load  coal  if  they  get  the  empties.  Overloading  a  locomotive  is 
very  expensive.  It  strains  the  machine,  slips  wheels,  wearing  the  tyres 
rapidly,  arcs  and  burns  the  trolley-wire,  heats  the  motor,  takes  more  current, 
thus  lowering  the  voltage  on  the  entire  system  and  heating  all  other  machines. 
So,  after  all,  we  trace  the  trouble  to  the  drawbar  pull,  and  we  have  proved  that 

1915-1916.]  UEAX AMEEICAX    COAL-MIXIXG    METHODS.  63 

-we  can  take  the  same  number  of  tous  that  will  heat  the  motor  aud  necessitate 
a  large  amount  of  sand,  some  slipping  of  wheels,  and  a  drain  on  the  power, 
over  the  same  road  in  half  the  time,  and  with  half  the  power  consumption." 

Whitney  roller-bearing'  wheels  are  supplied  with  grease  about 
two  or  three  times  a  yeiXT.  At  the  mines  belonging  to  the 
Thacker  Coal  &  Coke  Company,  West  Virginia,  they  are 
greased  once  every  four  months.  The  old  hand-greaser  has  been 
displaced  by  a  larger  and  more  efficient  machine  built  in  the 
company's  shops.  This  greaser  receives  a  barrel  of  grease  at  one 
time,  aud  is  connected  to  a  hose  which  carries  a  pressure 
sufficient  to  grease  four  wheels  at  a  time.  Grease  is  forced  in 
until  the  old  grease  is  forced  out  of  the  back  of  the  wheel. 

Large-capacity  Pit-tuhs. — Referring  again  to  large  cars  and 
wide   tracks,   the  advantage  claimed   in   West  Virginia  for  the 

Fig.  26. — Shoetwall  Machine  unloading  from  a  Truck  in  the  Mine. 

065-inch  track  is  that  with  this  width  of  gauge  the  car  may  be 
made  lower,  and  at  the  same  time  there  need  not  be  so  great  an 
overhang  over  the  wheels.  A  larger  wheel  can  also  be  used. 
If  the  car  were  made  wide  at  the  top  it  would  be  awkward  and 
top  heavy  with  a  narrow-track  gauge,  and  would  reciuire  too 
much  weight  to  support  the  sides  where  they  projected  over  the 
wheels.  But  by  using  the  wide  track  a  low  strong  car  of  large 
capacity  can  be  obtained.  It  is  easier  to  load  a  low  car  than 
a  high  one,  because  there  is  more  clearance  over  the  top  of  the 
car,  and  the  filler  does  not  have  to  raise  his  shovel  so  high. 
Larger  lumps  can  be  used  for  topping,  because  there  is  more 
room  for  the  larger  lumps  to  go  in. 

64       TRAXSACTIOXS TIIK    XOHTII    OF    KXGLAXD    IXSTITUTE.        [Vol.  Ixvi. 

In  one  of  tlie  mines  belonging  to  the  Solvay  Collieries  Com- 
pany. West  Virginia,  the  track-gauge  is  b(ih  inches,  and  the 
seam  is  4i  feet  thick.       Derailments  are  few,  on  account  of  the 

^^^^V^^^^^N^^^^^Ip'^          '^^''^pjf^Kv'rTnQi^^^^^^^Bi  -^^^^E^^^^l 

-  ^'f--    4!^^^^?«j'-    *^^  •/.          '    :■       1 

-^Siiii — i-^^^^S^Siit/lSf'i 

Wa      •           ^^ 

■    « 

Fig.  27. — Shortwall  Machine  heady  to  make  a  Sumping  Cut  at  the  Right- 
hand  Rib  op  a  Room. 

Fig.  28. 

-Shohtwall  Machine  crossing  the  Face  of  a  Room  from  Right  to 

track  being  maintained  in  good  condition.  AVhen  derailments 
do  occur,  retracking  shells  are  used.  The  condition  of  the  roof 
is  only  fair.     The  width  of  the  headings  or  main  roads  is  14  feet. 

li)15-1916.]  J)EAX — AMERICAN    COAL-MIXIXG    METHODS.  65 

Mr.  A.  B.  liawn,  the  general  manager  of  the  company,  is  not 
in  favour  of  the  5(U-inch  track-gauge,  because,  in  his  opinion, 
the  increase  in  tonnage  of  coal  received  is  not  proportional  to 
the  increase  in  the  gauge  best  adapted  for  mine  use,  wnicli,  in 
his  opinion,  is  48  inches.  Mr.  Rawn  recommends  strongly  the 
use  of  roller-bearing-  wheels.  After  five  years'  experience  with 
them,  he  has  now  in  service  about  650  cars  so  equipped,  all  of 
which  carry  from  2'6  to  4  tons  of  coal.  Of  the  main  features 
spoken  of  in  connexion  with  this  wheel,  he  believes  that  the  oil- 

FiG.  29. — Shoetwall  Machine  Cutting  across  the  Face;   the  Body  is  in 

ADVANCE     OF     THE     CuTTFE-BAR     SO     AS     TO     CUT    THE     CoAL     IN     FrONT     OF    A 

"  Sulphur  Ball." 

saving,  power-saving,  and  ease  of  handling',  combined  with  the 
life  of  the  wheel,  justify  all  the  claims. 

The  Mine  Trnf/r.— The  haulage-roads  in  mines  now  receive 
more  attention  than  formerly.  In  bituminous  mines  twenty 
years  ago  rails  weighing  20  pounds  to  the  yard  were  used  on  main 
haulage-roads,  16  and  12  pounds  on  secondary  roads,  and  wood- 
en rails  in  rooms.  In  the  modern  mines  of  to-day  60  to  90- 
pound  rails  are  used  on  main  roads,  40  to  50-pound  rails  on 
secondary  roads,  and  16  to  '30-pound  rails  in  rooms.  Surveyors 
set  lines  enabling  track-layers  to  get  proper  alignment,  and  head 
track-layers  are  supplied  with  small  blue-prints  of  data  relating 

6(;        TRANS.UTIOXS       TIIK    XOKl  11    OF    KX(vLA\l)    IVnTHTTE.       [Vol.lxvi. 

to  diifereul  .stuiulaid  switches  and  curves.  In  some  few  mines 
main-road  tracks  are  ballasted  with  incombustible  material.  Long 
trains  of  heavy  cars  hanled  by  locomotives  weighing?  as  much  as 
30  tons  demand  good  tracks,   so  as  to   avoid  derailments  and 

Machine-mining  in  the  Unite'd  States  of  America. — In  1890 
the  production  of  bituminous  coal  per  man  employed  was  579 
tons,  and  the  total  production  was  111,302,322  short  tons.  In 
1913  the  mines  averaged  0  more  days  in  the  year,  and  the  output 

Fig.  30. — Shorthall  Machine  at  the  Conclusion  of  a  Face  Cut,  showing  the 
Method  of  Swinging  the  Machine  on  the  Feed-chain  in  order  to 
Square  up  the  Eib. 

was  837  tons  per  man,  the  total  production  being  478,523,203 
short  tons.  In  1913,  242,476,559  tons,  or  more  than  50  per 
cent,  of  the  total,  was  machine-mined,  whereas  in  1890  probably 
less  than  5,000,000  tons,  or  less  than  5  per  cent,  of  the  total,  was 
machine-mined.  In  the  State  of  Ohio  90  per  cent,  of  the  total 
production  is  now  machine-mined. 

The  total  number  of  machines  reported  in  use  in  bituminous 
mines  in  1913,  was  16,381,  an  increase  of  1,083  over  the  year 
1912.  Out  of  the  total  number  6,936,  or  42-3  per  cent.,  were 
chain  breast,  6,327  were  punchers  or  pick-machines,  2,210  were 
shortwall  machines,  791  were  longwall,  and  117  were  of  the 
radialaxe  or  post-puncher  type. 




It  must  not  be  assumed  that  tlie  foregoing  figures  indicate  the 
most  popular  machines  in  use  in  bituminous  mines  to-day.  Manu- 
facturers are  competing  keenly  one  with  the  other,  and  great 
improvements  are  being  made.  The  pick  or  punching  machine 
has  "seen  its  day."  Only  in  seams  where  "  sulphur  balls"  are 
prevalent  does  it  work  to  advantage,  as  it  enables  the  operator 
to  cut  around  them.  Chain-breast  or  heading  machines  are  not 
suitable  where  the  roof  is  tender  and  the  props  have  to  be  kept 
close  to  the  face ;  but  shortwall  or  continuous-cutting  machines 
can  be  used  where  the  props  are  within  4  to  G  feet  of  the  face. 

Fig.  31. — Flame-pboof  Machine  with  10^-foot  Cuttek-bah,  unloading  froii 

Power  Tetjck. 

This  type  of  machine  gives  satisfactory  results,  and  is  gaining 
in  popularity  every  day ;  but  none  of  these  can  compare  with 
the  turuet  type  of  machine.  Some  remarkable  results  have  been 
obtained  with  this  latest  type  of  coal-cutter  wihere  the  conditions 
were  suitable.  Other  manufacturers  can  be  expected,  however, 
to  put  forth  strenuous  efforts  to  produce  a  machine  to  excel  it. 

There  are  very  few  disc-machines  in  use.  The  cutter-bits 
are  attached  to  an  endless  chain  which  travels  in  a  groove  around 
an  oblong  frame  called  "  the  cutter-bar  "  or  arm,  and  in  some 
countries  the  "  jib." 

68       TRAXSACTIUXS THE   >ORTn   OF    ENGLAND    INSTITUTE.      [Vol.lxvi. 

In  the  States  of  Illinois  and  Indiana  the  owner  is  not  encour- 
aged to  replace  his  old  pick  or  puiu  her,  or  chain-hreast  machine, 
with  the  more  rapid  shortwall  machine,  because  the  number  of 
loaders  or  fillers  that  are  allowed  to  load  after  one  machine  is 
restricted  bj^  trade-union  regulations.  This  shows  how  progress 
is  retarded  by  trade-unionism  in  some  parts  of  the  United  States. 
The  shortwall  machine  is  essentially  an  adaption  of  the  con- 
tinuous cutting  principle  of  the  longwall  machine  to  the  require- 
ments of  room-and-pillar  working.  A  certain  number  of  men 
are  allowed  to  work  after  a   pick  or  puncher  machine,   and  a 

,1  • 


Fig.  32. — Result  of  Shots  after  Coal  had  been  Undermined  10  feet. 

certain  number  after  a  chain  machine,  which  means  a  breast 
macbine.  If  sixteen  loaders  or  fillers  constitute  the  union  stan- 
dard for  a  breast  machine,  additional  men  are  not  allowed  to 
load  after  a  shortwall  machine,  even  though  the  capacity  of  the 
shortwall  machine  is  such  that  twenty-five  to  thirty  men  can 
be  kept  busy  loading  after  it. 

Coal-mining  profits  in  these  two  States  have  been  very  low, 
and  often  non-existent.  In  fact,  it  can  be  said  that  numerous 
companies  in  different  States  have  been  able  to  exist,  not  from 




profits  on  the  coal  mined,  but  from  the  rents  of  houses  and  the 
revenue  from  grocery  and  dry-goods  stores,  butchers'  shops,  and 
saloons  (public-houses).     Efforts  are  now  being  made,  however. 

Fig.  33. — Chain-breast  or   Heading   Machine. 

Fig.  34. — Reversible  Longwall  Machine. 

Fig.  35. — Drop-enc   Machine  Truck  used  with  the  Goodman   Shortwall 


VOL.  LXVI.-::i;5-:  16. 

6   E 

70      TRANSACTIONS — THE   NORTH   OF    ENGLAND    INSTITUTE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

in  Illinois  and  Indiana  to  organize  sellino-  agencies,  and  to  adopt 
methods  somewhat  similar  to  those  employed  hy  the  Westphalian 
Coal  Syndicate. 

Fig-.  2(i  shows  a  shortwall  machine  unloading  from 
a  truck  on  to  the  floor  of  a  working-place,  and  travelling  on  a 
feed-chain  anchored  hy  a  jack.  The  machine  travels  over  the 
rails  from  place  to  place  under  its  own  power.  Fig.  27  shows  the 
same  machine  squared  with  the  right-hand  rib  of  a  room  and 
ready  to  make  a  sumping-  cut. 

Fig.  36. — Shortwall  Machine  travellixg   into  a  "Working-place. 

Fig.  28  shows  a  shortwall  machine  crossing  the  face 
from  right  to  left,  while  Fig.  29  shows  the  shortwall  machine 
being  manoeuvred  to  cut  out  a  sulphur  ball.  The  feed-chain  at  the 
take-up  rig-  behind  the  machine  is  slackened  up,  allowing  the 
body  of  the  machine  to  cut  ahead  at  an  angle.  This  cuts  the 
coal  away  in  front  of  the  obstruction.  The  machine  is  then 
drawn  back  on  its  feed-chain  to  the  right  and  the  point  of  the 
cutter  forced  to  feed  ahead  behind  the  obstruction.  When  thus 
freed  on  three  sides,  it  is  usually  easy  for  the  machine  to  jerk 
the  sulphur  ball  out,  and  cutting  is  then  resumed  in  the  usual 
waj'.       Fig".  30  shows  the  machine  at  the  left  rib  ready  to  back 



out.     The  jioint  of  the  bar  follows  the  line  of  the  feed-chain 
(shown  at  the  left)  on  its  way  out,  leaving  a  straight  rib. 

When    the    shortwall    machine    was     first     introduced,     it 
was  thought  that  its  field  would  be  confined  to  wide  places  or 

Fig.  37. — GooDii.\N  Overcutting  or  Turret  Machine. 

Fig.  38. — Goodman  Overcutting  or  Turret  Machine  at  Work. 

rooms,  or  to  longwall  faces.  It  is  now  used  regularly  for  cutting 
headings  or  narrow  places  between  rooms.  In  an  Illinois  mine 
seven  8-foot  entries  have  been  cut  in  five  hours.  Shortwall 
machines  have  been  used  in  rooms  driven  across  a  pitch  of  25 

72       TRANSACTIONS THE   NORTH   OF   ENGLAND    INSTITUTE.      [Vol.lxvi. 

degrees,  and  in  rooms  and  entries  driven  up  a  pitch  of  20 
degrees.  The  speed  of  these  machines  across  the  face  is  regu- 
lated by  feed-gears,  the  speeds  varying  from  12  to  36  inches  per 

A  Deep  Undercut.— There  appears  to  have  been  an  opinion 
current— the  writer  has  not  been  able  to  discover  its  origin— 
that  a  seam  of  coal  could  not  be  undercut  to  a  depth  greater  than 
its  thickness  without  difficulty  being  experienced  in  shooting 
down  the  coal.  In  the  mines  of  the  United  States  Coal  & 
Coke  Company  at  Gary  (West  Virginia),  "Ironclad"  shortwall 
machines  are  now  being  used  to  cut  to  a  depth  of  10  feet. 
The  seams  vary  in  thickness  from  4|  to  9  feet.  The  time  and 
power  required  to  cut  to  a  depth  of  10  feet  are  only  slightly  in 

Fig.  39. — Jeffrey  Arcwall  Machine,  with  Drop-head,  used  for  cutting  neab 

THE  Bottom. 

excess  of  those  required  to  cut  6  feet. 

Fig.  31  shows  a  machine  with  a  10^-foot  cutter-bar  in  use  in 
a  mine  in  Virginia.  Fig.  32  shows  the  result  of  shots  after 
the  coal  had  been  undermined  to  a  depth  of  10  feet.  In  this 
mine  each  machine  has  an  assigned  territory  of  twenty  to 
twenty-five  rooms,  which  are  25  feet  wide.  Where  the  coal 
is  only  5|  feet  thick,  two  6-foot  holes  are  drilled  3  feet  from 
each  rib,  and  one  central  hole  7  feet  deep.  The  central  hole  is 
fired  first,  and  breaks  clear  to  the  heel  of  the  cut.  The  side 
holes  leave  about  3  feet  of  coal  standing  on  each  rib  ;  one  light 
shot  at  each  rib  then  squares  up  the  place. 

Coal-cutting  in  Anthracite-Tnines . — Anthracite  is  now  being 
undermined    by    machines.       Formerly    the    opinion    was    that 




anthracite  was  too  hard  to  undercut,  but  this  opinion  has  been 
found  to  be  incorrect.  The  rapid  exhaustion  of  the  thicker  seams, 
especially  in  the  northern  anthracite-field  of  Pennsylvania,  made 
necessary  the  working  of  thin  seams.  These  thin  seams  were 
cut  by  machines,  and  coal-cutters  are  now  being  used  in  anthra- 
cite-seams 10  to  12  feet  thick.  The  coal  is  worked  on  the  long- 
wall  panel  system  in  thin  seams,  with  conveyor-faces  220  feet 
long.  AVith  a  6-foot  undercut  and  coal  30  inches  thick,  130 
to  140  tons  of  coal  are  obtained  from  each  face  per  day.       In 

Fig.  40. — Self-peopelled  Arcwall  Machine  travelling  into  a  Working-place. 
The  Guard-board  along  the  Trolley-wiee  cin  be  seen.  This  Machine 
IS  USED  foe  Cutting  neae  the  Top. 

making  the  cut,  from  two  to  two-and-a-half  sets  of  bits  may  be 
used,  but  at  times,  when  very  hard  coal  is  encountered,  three  or 
four  sets  of  bits  may  be  needed  for  a  cut  of  220  feet.  About  5 
feet  of  bottom  rock  is  taken  up  in  the  gangway  or  gateway,  in 
order  to  give  sufficient  height  for  the  large-capacity  cars  beneath 
the  conveyor.  The  coal  moves  in  a  flaring  trough  6  inches 
deep,  along  the  bottom  of  which  passes  a  chain  with  flat  broad 
links  as  wide  as  the  bottom  of  the  trough. 

Coal-cutting  machines  of  the  shortwall  type  are  being  used 

74      TRANSACTIONS — THE  NORTH   OF    ENGLAND    INSTITUTE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

in  autliracite-seams  pileliing  15  degrees.  An  iron  rail  is 
placed  l)eliind  the  niacliine,  after  the  sumping  cut  has  been 
made,  i)arallol  with  the  face  of  the  chamber  or  room.  The  rail  is 
held  in  place  by  means  of  a  jack  at  each  end,  and  is  moved  when 
the  machine  has  cut  to  the  end.  The  machine  has  enough  power 
to  pull  itself  up  to  the  coal  and  to  make  the  sumping  cut  at  the 
same  time. 

Pillar-drawing  by  Machines. — Pillar-drawing  by  machines  is 
carried  out  successfully  in  different  parts  of  the  country.  Pillars 

Fig.  41. — Aecwall  Machine  at  the  Face  op  a  Heading  or  Entry  ready  to 
CUT  IN  a  Band  of  Shale. 

between  rooms  average,  as  a  rule,  about  30  feet  in  width.  AVhen 
the  room  lias  been  driven  to  its  limit — a  distance  of  200  to  300 
feet — a  place  from  20  to  30  feet  wide  is  cut  through  the  pillar 
at  the  far  end.  A  second  place,  similar  in  width,  is  then  cut 
through,  leaving  a  pillar  of  coal  about  10  to  12  feet  thick  on  the 
goaf  side.  The  machine  then  takes  a  cut  along  the  full  length 
of  30  feet  of  this  goaf  pillar  or  "  stump,"  and  the  roof  weight 
or  squeeze  causes  the  coal  to  break  down.  The  total  recovery  at 
some  mines  by  this  method  is  90  per  cent.        The  building  of 




Fig.  42. — Aecwall  Machine  cutting  ix  a  Room  near  the  Top  of  the  Seam. 

Fig.  43. — Arcwall  Machine  withdrawn,  showing  th2  Position  of  the 


76       TRANSACTIONS- — THE   NORTH   OF    ENGLAND   JXSTITL'TE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

packs  or  the  setting  of  chocks  during  the  process  of  extracting 
pillars  is  seldom,  if  ever,  resorted  to.  The  object  always  is  to 
avoid  all  deadwork. 

Fig.  33  shows  the  chain-breast  or  heading  machine,  the  popu- 
larity of  which  is  on  the  wane;  Fig.  34  shows  a  reversible  long- 
wall  chain-machine;  Fig.  35  shows  the  drop-end  truck  used 
with  the  Goodman  shortwall  machine;  while  Fig.  36  is  a  view  of 
a  shortwall  machine  travelling  into  a  working-place. 


'^^   "••vT""^  ■,..:!;-■*,.«-£ 





Fig.  44. — Aecwall  Machine  at  the  Face  of  an  Entry,  cutting  out  8  inches 

OF  "  Bone  "  Coal. 

;  Overcutting  Machines. — Figs.  37  and  38  show  the  Goodman 
overcutting  or  turret  machine,  which  can  cut  at  the  top  of  the 
coal  or  from  18  inches  or  so  above  the  bottom  in  room-and-pillar 
work.  The  machine  travels  over  the  tracks  from  place  to  p?ace 
by  means  of  its  own  power,  like  an  electric  locomotive.  It  does 
not  leave  the  rails  during  the  operation  of  cutting.  In  travelling 
into  a  room  the  cutter-arm  or  bar  is  always  ahead,  and  tlio 
machine  advances  until  the  arm  is  close  to  the  face.  A  lever  or 
quadrant  brake  is  then  set,  and  a  telescoping  anchor  drill-rod 




extended  forward  to  the  face.  The  drill  is  driven  by  power  fvom 
the  machine,  and  the  anchor  hole  is  quickly  drilled.  After  the 
anchor  has  been  driven  into  the  hole,  a  wire  rope  from  a  drum 
on  the  rear  of  the  machine  is  attached  and  the  cutter-arm  swung 
to  the  right-hand  corner.  The  sumping  cut  having  been  made, 
the  cutter-arm  travels  across  the  face  to  the  left-hand  corner, 
and  the  machine  backs  out  (still  cutting),  leaving  a  straight  face 
and  straight  ribs  on  each  side.  This  type  of  machine  will  be 
improved,  and  there  is  undoubtedly  a  great  future  before  it. 

Fig.  45. 

-CoiiBixED  Cutting  and  Loading  Machine  in  Opeeation  at  the  Face 
OF  A  Heading. 

Fig.  39  shows  the  "Arcwall"  drop-head  cutter.  This 
machine  is  built  to  cut  anj^where  above  the  top  of  the  rail,  and  is 
adjustable  while  in  operation  to  an  irregular  band  of  shale  or 
dirt  in  the  seam. 

The  straight  head-cutter  (Fig.  40)  is  used  for  cutting 
near  the  top.  It  is  used  with  much  success  in  seams 
where  inferior  top  coal  is  left  to  form  a  roof.  Coal  roofs  in 
rooms  which  are ,  not  required  to  stand  for  a  long  time  are 
generally  safe.     This  machine,  with  a  7-foot  bar,  has  cut  twenty 

78       TRAXSACTIOXS— THE   NORTH    OF    KXGLAXJ)    IXSTlTrTE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

rooms  in  10  hours,  each  room  being  20  feet  wide.  The  track  is 
generally  carried  in  the  centre  of  the  entry  or  room,  and  the  face 
is  in  the  form  of  an  arc.  Figs.  41  to  44  show  the  machine  at 
work,  and  the  face  of  a  place  after  the  machine  is  withdrawn. 
The  writer  has  had  some  experience  with  this  machine  in  a  mine 
with  a  treacherous  roof,  but  has  not  been  able  to  devise  a  simple 
and  economical  method  of  timbering  to  protect  the  machinemen. 
Props  had  frequently  to  be  removed  and  reset  during  the  oper- 
ation of  cutting.  This  machine  can  cut  more  places  in  a  given 
time  than  the  shortwall  machine,  because  it  is  not  necessary 
for  it  to  leave  the  rails:    it  runs  into  a  place  with  the  cvitter- 

FiG.  46. — Showing  the  Conveyor  of  the  Combined  Cutting  and  Loading 


arm  ahead,  sumps  in,  makes  a  sweeping  cut  across,  and  travels 
out  into  the  next  place.  It  is  a  simple  machine  to  operate, 
and  does  not  make  as  much  noise  as  some  other  types  of  machines. 
Young  men  about  the  mines  show  a  keen  desire  for  an  opport- 
unity to  work  as  learners  or  helpers  with  this  machine ;  they  can 
ride  on  the  machine  as  it  travels  from  place  to  place,  and  they 




do  not  liave  to  exert  themselves  unduly  during  any  portion  of 
their  shift.  If  the  machine  cuts  in  shale  or  dirt,  a  labourer  has 
to  follow  it  and  shovel  the  cuttings  back  before  shots  are  fired. 
This  work  costs  about  lh\.  (-3  cents)  per  ton  of  coal  output,  and  is 
generally  contracted  for.  Where  the  cutting  is  about  the  middle 
of  a  G-foot  seam,  six  holes  are  often  necessary  in  a  20-foot  place, 
three  in  the  top,  and  three  in  the  bottom.  The  cost  of  explosives 
in  such  a  seam  comes  to  about  lid.  (-3  cents)  per  ton,  the  cut 
being  6  feet  deep.  The  loader  receives  Is.  4d.  (32  cents)  a  short 
ton  for  getting'  and  loading,  drills  his  own  holes,  and  does  his 
own  track-laying  and  timbering.  The  average  is  often  10  tons 
per  filler  per  8-hour  shift.  The  writer  does  not  hesitate  to  say 
that  this  average  can  be  kept  up  easily  if  the  loader  can  get  a 
regular  supply  of  empty  cars.     He  has  watched  carefully  the 

Fig.  47. 

-Goodman  Rack-rail  Locomotive  ttsed  in  Mines  with  Steep  and 
Uneven  Gradients. 

work  of  men  of  different  nationalities  at  the  coal-face,  and  has 
found  that  of  those  from  Ea.stern  and  Southern  Europe  the 
Austrian  is  in  front,  closely  followed  by  the  Italian  from  the 
northern  part  of  Italy.  He  has  frequently  seen  men  break  down 
and  load  15  tons  of  coal  into  2-ton  capacity  cars  in  an  8-hour 
shift;  but  15  tons  is  not,  by  any  means,  the  record.    As  the  turret 

80      TRAXSACTIOXS — THE   XOETII   OF    EXGLAXD   IXSTITUTE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

type  of  machine  weighs  5  tons  and  more,  it  is  necessary  to  lay  a 
{substantial  track  in  order  to  prevent  derailments. 

Comhined  Cutting  and  Loading  Machines. — The  cutting  and 
loading  machine  is  the  latest  type  of  appliance  used  at  the  coal- 
face in  room-and-pillar  mines.  It  has  a  stationary  frame  or  pan 
in  which  the  machine  feeds  itself  forwards  or  backwards  by  its 
own  power,  the  undercutting  chain  similar  to  the  breast 
type,  two  vertical  shearing  chains,  the  conveyor  in  the  cutter- 
head,  the  rear-pivoted  conveyor  which  loads  the  coal  into  the  car, 
and  the  mechanically-operated  picks  which  knock  the  coal  down 
on  to  the  conveyor  after  it  is  undercut  and  sheared.  It  is  also 
provided  with  a  slack-conveyor.  The  machine  is  taken  into  a 
woricmg-place,  and  never  removed  until  the  place  is  worked  out 
or  driven  to  its  destination.  It  is  moved  into  difierent  positions 
by  its  own  power.  There  are  as  yet  very  few  machines  of  this 
type  in  use,  but  more  will  probably  be  heard  of  it  at  a  later  date. 
Figs.  45  and  4G  show  the  combined  cuttiug-and-loading  machine 
in  operation  at  the  face  of  a  heading. 

The  following  particulars  relate  to  actual  results  of  machine- 
mining  in  different  States  :  — 

I.^^State  of  Alabama. 

Method   of    -working 
Thickness  of  seam 
Inclination   of  seam 
Nature    of  cutting 
Ciiaracter  of   roof 
Width  of  rooms    ... 

,,  entries 

,,  pillars 

Number  of  loaders  per  place  ... 
Coal  loaded  per  loader  per  shift 
Price  paid  for  loading  after  machines 

Type   of    machine 

Length  of  cutter-bar       

Depth  of  cut         

Height    of  kerf 

Average  lineal  cut  per  minute 
Price  paid  per  ton  for  undercutting... 
Average  output  per  machine  per  day... 
Percentage  of  lump-coal  over  a  3-inch 
screen   ...         ...         

Eoom  and  pillar. 

32   to   36  inches. 


In  hard  coal. 


40  feet. 

24  feet. 

20  feet. 

10  tons.  _ 

Is.  OM.  (25  cents)  per  ton ;  after  the 
coal  is  shot  and  the  track  laid, 
the   loaders  do  not  timber. 

Sullivan  continuous  cutter. 

5  feet  3  inches. 

5   feet. 

5  inches. 

21  inches. 

6id.  (121  cents). 
100  tons. 

35  per  cent. 




II. — State  of  Iowa. 

Method    of    working 
Thickness  of  seam 
Inclination  of    seam 
Nature  of   cutting 
Character  of  roof... 

Distance  of  props  from  face    ... 

Length  of  longwall 

Coal  loaded  per  loader  per  shift  of  8 
hours  ...         ...  ...  

Price  paid  per  ton  for  loading  after 
machines,  and  packing 

Type  of  ma<;hine  ...         

Weight    of    machine 

Style  of  bar  

Length  of  bar       

Depth   of   cut       

Height    of    kerf 

Average  lineal  cut  per  minute 


Price  paid  per  ton  for  undercutting... 

Average   output  per  machine  per   day    100  tons. 

Percentage  of  lump  coal  over  l^-inch 
screen     ...         ...         

Cost    of  laying  track 

„       haulage  from  coal-face  to  pit- 

Previous  output  to  main  haulage  per 
man  per  shift  ...         

Present  output  to  main  haulage  per 
man  per  shift,  including  machine- 
men       ...         ...         

Price  paid  per  ton  for  hand-mining  . . . 

Reduction  in  cost  by  machines 


28  inches. 

Shale  16  inches,  with  4  inches  of  lime- 
31  feet. 
3,000   feet. 

6  tons. 

2s.  9id.  (67  cents). 


4,800  pounds. 


30    inches. 

30   inches. 

4k  inches. 

36  inches. 

500  feet. 

lid.  C22  cents). 

90  per  cent, 
l^d.  (3  cents). 

4id.  (9  cents). 

21  tons. 

5  tons. 

4s.  9id.  ($1  15  cents). 

T^d.  (15   cents). 

Alternating  current  is  used,  and  two-tliirds  of  a  kilowatt  is 
consumed  per  ton  of  coal  produced.  Tlie  depth  of  the  undercut  is 
only  30  inches,  because  this  is  the  maximum  depth  allowed  by  the 
1914  agreement  between  the  United  Mine  Workers  of  America 
and  the  Iowa  Coal  Operators.  There  is  a  seam  of  coal  in  Iowa 
only  15  inches  thick,  which  is  being  undercut  by  alternating- 
current  machines  to  a  depth  of  2  feet.  Union  labour  is  not 
employed  at  this  mine. 

Method  of  working 
Thickness  of   seam 
Inclination    of    seam 
Character  of    roof 

III. — State  of  Pennsylvania. 

Room  and  pillar. 
...         ...         ...    8^  feet. 

...    Flat  to  6  degrees. 

82       TRAXSACTIOXS — THE   NORTH   OF    EXGLAXD   IXSTITUTE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

in. — State  of  Pennsylnania. — Contimied 

Distance  of  props  from  face 

Maximum   distance  between  props    ... 

Width  of  rooms 


,,  pillars  

Number  of  loaders  per  place 

Coal  loaded  per  loader  per  shift   of  9 

hours    ..•  ■••  

Type    of    machine  

Depth    of    undercut        

Average  lineal  cut  per  shift 

6  feet. 
U  feet. 
12  feet. 
10  feet. 
1.5  feet. 
1   to  3. 

Api^roximately  12   tons. 

7  feet. 
110  feet. 

Note. — As  the  loaders  in  this  mine  are  paid  by  the  car  and  not  by  weight, 
any  further  data  would  not  be  reliable. 

IV. — State  of  Alabama. 

Method  of  working         

Thickness  of  seam  

Inclination   of   seam        ...         

Nature   of  cutting  

Character    of   roof  

Distance  of  props  from  face 

Width  of  rooms 


,,  pillars  

Number  of  loaders  per  place 

Coal  loaded  per  loader   per  shift  of  9 

hours  ... 
Price  paid  for   loading  ... 

Type  of  machine  ... 

Weiglit   of    machine       

Style    of   bar         

Depth    of  cut 

Average  lineal  cut  jier  minute 

shift    ... 
Price  paid  per  ton  for  undercutting. 
Electromotive  force  at  switchboard  . 
Loss    in    cable 

Power  delivered  to  circuit 
Power  expended  by  motor 
Energy  used  per  ton  produced 

Price  paid  -pev  ton  for  hand-mining. 
Previous  output  per  man  at  the  face. 
Reduction  in  total  cost  by  machines. 

Room  and  pillar. 
51  feet. 
2  degrees. 
Medium  hard  coal. 

7  feet. 
40  feet. 
16  feet. 
30  feet. 

8  tons. 

Is.  5gd.  (35J  cents),  which  includes  ex- 
plosives, track-laying,  timbering, 
and  pushing  the  cars  to  the  room 

Jeifrey  shortwall. 

4,400  pounds. 


5  feet. 

2  feet. 

100  feet. 

4id.    (9  cents). 

250  volts. 

20  per  cent. 

75  amperes. 

25    horsepower. 

20  horsepower. 

1-35  kilowatt-hours,  or  100  tons  per 
machine  =  15  kilowatts  for  9 
hours  (at  face). 

2s.  4|d.  (57|  cents). 

5  tons. 

Approximately  5d.  (10  cents). 




Electricity. — All  the  machines  described  are  electrically 
driven,  this  being  the  modern  motive  power  in  American  mines. 
Severe,  and  sometimes  bitter,  competition  compels  the  owner  to 
adopt  the  cheapest  methods,  and  perhaps  occasionally  to  take 
some   risks.     When  trailino:   cables   are   attached   to   stationary 

Fig.  48. — Electric  Trolley-locomotive. 

Fig.  49. — Electric  G.\therixg  Locomotive. 

conductors,  they  are  merely  hooked  on  to  bare  positive  and  nega- 
tive wires. 

Cost  of  Machines. — Shortwall  machines  cost  from  £200  to 
£350  each,  but  some  of  the  £200  machines  have  not  answered 
very  well.  An  "Arcwall"'  machine  costs  £650.  Longwall 
machines  run  about  £400  each. 

84      TRAXSACTIOX.S — TlIK    XOimi    OK    KXIJLAXJ)    IXSTITL'TE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

Locomotive  Haulage. — Tins  iu  itself  is  a  big  subject,  and  the 
writer  does  not  propose  to  deal  with  it  at  anj'  length  here.  It 
has  been  touched  upon  in  previous  papers  and  discussions;  but 
he  wishes  to  call  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  use  of  locomotives 
is  not  confined  to  easy  gradients.  Fig-.  47  shows  a  Goodman 
rack-rail  locomotive  used  for  transportation  in  '*  hilly  "  mines, 
and  applicable  to  haulage  work  on  all  gradients  up  to  1  in  6. 
There  are  a  great  many  such  locomotives  at  work.  The  number 
of  electric  storage-battery  locomotives  in  use  is  rapidly  increas- 
ing.      Figs.  48  to  50  show  types  of  electric  trolley-locomotives. 

Fig.  50. — Electric  Trolley-locomotive. 

Surface  Plants.— li  is  not  customary  in  the  United  States  to 
build  elaborate  surface  equipments  at  bituminous  mines,  as  the 
mines  do  not,  as  a  rule,  have  long  lives.  It  can  be  said  that  the 
average  bituminous  plant  is  not  "  a  thing  of  beauty"  ;  nor  does 
one  often  see  a  "  beautiful  "  mining  village.  Politicians  of  a 
certain  type,  and  even  women's  organizations,  have  had  much 
to  say  from  time  to  time  about  poor  housing  accommodation,  and 
the  general  "  depressing"  aspect  which  they  claim  pervades  coal- 
mining communities.  Their  frequent  remarks  brought  forth  a 
satirical  poem  by  Mr.  Berton  Braley,  which  was  published  in 
Coal  Age.* 

Coiuhision. — Previous  papers  recently  communicated  by  the 
writer  have  been  discussed  at  considerable  length,  especially  by 

*  1914,  vol.  vi.,  page  411. 

yg  "Modcr/ij. 


\  USEP  IN  West  Virginia 

Fig    7.— End   View. 

'<U77  0    _  o.u    A.  .p. ^q       p_.      o        o        o <>_..?. 



< 36-INCH  Gauge > 

Fig  8.— Rear    View 




......    Fig    n      End  View 






^iffiLilfote  .^/^'SimMfJ  /Je^ifts  fhpfru7i  iVaiicr/i  Jnie/ican  Coal  mi/u///! .  Vet/iocbMr//i  somf  Qjifipori.sons'.' 

^  Figs   5  TO  8.-ALL-STEEL  Railway  Type  of  Mine-car  oSEn  in  West  Virqinii 

Vol  I...  PiuvrF.  I\ '. 

Oak  Bottom 

Fig  5  -  Side  E 

FiQ    3-End   Vie 

Flo.  2.- Plan  of  Bottom 


-    I- 


^  ■=; 



'-.-.-— Trr::^ 





•    ... 






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Figs.  9  to  12.-Mine-car  us 
Fig.  9.-S1DE  Elevation 

Fia  IO.-Plan  of  Bottom 





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J-Prii  »  Cocp'L"  »mr..Oev,<ml|r~ 


American  mining  engineers.  These  discussions  liave  been  har- 
monious and  instructive,  and  a  special  invitation  is  extended  to 
engineers  in  America  and  other  countries  to  take  part  in  the  dis- 
cussion of  the  present  paper.  The  writer  hopes  that  managers 
will  endeavour  to  explain  why  they  employ  tubs  of  small 
capacity,  and  he  feels  sure  that  the  views  of  mining  engineers 
in  South  Wales,  who  are  connected  with  mines  where  tubs  of 
larger  capacity  are  in  use,  will  be  valuable.  American  engi- 
neers can  say  what  the  result  would  be  if  they  were  some  morn- 
ing to  receive  telegraphic  instructions  from  their  owners  to  dis- 
card their  3  and  4-ton  capacity  cars  and  replace  them  by  cars 
capable  of  holding  only  half  a  ton. 

Mr.  AV.  H.  RouTLEDGE  (Abergavenuy)  wrote  that,  in  view 
of  the  constantly  increasing  costs  and  reduced  output  per  man 
in  this  country,  Mr.  Dean's  paper  provided  grounds  for  grave 
consideration  on  the  part  of  colliery-owners  and  managers. 

The  recent  greatly  accelerated  adverse  conditions  had  no 
doubt  been  brought  about  by  "  political  "  reasons  and  legisla- 
tion. Any  comparison  of  other  countries  or  methods  with  South 
Wales  was  extremely  difficult,  on  account  of  the  conditions  being 
widely  different.  Having  had  some  experience  in  South  Wales, 
he  (Mr.  Eoutledge)  could  not  therefore  see  any  semblance  of 
ground  for  a  parallel. 

Mr.  Dean  had  affirmed  his  opinion  "  that  the  principal. 
reason  why  the  United  States  of  America  leads  in  production 
per  man  is  because  large-capacity  mine-cars  are  used  in  American 
mines."  There  was  no  doubt  that  in  many  cases  in  South  Wales 
the  number  of  trams  or  tubs  filled  per  man  counted  in  the  day's 
work,  irrespective  of  whether  they  contained  1  ton  or  25  cwts. 
each.  This  was  proved  by  the  constant  pressure  that  had  to  be 
brought  upon  the  coal-getters  to  fill  the  trams  or  tubs  up  to  their 
carrying  capacity.  This,  however,  did  not  explain  the  position. 
It  did  not  occur  even  to  some  of  the  officials  that  1  cwt.  more 
or  less  difference  in  the  loading  of  a  tram  or  tub  in  a  fairly  large 
collieiy  made  a  difference  of  20,000  tons  of  coal  per  annum,  or, 
in  other  words,  a  month's  output  of  coal.  When  one  con- 
sidered, however,  that  all  standing  charges  had  to  be  met, 
whether  for  the  larger  or  for  the  smaller  output,  it  was  obvious 

VOL.  LXTI.— 1915-1916.  7    E 

8t)       TRAXSACTIOXS       THE    XORTII    OF    1;\(;LAX  I)    I  VS'lITrTK.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

that  it  made  a  difference  in  the  earning  power  of  the  particular 

In  regard  to  large  trams  or  tubs,  South  Wales  was  the- 
pioneer  in  this  respect.  For  over  50  j^ears  trams  having  a 
capacity  of  2  to  3  tons  had  been  extensively  used,  with  a  gauge  of 
3  to  3^  feet,  and  with  rails  weighing-  75  pounds  to  the  yard. 
On  comparing  these  large  trams  or  tubs  with  those  at  other 
collieries  (even  in  South  Wales)  where  smaller  trams  or  tubs  were 
used,  it  had  not  been  found  that  the  output  of  the  coal-getter 
using  the  larger  trams  was  any  better  than  where  the  smaller 
trams  were  adopted.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  largest  outputs  of 
coal  in  South  Wales  had  been  from  collieries  where  25  to  30-cwt. 
trams  were  in  use.  The  comparison  in  regard  to  outputs,  there- 
fore, could  not  be  made  of  large  versus  small  trams  or  tubs. 

The  adoption  of  a  large  or  small  tram  or  tub  at  any  colliery 
was  governed  by  local  conditions — the  work  entailed  and  the  cost 
of  maintaining  roadways  being  the  principal  factors.  When  it 
was  remembered  that  the  South  Wales  coal-getter  was  employed 
much  of  his  time  in  repairing  his  roadways  to  the  face  of  the 
stall,  it  made  the  comparison  with  other  coalfields  useless.  The 
coal  was  worked  chiefly  by  longwall,  the  stalls  being  11  yards 
apart,  with  a  roadway  to  each  40  or  50  yards  long,  under  the 
control  of  the  coal-getter,  and  any  repairs  had  to  be  paid  extra 
apart  from  the  tonnage  rate  paid  to  the  coal-getter.  The  cost  of 
repairs  in  some  cases  exceeded  the  wage  paid  for  actual  coal- 
getting.  It  was  quite  common  in  South  Wales  for  50  per  cent, 
of  the  coal-getter's  earnings  to  be  on  account  of  repairs  to  his 
roadway.  This  was  the  sole  reason  why  the  output  per  coal- 
getter  was  the  lowest  in  the  United  Kingdom.  There  was  little 
incentive  for  the  coal-getter  to  produce  the  maximum  output  of 
coal,  or  to  reduce  the  deadwork.  In  addition,  owing  to  the  pre- 
vailing system  of  boy  employees  at  the  face,  it  would  be  almost 
physically  impossible  for  such  boys  to  fill  a  tram  containing  over 
2  tons  of  coal. 

The  use  of  coal-cutting  machines  and  face-conveyors  had  been 
introduced  in  South  Wales ;  but,  as  the  coal-getters  insisted  on 
and  obtained  terms  of  remuneration  exceeding  the  advantages 
gained  in  reduced  cost  and  increased  output,  little  progress  com- 
paratively had  been  made.  The  whole  tendency  (as  was  well 
known)  was  for  the  Miners'  Unions  to  advise  the  men  to  reduce 


individual  effort,  so  that  more  men  should  be  employed  to  per- 
form a  given  amount  of  work. 

In  all  coaltields,  with  the  exception  of  South  Wales,  the 
amount  of  coal  sent  out  governed  the  wages  of  the  coal-getter. 
Any  imjuovements  introduced  would  necessitate  a  wholesale  re- 
organization of  the  system  of  labour;  and  the  principle  of  pay- 
ment by  results  was  the  only  means  that  could  be  indicated  to 
bring  South  "Wales  into  favourable  comparison  with  other  coal- 

Mr.  Dean  deserved  the  thanks  of  the  members  for  giving  such 
valuable  information  in  regard  to  the  types  of  trams  or  tubs, 
coal-cutters,  and  face-conveyors  used  in  American  mines. 

Mr.  John  Gibson  (Kilmarnock)  wrote  that  Mr.  Dean  was  to 
be  heartily  congratulated  on  his  fresh,  vigorovis,  and  original 
paper.  Undoubtedly  very  great  reciprocal  advantages  would 
result  from  a  freer  interchange  of  views  between  American  and 
British  mining  engineers. 

He  (Mr.  Gibson)  was  in  hearty  agreement  with  much  that 
Mr.  Dean  had  stated  with  regard  to  trams.  He  (Mr.  Gibson) 
had  drawn  attention,  in  his  paper  on  "  Mining  Economics : 
Some  Notes  and  a  Suggestion,"*  to  the  importance  of  knowing 
the  contours  of  all  or  nearly  all  drawing-roads.  The  size  of  the 
tram  was  closely  related  to  this,  and  little  or  no  co-ordinated 
thought  was  given  to  these  matters  in  this  country.  Seemingly, 
they  ordered  these  things  better  in  the  United  States  of  America. 

Mr.  Dean  thought  that  the  reason  why  America  led  in  pro- 
duction per  man  was  on  account  of  the  large  cars  used.  This 
was  a  very  plain  issue,  and  it  would  be  well  to  see  how  it  stood 
the  test  of  logic.  Mr.  Dean  stated  that  in  Pennsylvania  the  aver- 
age capacity  of  the  cars  was  about  3|  tons.  Now,  if  the  output 
per  man  was  increased  by  large  cars,  why  this  limit  of  3^  tons  ? 
Why  not  7,  14,  21,  or  28  tons?  Everyone  knew,  of  course, 
that  the  car  was  a  compromise,  and  that  the  conditions  of  the 
mine  permitted  only  a  limited  measure  of  the  logical.  To  call 
for  large  cars,  without  a  knowledge  of  the  conditions  in  each 
particular  case,  was  akin  to  crying  for  the  moon. 

He  (Mr.  Gibson)  did  not  argue  that  the  use  of  larger  cars  in 
many   English  mines   might  not  be  advantageous.        It   was   a 

*  Trans.  Inst.  M.  E.,  1914,  vol.  xlvii.,  page  250. 

88       TRAXSACTIOXS— THE   .NORTH   OF    E^-GLAXD    INSTITUTE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

question  in  every  case  of  cost,  and  one  to  he  determined  by  a 
knowledge  of  the  particular  conditions  of  the  mine,  and  a  sym- 
pathetic consideration  of  the  practices  and  prejudices  of  the 
local  miner.  A  careful  study  of  these  pros  and  cons  by  an 
engineer  \^ersed  in  economic  science  would  determine  the  size 
of  the  car,  whether  large  or  small. 

To  take  an  example  in  this  country :  generally  speaking,  the 
trams  in  South  Wales  were  much  larger  than  those  in  Lanca- 
shire, and  the  difficulties  of  the  seams  were  not  greater.  Was 
the  output  per  man  greater  in  the  former  than  in  the  latter?  So 
far  as  his  experience  went,  the  output  per  man  in  South  Wales 
was  the  lowest  in  the  United  Kingdom,  and  was  in  a  large 
measure  due  to  the  trams  used  being  too  big.  As  for  the  output 
per  man,  he  would  take  Mr.  Dean's  smallest  seam  of  28  inches. 
With  a  flat  working-face  1,000  yards  long  such  as  he  had 
described,  there  would  be  no  difficulty  in  Scotland  in  producing 
an  output  of  5  tons  per  man  with  10-cwt.  trams.  How  would 
the  3|-ton  trams  do  under  these  conditions?  Let  them  take  as 
an  example  a  colliery  working  two  seams,  one  18  inches  thick, 
with  a  sandstone  roof  and  a  hard  floor,  the  other  27  inches  thick, 
with  fireclay  roof  and  floor ;  inclination  of  the  seams,  1  in  20  to 
1  in  3 ;  and  with  faults-  and  whin  intrusions  occurring  on  the 
average  every  70  yards.  The  quality  of  coal  was  second  rate, 
'  but  the  colliery  was  a  commercial  success.  The  trams  held  8 
cwts.,  and  every  ton  of  coal  went  down  one  self-acting  incline 
at  least. 

With  regard  to  electric  locomotives,  it  was  idle  to  advocate 
their  use  in  this  country,  as  the  law  made  their  introduction 
practically  impossible.  In  any  case,  the  principle  of  their  appli- 
cation for  traction  limited  their  use  to  light  gradients.  If  he 
was  wrong,  perhaps  Mr.  Dean  would  cite  a  few  examples  of  work 
done  by  them  on  inclinations  of  1  in  15,  showing  how  they  worked 
better  than  rope  haulage. 

With  respect  to  machine-mining,  Mr.  Dean  had  expressed  the 
opinion  that  it  appeared  to  be  only  a  matter  of  a  few  years  before 
hand-mining  became  extinct  in  bituminous  coal-mines.  Lest 
enthusiasts  led  them  to  suppose  that  machine-mining  was  the 
best  in  all  circumstances,  it  would  be  well  to  understand  clearlj?^ 
the  economic  aspect  of  hand  versus  machine-mining.  With  raw 
material  and  labour  at  present-day  American  rates,   and  with 



twentieth-century  workshop  organization,  the  mechanical  engi- 
neer could  supply  a  machine  for  a  given  price.  Mr.  Dean  had 
mentioned  £400  as  the  price  of  a  longwall  machine.  He  had  not 
stated  the  average  miner's  day  wage,  but  if  it  were  assumed  to  be 
14s.  (3^  dollars),  then  the  cost  of  a  machine  was  roughly  570 
days'  wages ;  whilst,  if  the  wage  fell  to  7s.,  the  machine  cost  would 
rise  to  1,140  days'  wages.  In  effect,  while  the  price  remained 
at  ±:400,  the  cost  would  be  twice  as  great,  and,  of  course,  the  cost 
of  spare  parts  would  be  at  the  same  ratio.  A  rise  in  miners' 
wages  would  have  the  opposite  effect.  Again,  the  tendency  of 
machine-mining  in  this  country  would  seem  to  have  the  effect  of 
decreasing  the  efficiency  of  the  hand-worker.  This  was  reason- 
able, as  the  lad  who  did  not  require  to  work  with  the  pick  in  his 
early  mining  days  could  not  acquire  in  later  days  first-class  pro- 

He  (Mr.  Gibson)  would  venture  to  give  the  following  as  reasons 
for  the  extension  of  mining  by  machines  in  the  United  States :  — 
(1)  A  plentiful  supply  of  unskilled  labour  and  a  limited  supply  of 
good  miners ;  (2)  the  fact  that  the  mechanical  engineers  were 
keen,  progressive,  and  ingenious  ;  and  (3)  the  keenness  of  competi- 
tion, which  had  brought  about  a  narrow  margin  between  the 
selling  price  and  the  cost  of  production.  In  the  first  reason  lay 
the  necessity,  the  second  supplied  the  need,  and  the  third  sup- 
plied the  force  that  trampled  down  all  difficulties. 

The  members  owed  a  deep  debt  of  gratitude  to  Mr.  Dean  for 
his  paper,  and  none  but  could  admire  the  work  of  the  American 
mining  engineer  as  set  forth  therein. 

Mr.  Henry  T.  Wales  (Swansea)  wrote  that  Mr.  Dean  had 
laid  special  stress  upon  the  benefits  which  had  been  found  to 
accrue  from  the  use  of  large-capacity  mine-cars,  and  the  results 
shown  were  certainly  such  as  would  be  very  warmly  welcomed  in 
South  Wales  if  it  were  practicable  to  obtain  them.  The  average 
capacity  of  the  mine-cars  in  the  American  anthracite  region  was 
stated  by  Mr.  Dean  as  3i  tons,  which  compared  with  an  average 
of  25  cwts.  in  the  anthracite  collieries  in  South  Wales. 

In  comparing  the  relative  advantages  of  large  and  small  trams 
or  tubs,  there  were  many  considerations  which  had  to  be  taken 
into  account ;  but  he  did  not  think  that  it  was  in  any  case  pos- 
sible to  leave  out  of  sight  the  fact  that,  to  a  greater  or  less  extent. 

90      TRANSACTIONS THE   NORTH   OF    ENGLAND    IXSTITlTi;.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

there  must  be  a  certain  amount  of  actual  handling?  and  moving 
of  the  trams,  both  empty  and  loaded,  by  the  workmen.  There 
was  also  the  fact  that  it  was  not  possible  to  carry  the  mechanical 
haulage  to  the  actual  coal-face,  and  therefore  the  haulage  must 
be  done  in  the  stalls  and  in  the  subsidiary  headings  by  horses  and 
ponies.  These  were  reasons  which  tended  to  limit  the  carrying 
capacity  when  the  most  suitable  type  of  tram  for  any  new  mine 
was  being  considered.  Another  important  factor  in  the  question 
was  the  width  of  the  road,  and  the  possibility  and  cost  of  main- 
taining it  at  that  width  so  long  as  it  remained  in  use. 

Instances  were  cited  by  the  author  of  cars  with  a  width  of 
G  feet  8  inches  which  would  involve  making  a  width  of  not  less 
than  13  feet  in  every  stall-road,  after  allowing  the  necessary 
room  for  the  timber  which  would  have  to  be  fixed  a  few  feet  apart 
in  the  majority  of  cases.  It  would  be  both  difficult  and  expensive 
to  form  such  roads  in  the  first  instance,  and  the  extra  width  of 
about  4  feet  more  than  was  usual  in  the  Swansea  district  would 
give  rise  to  heavy  extra  expense  in  maintenance ;  it  would  also 
undoubtedly  result  in  frequent  falls  of  the  roof,  which  was  in  a 
great  many  collieries  traversed  by  numerous  natural  cleavages 
and  breaks,  thus  causing  delay  and  interruption  in  working. 

In  his  own  district  tKe  average  gauge  of  underground  roads 
might  be  taken  at  2  feet  10  inches,  and  in  a  few  instances  this 
gauge  had  been  increased  at  new  collieries  to  3^  feet,  but  the 
change  had  not  been  generally  adopted,  and,  taking  the  newer 
collieries  as  a  whole,  the  gauge  of  road  did  not  on  an  average 
exceed  3  feet. 

Mr.  H.  W.  G.  Halbaum  (Cardiff)  wrote  that  Mr.  Dean,  in 
seeking  to  institute  comparisons  unfavourable  to  this  country, 
had  quoted  figures  which  appeared  to  be  very  striking.  However 
striking  these  figures  might  appear  to  be  at  first  sight,  the  way 
in  which  they  discounted  their  own  values  upon  closer  examina- 
tion was  more  striking  still. 

(1)  The  "  modern  "  methods  described  by  Mr.  Dean  were  not 
modern  from  the  British  point  of  view,  which  regarded  safety  as 
an  essential  condition  of  modernity.  For  machines  to  cut  to  a 
depth  of  10  feet  was  in  effect  working  10  feet  in  advance  of  the 
timbering.  That  would  not  be  considered  correct  in  this  coun- 
try— working  so  far  before  the  roof-supports  was  here  merely  a 
reminiscence  of  days  long   gone  by.     Neither  would  managers 



here  think  of  hooking  their  trailing  cables  on  to  bare  conductors, 
and  so  forth.  They  had  happily  got  beyond  such  antiquated 

(2)  The  "  modern  "  idea  in  this  country  was  to  extract  all  the 
coal.  Mr.  Dean  spoke  in  his  paper  of  a  90-per-cent.  extraction 
as  an  efficiency  to  be  envied.  Apart  from  the  Thick  Coal  of 
Staffordshire,  any  manager  in  this  country  who  was  content  with 
a  90-per-ceut.  yield  would  not  be  considered  competent  for  his 
place,  and  would  be  discharged. 

(3)  The  "comparisons"  instituted  m  the  paper  were  not  so 
complete  as  Avas  desirable.  No  doubt,  Mr.  Dean  only  professed 
to  make  "  some "  comparisons,  according  to  the  title  of  the 
paper.  But  he  (Mr.  Halbaum)  thought  that  the  British  mining 
•community  did  not  care  very  much  for  comparisons  which  disre- 
garded the  relative  effects  on  safety.  He  would  therefore  invite 
Mr.  Dean  to  include  in  his  list  a  comparison  of  the  injuries, 
iatal    and    otherwise,    sustained    under    the    modern    American 

systems  on  the  one  hand,  and  those  sustained  under  the  "  anti- 
quated "  British  systems  on  the  other  hand.  He  could  promise 
Mr.  Dean  that,  if  the  comparative  statistics  proved  that 
^'  modern  "  American  methods  resulted  in  the  higher  standard 
of  safety,  he  would  soon  find  the  British  mining  community 
adopting  American  methods.  But,  unless  Mr.  Dean  fortified 
his  case  in  the  way  indicated,  English  mining  engineers  would 
have  to  struggle  on  in  the  same  old  ruts  as  before. 

(4)  The  comparison  of  national  outputs  instituted  by  the 
author  appeared  to  be  referred  to  a  false  standard  of  appeal.  In 
the  first  place,  it  was  a  comparison  of  American  machine-mining 
with  British  hand-mining,  and  the  two  were  not  comparable. 
They  would  be  comparable  only  if  the  British  had  the  same 
proportion  as  the  Americans  of  machine-mined  coal  in  their 
national  output.  But  they  had  nothing  of  the  kind,  and  he 
would  make  Mr.  Dean  a  present  of  the  admission  that  it  was 
hardly  to  the  credit  of  this  country  that  such  should  be  the  case. 
But  he  had  no  objection  to  the  comparison  of  machine-mining 
in  one  country  with  machine-mining  in  another.  What  he  ob- 
jected to  was  the  author's  comparison  of  the  annual  output  per 
man  on  the  total  national  output.  AVould  Mr.  Dean,  for 
instance,  allow  him  (Mr.  Halbaum)  to  take  only  the  machined 
■coal  in  this  country  and  compare  the  output  per  man  on  that 

02       TRANSACTIONS THE    NOH'lIl    OF    i;X(".LA\l)    INSTITUTE.       [Vol.  Ixvi. 

with  the  output  per  man  averaged  on  the  entire  production  of 
the  LTnited  States  of  America  derived  from  every  mine  ?  He 
hardly  thought  so.  Then  it  must  be  admitted  that  the  same  con- 
sideration vitiated  Mr.  Dean's  comparison  of  the  output  per  man 
in  America  (where  more  than  half  the  coal  was  mined  by 
machine)  with  the  output  per  man  in  the  United  Kingdom 
(where  but  a  small  proportion  was  machine-mined).  If  they  made 
comparisons  at  all,  they  should  make  them  fairly.  For  instance, 
they  might  justly  compare  the  output  per  man  per  shift  attained 
under  equal  natural  conditions  in  American  machine-worked 
mines  with  the  output  per  man  per  shift  attained  in  British 
machine-worked  mines. 

(5)  Mr.  Dean  had  quoted  the  x\merican  figures  in  "  short  " 
tons  of  2,000  pounds  each.  That  promptly  depreciated  the 
American  figures  by  11'2  per  cent,  of  their  nominal  values,  and 
that  was  an  aspect  of  the  case  that  should  not  be  ignored. 

(6)  Coming  to  the  author's  comparative  figures  based  on  the 
coal  mined  by  machine  only,  Mr.  Dean  had  proceeded  on  the 
assumption  that  the  British  average  per  filler  per  shift  was  7^ 
tons.  In  his  (Mr.  Halbaum's)  experience,  60  per  cent,  or  sa 
should  be  added  to  that  amount.  He  knew  something  of  machine- 
mining,  both  by  punching-machines  in  narrow  places  and  by 
continuous  cutting  with  various  types  of  machines  on  longwall 
faces,  but  he  knew  of  nothing  that  would  justify  the  7^-ton 
standard  set  up  by  Mr.  Dean.  On  the  contrary,  he  had  found 
that,  even  in  a  seam  merely  3  feet  thick,  the  fillers  regularly 
averaged  from  11  to  13  tons  per  man  per  8-hour  shift.  Mr.  Dean 
spoke  with  pride  of  a  case  where  his  fillers  had  often  averaged  IQ 
tons  per  man  per  shift,  although  his  tabulated  results  showed 
that  the  average  was  sometimes  very  much  less.  It  might, 
therefore,  surprise  Mr.  Dean  to  hear  of  a  British  mine,  with  a 
seam  35  to  38  inches  thick,  where  any  man  who  regularly  filled 
only  10  tons  (twenty  10-cwt.  tubs)  per  day  failed  to  earn  the 
"  county  average."  Such  a  man  was  despised  by  his  fellows 
as  a  weakling  or  a  shirker,  and  his  employers  looked  upon  him 
as  an  undesirable  who  should  be  encouraged  to  quit  and  make 
room  for  a  better  man.  In  the  same  seam,  one  man  had  filled  as 
many  as  fifty  10-cwt.  tubs  (25  long  tons)  in  a  single  shift  of  8 
hours  from  bank  to  bank.  Mr.  Dean  was,  therefore,  not  entitled 
to  cast  any  reflection  upon  either  the  smaller  tubs  or  the  men 


who  filled  theiu.  His  own  tables,  in  fact,  showed  that  as  soon  as 
the  American  filler  got  into  low  seams,  approximating-  in  thick- 
ness to  those  available  in  the  United  Kingdom,  his  supposed 
superiority  either  fell  to  zero  or  became  a  minus  quantity. 

(7)  Besides  swelling-  the  American  fig-ures  by  "  short  "  tons, 
and  depreciating  the  British  fillers'  average  by  using  Mr. 
Sopwith's  quotation  (of  what  his  "  datal  "  fillers  did)  as  a 
standard  for  the  whole  of  British  practice,  Mr.  Dean  had  ignored 
the  fact  that,  taken  in  the  lump,  the  natural  conditions  were 
very  greatly  in  favour  of  the  American  miner.  There  were  no 
open-work  coal-mines  in  this  country,  and  it  was  unreasonable 
to  expect  this  country,  with  its  thin  seams  of  coal,  all  of  them 
underground,  to  compete  successfully  in  respect  of  output  with 
the  great  coal-quarries  of  America.  The  great  success  of 
''modern  American  coal-mining  viethods^'  was  more  or  less  a 
myth,  since  the  prosperity  of  American  coal-mines  was  due  far 
more  largely  to  the  geological  conditions  that  had  obtained  for 
ages  before  there  was  a  man  on  the  planet. 

(8)  Some  of  the  figures  quoted  in  the  four  tables  included  in 
the  paper  could  scarcely  be  accepted,  and  he  would  ask  Mr.  Dean 
to  explain  them.  For  example,  in  Table  I.,  if  the  depth  of  the 
cut  was  5  feet  and  the  "  average  lineal  cut  per  minute  "  21  inches, 
how  was  it  that  the  "  average  output  per  machine  per  day  "  was 
only  100  tons?  Then,  in  Table  II.,  the  "  average  lineal  cut  per 
minute  "  was  3  feet,  whilst  the  ''  average  lineal  cut  per  shift  " 
was  only  500  feet.  Was  the  shift  less  than  3  hours  in  length? 
Table  lY.  appeared  to  show  that  a  "shift"  in  Alabama  only 
lasted  50  minutes,  since  the  lineal  cut  per  shift  was  only  100  feet, 
although  the  "  average  lineal  cut  per  minute  "  was  2  feet.  Those 
"comparisons"  did  not  speak  much  for  the  superiority  of 
"  modern  "  American  methods.  On  the  contrary,  they  repre- 
sented either  very  poor  arithmetic  or  execrably  bad  practice — 
poor  arithmetic,  because  an  average  of  2  feet  per  minute  really 
gave  an  average  of  900  feet  per  7i  hours;  or  bad  practice,  if  the 
machine  was  simply  "flitting"  or  standing  idle  and  "eating 
its  head  off  "  for  three-quarters  of  the  entire  shift.  Modern 
methods  in  the  old  country  would  tolerate  neither  the  one  nor  the 
other.  Otherwise,  under  the  natural  conditions  which  prevailed, 
such  "economies'"  would  laud  half  of  the  British  collieries  in 
the  bankruptcy  courts,  however  well  these  economies  might  look 
on  paper. 

l»4       TKANSACTIOXS — THE    .VOimi    OF    EXGLAXD    INSTITUTE.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

On  re-reading-  the  foregoiny'  remarks,  the  writer  ad- 
mitted that  they  appeared  to  possess  a  somewhat  aggressive 
tone,  which,  however,  was  not  in  accordance  with  his  inten- 
tions. He  wished  therefore  to  make  it  quite  clear  that 
he  warmly  appreciated  the  many  good  points  in  Mr.  Dean's 
paper,  and  to  record  his  conviction  that  the  paper  would 
form  a  valuable  addition  to  the  Transactions.  As  to  the 
rest,  it  was  proverbial  that  "  comparisons  were  odious,"  and 
Mr.  Dean's  comparisons  did  not  entirely  escape  the  common 
taint.  It  was  no  reflection  on  Mr.  Dean  to  say  so  much,  and  he 
gave  the  author  full  credit  for  the  best  intentions  and  for 
undoubted  ability.  But  the  fact  remained  that  Mr.  Dean  had 
considered  methods  with  little  regard  to  their  influence  on  the 
standard  of  safety,  and  that  was  quite  at  variance  with  British 
ideas.  He  had  also  ascribed  much  to  American  methods  which 
might  more  truly  be  placed  to  the  credit  of  natural  conditions. 
Furthermore  (and  without  doubt,  quite  unintentionally),  he  had 
taken  a  wrong  standpoint  in  sujiposing  that  the  average  British 
filler,  working  after  longwall  machines,  only  filled  7^  tons  per 
shift.  Fillers  paid  by  time  might  stop  at  that  amount,  and  those 
who  employed  fillers  on  time  wages  deserved  just  as  much  as  the 
fillers  chose  to  do  for  them.'  But  it  was  no  part  of  any  moderately 
well-organized  scheme  to  pay  fillers  and  machine-men  by  time. 

The  credit  due  to  the  United  States  was  fully  summed  up  in 
the  one  statement  that  mining-  men  in  that  country  had  been 
more  prompt  than  their  British  cousins  to  recognize  the  value 
of  machinery  at  the  coal-face.  The  rest  of  their  success  was 
accounted  for  partly  by  the  natural  and  partly  by  the  political 
conditions  obtaining  in  the  United  States  of  America.  "What  was 
wanted  most  in  both  countries  was  better  industrial  organiza- 
tion all  round,  and  less  organization  of  the  various  opposing 
factions.  He  thought  this  was  equally  needed  in  both  countries, 
and  he  regretted  to  say  that  in  his  opinion  it  would  not  be  possible 
io  realize  that  aspiration  for  many  a  long  day.  Because,  the  first 
principle  of  genuine  organization  was  personal  self-sacrifice  on 
the  part  of  the,  individual,  and  the  very  completeness  of  the 
organization  of  each  opposing  faction  demonstrated  that  the 
popular  idea  of  organization  was  to  thrust  any  sacrifice  required 
on  to  somebody  else's  shoulders.  There  was  as  much  difference 
l>etween   that  and  genuine   organization    as  there  was   between 


seven  successive  coats  of  jjaint  aud  the  continuouvS  solar  spectrum. 

Mr.  AusTix  Y.  Hoy  (London)  wrote  that,  in  comparing-  tlie 
837  tons  per  man  per  year  produced  in  the  United  States  with 
the  annual  per-capita  production  of  the  United  Kingdom,  it 
seemed  only  reasonable  to  point  out  that  natural  conditions 
in  the  former  country  were,  as  a  whole,  probably  much  more 
favourable  to  a  high  production  per  man  than  those  in  the  latter. 

While  the  writer  had  no  official  data  at  hand  as  to  the  relative 
thickness  of  the  seams  that  were  being  mined  in  the  two  countries, 
perhaps  it  would  not  be  far  from  the  mark  to  say  that  the  seams 
which  were  worked  to-day  in  the  United  States  averaged  twice 
the  height  of  those  worked  in  this  countiy. 

The  fact  that  the  bituminous  seams  in  the  United  States 
had,  as  a  rule,  good  roofs,  and  that  they  lay  only  300  or  400 
feet  from  the  surface — or,  better  still,  were  worked  by  tunnels  in 
the  hillsides — must  certainly  also  be  of  material  consequence  in 
making  the  production  per  man  so  high  in  relation  to  other 

Ironclad  continuous  headers,  as  described  by  Mr.  Dean,  had 
been  used  to  a  certain  extent  for  narrow  work  in  this  countrj' 
for  the  last  year  or  two.  While  these  machines  had  more  than 
justified  their  installation,  it  might  be  frankly  admitted  that  it 
had  been  found  impossible  to  attain  the  same  degree  of  efficiency 
with  them  in  thivS  country  as  was  reached  in  the  United  States. 
A  number  of  reasons  accounted  for  this,  two  of  which  Mr.  Dean 
had  brought  out  in  connexion  with  the  c[uestion  of  the  size  of 
the  tubs  and  the  haulage  problem,  namely,  light  loads  and  the 
prohibition  by  law  of  the  use  of  bare  trolley  wires.  The  writer 
had  accordingly  grave  doubts  as  to  the  usefulness  on  any  exten- 
sive scale,  for  some  time  to  come  at  least,  of  a  5-ton  heading- 
machine,  as  described  by  Mr.  Dean,  when  a  22-ton  machine  had 
found  itself  in  most  cases  seriously  hampered  in  flitting  on 
account  of  light  roads. 

There  was,  however,  at  present  another  factor  which  mili- 
tated against  the  achievement  of  American  continuous-heading 
or  shortwall  machines  in  Great  Britain  of  an  efficiency  of 
more  than  perhaps  20  or  30  per  cent,  of  that  reached  across  the 
Atlantic.  This  lay  in  the  fact  that  the  lay-OMt  and  organization 
of  American  room-and-pillar  mines  was  decidedly  difierent  from 
the  pillar-aud-stall  or  bord-and-pillar  mines  developed  to  meet 

96       TRAXSACTIONS THE   NORTH   OF    ENGLAND   INSTITUTE.      [^'"1    'xvi. 

conditions  in  tlie  United  Kinprdom.  The  lay-out  and  organiza- 
tion of  these  systems  did  not  appear  quite  as  well  adapted  to  the 
cuttins:  of  a  number  of  contiguous  places  each  shift,  with  a 
minimum  loss  of  time  on  account  of  the  roads  being  blocked  and 
the  places  not  being  ready  to  cut. 

He  did  not,  for  a  moment,  wish  to  imply  that  the  American 
room-and-pillar  system  or  organization  was  necessarily  adapted 
to  British  mines  where  there  was  high  coal  and  a  fair  top,  and 
where  the  longwall  system  could  not  for  some  reason  be  profit- 
ably employed.  This  was  a  question  on  which  he  was  not  com- 
petent to  venture  an  opinion;  but,  as  one  interested  in  this 
matter,  he  wished  to  emphasize  the  great  difficulty  as  a  rule  of 
using  properly  American  continuous-cutting  or  shortwall 
machines  under  present-day  British  conditions. 

British  colliery  managers  were  not  at  all  slow  to  adopt 
improved  coal-cutting  machines,  but  were  very  ready  to  adapt 
their  mines  to  an  improved  machine  when  the  changes  were 
economically  possible.  However,  the  changes  necessary  to  work 
a  2|-ton  header  to  the  point  of  cutting  eight,  ten,  or  even  fifteen 
places  per  shift  in  a  British  mine  would  be  so  extensive  from 
everj'  standpoint  (labour,  legislative,  and  those  of  a  strictly 
mining  character)  that  'one  could  readily  believe  that  any 
manager  would  be  conservative  in  the  matter.  It  was  to  be 
feared  that  the  adoption  here  of  a  5-ton  machine,  with  the  ideal 
of  fifteen  or  twenty  places  per  shift,  was  a  matter  involving 
much  more  seriovis  modifications. 

It  was  undoubtedly  trne  that  British  colliery  managers  and 
owners  had  in  the  past  been  firmly  of  the  opinion  that  it  was 
only  in  the  field  of  headers  that  American  coal-cutter  practice 
would  be  beneficial  to  them  in  reducing  costs.  This  idea  was 
probably  based  upon  the  fact  that  in  the  United  Kingdom  about 
three  times  as  many  longwall  coal-cutters  were  employed  as  in  the 
United  States,  where  only  a  fraction  of  the  coal  was  produced 
by  longwall  mining.  Recent  events,  however,  pointed  emphati- 
cally to  the  fact  that  certain  radically  different  mechanical 
features  developed  in  the  United  States  primarily  for  machines 
for  narrow  work  (such  as  continuous  chain-haulage,  the  friction- 
clutch,  air-turbine  motors,  etc.),  when  properly  applied,  favoured 
the  construction  of  longwall  coal-cutters  of  a  very  high  degree  of 
safety  and  efficiency. 

1915-1916.]  DlSCrSSIOX — AMERICAlSr    COAL-MINING    METHODS.  97 

For  instance,  Ironclad  longwall  machines,  since  they  were 
only  2i  feet  wide  and  used  no  rubbing  posts,  not  only  piomoted 
greater  safety,  but  under  many  roofs  showed  a  considerable 
saving  in  the  cost  of  timbering  per  ton.  The  fact  also  that  they 
jibbed  under  in  a  few  moments,  and  cut  up  to  the  rib  with  only 
a  slight  delay,  had  allowed  of  their  use  to  great  advantage  where 
some  longwall  machines  would  work  under  a  serious  handicap. 
The  cutter-chain  and  jib  construction  developed  in  the  United 
States  for  holing  in  anthracite — and,  what  was  far  worse, 
bituminous  coal  containing  sulphur  balls  and  "  nigger-heads " 
— had  proved  itself  more  than  adequate  for  the  hardest  pave- 
ment holing  in  Great  Britain.  On  the  other  hand,  the  rapidly- 
increasing  use  of  these  machines  in  South  Wales  in  a  soft  and 
tender  coal — often  with  heavy  roof-pressure  on  it — was  evidence 
that  the  jibs  need  not  become  bound  in  the  cut,  but  that  the 
great  flexibility  and  adaptability  of  the  chain-haulage  permitted 
of  their  being  readily  freed  in  a  few  moments. 

Accordingly,  so  far  as  coal-cutting  was  concerned,  it  was  his 
conclusion  that  it  was  mainly  in  the  field  of  longwall  machines 
rather  than  in  the  field  of  machines  for  short  faces  and  headings 
that  the  United  States  could  be  of  immediate  service  in  assisting 
the  coal-industry  of  Great  Britain  to  meet  competition  by 
reducing  costs  and  by  raising  the  production  per  man. 

Mr.  John  Beindley  (Wolverhampton)  wrote  that  he  had 
read  the  paper  with  much  interest,  and  had  been  surprised  to 
find  that  it  was  practicable  to  deal  with  such  large  tub-loads  of 
coal  in  any  ordinary  mine.  It  was  quite  a  revelation  to  him,  as 
compared  with  anything  that  he  had  hitherto  seen  attempted. 
He  took  it,  however,  that  in  all  cases  where  these  large  tubs  or 
mine-cars  were  in  use,  there  were  no  shafts,  but  that  the  coal 
was  brought  out  of  the  mine  through  "  day-levels,"  or  "  slants." 
He  did  not  think  that  it  would  be  practicable  to  deal  with  such 
huge  tubs  in  ordinary  pit-cages,  unless  the  shafts  were  of  very 
large  diameter,  or  rectangular  in  shape.  No  doubt  the  majority 
of  the  members  would  be  of  opinion  that  such  large  tubs  and 
heavy  weights  would  necessitate  a  very  heavy  and  expensive 
roadway,  which  in  the  majority  of  mines  in  this  countiy  would 
also  present  great  ditficulty  in  upkeep,  particvilarly  in  wet  mines. 
Purthermore,   as   regarded  the   question   of  filling,   he  doubted 

96       TRAKSACTIONS— THE    NORTH    OF    ENGLAXD   INSTITUTE.      [VoLlxvi. 

conditioiiii  iu  the  Unitt'd  Kiii-^doni.  Tiie  lay-out  and  organiza- 
tion of  these  systems  did  not  appear  quite  as  well  adapted  to  the 
cutting  of  a  number  of  contiguous  places  each  shift,  with  a 
minimum  loss  of  time  on  account  of  the  roads  being  blocked  and 
the  places  not  being  ready  to  cut. 

He  did  not,  for  a  moment,  wish  to  imply  that  the  American 
room-and-pillar  system  or  organization  was  necessarily  adapted 
to  British  mines  where  there  was  high  coal  and  a  fair  top,  and 
where  the  longwall  system  could  not  for  some  reason  be  profit- 
ably employed.  This  was  a  question  on  which  he  was  not  com- 
petent to  venture  an  opinion;  but,  as  one  interested  in  this 
matter,  he  wished  to  emphasize  the  great  difficulty  as  a  rule  of 
using  properly  American  continuous-cutting  or  shortwall 
machines  under  present-day  British  conditions. 

British  colliery  managers  were  not  at  all  slow  to  adopt 
improved  coal-cutting  machines,  but  were  veiy  ready  to  adapt 
their  mines  to  an  improved  machine  when  the  changes  were 
economically  possible.  However,  the  changes  necessary  to  work 
a  2^-ton  header  to  the  point  of  cutting  eight,  ten,  or  even  fifteen 
places  per  shift  in  a  British  mine  would  be  so  extensive  from 
every  standpoint  (labour,  legislative,  and  those  of  a  strictly 
mining  character)  that  one  could  readily  believe  that  any 
manager  would  be  conservative  in  the  matter.  It  was  to  be 
feared  that  the  adoption  here  of  a  5-ton  machine,  with  the  ideal 
of  fifteen  or  twenty  places  per  shift,  was  a  matter  involving 
much  more  serious  modifications. 

It  was  undoubtedly  true  that  British  colliery  managers  and 
owners  had  in  the  past  been  firmly  of  the  opinion  that  it  was 
only  in  the  field  of  headers  that  American  coal-cutter  practice 
would  be  beneficial  to  them  in  reducing  costs.  This  idea  was 
probably  based  upon  the  fact  that  in  the  United  Kingdom  about 
three  times  as  many  longwall  coal-cutters  were  employed  as  in  the 
United  States,  where  only  a  fraction  of  the  coal  was  produced 
by  longwall  mining.  Recent  events,  however,  pointed  emphati- 
cally to  the  fact  that  certain  radically  different  mechanical 
features  developed  in  the  United  States  primarily  for  machines 
for  narrow  work  (such  as  continuous  chain-haulage,  the  friction- 
clutch,  air-turbine  motors,  etc.),  when  properly  applied,  favoured 
the  construction  of  longwall  coal-cutters  of  a  very  high  degree  of 
safety  and  efficiency. 

1915-1916.]  DlSCrSSIOX — AMEEICAN    COAL-MINIXG    METHODS.  97 

For  instance,  Ironclad  longwall  machines,  since  they  were 
only  2^  feet  wide  and  used  no  rubbing  posts,  not  only  piomoted 
greater  safety,  but  under  many  roofs  showed  a  considerable 
saving  in  the  cost  of  timbering  per  ton.  The  fact  also  that  they 
jibbed  under  in  a  few  moments,  and  cut  up  to  the  rib  with  only 
a  slight  delay,  had  allowed  of  their  use  to  great  advantage  where 
some  longwall  machines  would  work  under  a  serious  handicap. 
The  cutter-chain  and  jib  construction  developed  in  the  United 
States  for  holing  in  anthracite — and,  what  was  far  worse, 
bituminous  coal  containing  sulphur  balls  and  "nigger-heads'' 
— had  proved  itself  more  than  adequate  for  the  hardest  pave- 
ment holing  in  Great  Britain.  On  the  other  hand,  the  rapidly- 
increasing  use  of  these  machines  in  South  Wales  in  a  soft  and 
tender  coal — often  with  heavy  roof-pressure  on  it — was  evidence 
that  the  jibs  need  not  become  bound  in  the  cut,  but  that  the 
great  flexibility  and  adaptability  of  the  chain-haulage  permitted 
of  their  being  readily  freed  in  a  few  moments. 

Accordingly,  so  far  as  coal-cutting  was  concerned,  it  was  his 
conclusion  that  it  was  mainly  in  the  field  of  longwall  machines 
rather  than  in  the  field  of  machines  for  short  faces  and  headings 
that  the  United  States  could  be  of  immediate  service  in  assisting 
the  coal-industry  of  Great  Britain  to  meet  competition  by 
reducing  costs  and  by  raising  the  production  per  man. 

Mr.  John  Brixdley  (AYolverliampton)  wrote  that  he  had 
read  the  paper  with  much  interest,  and  had  been  surprised  to 
find  that  it  was  practicable  to  deal  with  such  large  tub-loads  of 
coal  in  any  ordinary  mine.  It  was  quite  a  revelation  to  him,  as 
compared  with  anything  that  he  had  hitherto  seen  attempted. 
He  took  it,  however,  that  in  all  cases  where  these  large  tubs  or 
mine-cars  were  in  use,  there  were  no  shafts,  but  that  the  coal 
was  brought  out  of  the  mine  through  "  day-levels,"  or  "  slants." 
He  did  not  think  that  it  would  be  practicable  to  deal  with  such 
huge  tubs  in  ordinary  pit-cages,  unless  the  shafts  were  of  very 
large  diameter,  or  rectangular  in  shape.  No  doubt  the  majority 
of  the  members  would  be  of  opinion  that  such  large  tubs  and 
heavj"  weights  would  necessitate  a  very  heavy  and  expensive 
roadway,  which  in  the  majority  of  mines  in  this  countiy  would 
also  present  great  difficulty  in  upkeep,  particularly  in  wet  mines. 
Uurthermore,   as   regarded  the   question   of  filling,    he  doubted 

100    TRANSACTIONS — THE   NORTH   OF    ENGLAND   INSTITUTE.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

Brinclley),  from  a  personal  knowledge  of  a  large  number  of 
mining  men,  could  distinctly  state  that  they  were  certainly  not 
born  mechanical  engineers.  On  the  other  hand  he  was  only  too 
pleased  to  acknowledge  that  a  number  of  mining  engineers, 
particularly  in  the  North  of  England  and  in  South  Wales,  were 
also  good  meclumical  engineers,  but  they  were  the  exception 
rather  than  the  rule. 

In  conclusion,  the  moral  to  be  drawn  from  the  paper  and  his 
remarks  were  that  if  the  mechanical  engineer  held  a  more 
prominent  position  and  were  better  paid,  a  superior  class  of  men 
to  those  now  holding  such  positions  would  be  available,  and 
their  employment  would  be  of  great  benefit  to  colliery-owners  and 
to  the  coal-trade  of  the  country  generally. 

Mr.  G-.  Blake  Waliver  (Tankersley)  wrote  that  there  was 
doubtless  much  force  in  the  statement  of  Mr.  Dean  that  the 
amount  of  coal  produced  per  miner  employed  iu  the  United 
States  had  very  largely  increased  in  recent  years,  and  that  the 
cause  for  this  was  to  be  sought  in  the  substitution  of  machinery 
for  human  labour.  Mr.  Dean  laid  stress  particularly  on  the 
advantage  of  large-capacity  cars,  and  had  shown  by  his  illustra- 
tions of  certain  types  of  American  mine-cars  that  it  was  practic- 
able to  get  very  large  vehicles  into  a  very  moderate  height. 
Cars  such  as  Mr.  Dean  had  illustrated  impressed  the  British 
mining  engineer  at  first  with  their  impracticability,  so  far  as 
conditions  on  this  side  of  the  Atlantic  were  concerned ;  but  it 
was  largely  a  question  of  roofs,  and  there  were  no  doubt  many 
seams  where  the  roofs  were  suflficiently  good  to  allow  of  very 
wide  roads  being  made  along  which  such  cars  could  be  emploj-ed. 
Mr.  Dean  had,  however,  also  stated  that  these  big  cars  were  used 
in  cases  where  the  roofs  were  bad. 

The  small  British  tub,  or  "  corf  "  (as  it  was  called  in  York- 
shire), was  the  successor  to  the  basket  (for  which  the  German 
word  was  horh),  and  was  about  as  big  as  two  men  could  lift  on  to 
the  tram  by  which  it  was  brought  out  to  the  shaft.  The  wooden 
tub  which  succeeded  it  was  not  very  much  larger,  and,  with  the 
exception  of  South  Wales,  the  pit -tub  in  use  in  this  country  had 
not,  as  a  rule,  exceeded  a  carrying  capacity  of  12  cwts.  A  12-cwt. 
tub  was  already  more  than  a  youth  could  safely  handle,  unless 
the  seam  was  nearly  level;  and,  when  once  a  point  was  reached 

1915-1916.]  DISCUSSIOX AMERICAN"    COAL-MIXIXG    METHODS.         101 

where  a  tub  could  not  be  handled  by  one  man,  it  was  not  of  great 
consequence  whether  its  size  were  increased  four-fold  or  five-fold, 
so  long  as  it  could  be  got  into  the  workings  of  the  pit.  It  must 
then  be  moved  by  machinery.  The  class  of  labour  which  was 
performed  by  putters,  trammers,  loaders,  etc.,  was  one  of  the 
most  troublesome  elements  of  colliery  personnel.  The  more  these 
persons  were  kept  at  the  face  the  more  work  was  got  out  of  them, 
and  if  a  3-ton  skip  or  car  could  be  moved  by  some  mechanical 
means,  the  less  severe  would  be  the  work  of  these  young  men. 

The  American  system  of  using  wide  gauges  such  as  the 
ordinary  railway-gauge  of  4  feet  8A  inches  doubtless  arose  on 
account  of  the  conditions  of  some  of  the  seams  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Pittsburgh  which  cropped  out  on  the  hillside,  where 
ordinary  railway-trucks  were  taken  into  some  of  the  thicker 
seams,  but  when  thinner  seams  had  to  be  worked  a  modification 
only  of  the  railway-truck  was  adopted.  The  American  managers 
had  thus  grasped  the  idea  that  it  was  practicable  to  use  these 
large  cars  in  the  mine. 

They  also  used  the  trolley  electric  locomotive  and  the  com- 
pressed-air locomotive  for  their  underground  traffic  to  a  much 
greater  extent  than  was  done  in  this  country;  in  fact,  the  electric 
trolley  wire  was  not  thought  safe  in  the  majority  of  English 
mines.  A  compressed-air  locomotive,  so  far  as  he  had  seen  it  at 
work,  was  rather  a  terrible  machine  to  have  in  underground 
roads,  but  doubtless  it  would  be  employed  where  the  gradients 
were  flat.  In  Germany  compressed-air  locomotives  were  fairly 
well  restricted  to  the  cross  drifts  which  were  nearly  level. 

Machine-mining  was,  of  course,  developing  rapidly  in  this 
country  as  well  as  in  the  United  States,  and  the  more  the  labour 
bill  rose  the  faster  would  these  machines  be  introduced.  In  this 
country  the  longwall  system  had  been  found  most  convenient  for 
coal-cutting,  whereas  Mr.  Dean  stated  that  it  was  not  popular  in 
America.  No  doubt  there  was  much  to  be  learnt  from  one  another 
both  by  British  and  American  engineers,  although  the  former 
gravitated  in  one  direction,  while  the  latter  adopted  an  opposite 
course.  What  one  must  guard  against  in  reading  Mr.  Dean's 
paper  was  to  discard  as  impracticable  the  system  which  was  so 
largely  used  in  America,  although  with  our  limited  shaft-room 
and  the  limited  width  of  our  cages,  it  would  probably  be  only  in 
new  mines  that  large-capacity  cars  could  be  introduced.     He 

VOL.  LXTI.— :91519I6.  8     E 

102    TEANSACTIONS — THE   NORTH   OF    ENGLAXD    INSTITUTE.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

scarcely  thought  that  mining  engineers  in  this  country  would  use 
"  dump  cages  "  in  any  case,  as  the  breakage  of  the  coal  was  too 
serious  when  such  cages  were  used. 

The  President  (Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener)  proposed  a  vote  of  thanks 
to  Mr.  Dean  for  his  very  interesting  paper. 

Dr.  J.  B.  Simpson  seconded  the  proposal,  which  was  cordially 

1915-1916]       TRAXSACTIOXS NORTH    OF    ENGLAND    INSTITUTE.  103 



Held  in  the  ^YooD  Memorial  Hall,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

December  11th,  1915. 

Mr.  T.  Y.  GREENER,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  Secretary  read  the  minutes  of  the  last  General  Meeting, 
and  reported  the  proceedings  of  the  Council  at  their  meetings  on 
November  27th  and  that  day. 

The   following   gentlemen    were    elected,    having    been    pre- 
viously nominated  : — 

Members — 

Mr.  John  Hogg,  Jun.,  Mechanical  Engineer,  154,  Prospect  Terrace,  Eston, 

Mr.  RoBKRT  Oliver,  Colliery  Manager,  Cold  Knott  Collieries,  Crook,  County 

Mr.  Arthur  Edwind  du  Pasquier,  Electrical  Engineer,  The  British  Westing- 
house  Company,  Consolidated  Buildings,  Johannesburg,  Transvaal. 

Mr.  John  Robert  I;obinson  Wilsox,  H.  M.  Divisional  Inspector  of  Mines, 
Westfield  Drive,  Gosforth,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Associate  Member  - 
Lieut. -Colonel  William  Henry  Ritson,  V.D.,  Springwell  Hall,  Durham. 

Associate — 
Mr.  Matthew   Dixon,    Colliery    Under-manager,    Middle    fStreet,     Walker, 

Students — 
Mr.  Pao  Kin  Chen,  Mining  Student,  c  o  Messrs.  Kaotze,  Chen,  &  Company, 

58,  North  Soochow  Road,  Shanghai,  China. 
Mr.  Arthur    Kkn.neth    Dawson,    Mining    Student,    Holme    House,    West 

Auckland,  Bishop  Auckland. 

104     TRANSACTIONS       THE   NORTH   OK   ENHiLANJ)  IXSTITI'TK.       [Vol.  Ixvi. 

DISCUSSION    OF    MR.    C.    W.    CHATBR'S    PAPER    ON 

Mr.  C.  W.  Chater  (Tavoy,  Lower  Burma)  wrote  that  he  had 
read  with  interest  Mr.  J.  Cogg-in  Brown's  remarks,  to  some  of 
which  he  would  like  to  refer  now,  having  visited  the  Uru  (or  Uyu) 
valley  in  February  and  April,  1915.  Unfortunately,  he  had 
not  read  Mr.  H.  S.  Bion's  paper  on  the  Uru  gravels.  These 
gravels  might  be  divided  into  three  classes  for  the  sake  of 
convenience,  and  these  he  would  call  (1)  the  hills  of  gravel 
through  which  the  River  Uru  runs;  (2)  the  accumulations  of 
gravels  forming  "  talus  "  and  river-flats;  and  (3)  the  cleaned 
and  concentrated  gravel  in  the  present  river-bed.  He  had  not  yet 
visited  the  lower  40  miles  of  the  river,  but  it  was  probable  that 
Mr.  Bion  referred  to  the  gravel-deposits  (2).  It  was  also  probable 
that  these  would  be  poorer — with  more  barren  overburden, 
deeper,  and  more  extensive — than  similar  deposits  higher  up  the 
river.  The  evidence  of  values  in  these  deposits  was  shown  plainly 
by  the  numerous  native  workings  where  hundreds  of  small  shafts 
had  been  sunk.  In  nearly  all  such  cases  only  the  upper  portion 
of  the  gravel-beds  had  been  worked,  owing  to  difficulties  arising 
from  water,  the  lower  and  probably  richer  part  being  perforce  left 
behind.  Whether  these  gravels,  together  with  the  overburden 
that  would  necessarily  be  worked  with  them,  averaged  a  value 
such  as  would  repay  working  could  not  be  ascertained  by  super- 
ficial examination,  but  by  practical  systematic  testing.  The 
gravels  to  which  he  (Mr.  Chater)  referred  were  those  under  (3). 
The  only  practical  way  of  testing  these  was  by  diverting  the 
stream.  This  was  done  during  the  last  dry  season  by  building  a 
dam  across  the  stream  (which  ran  about  20,000  cubic  feet  per 
minute)  and  diverting  it  into  an  old  channel  at  Mena,  about  2^ 
miles  up  from  Mamon.  He  had  taken  over  the  work  personally, 
and  had  carried  out  a  practical  test  for  10  days.  Due  precautions 
were  taken  by  the  writer  cleaning  up  the  sluice-boxes  himself,  by 
superintending  closely  the  cleaning  of  the  dirty  concentrates,  by 
drying,  weighing,  and  locking  up  the  clean  concentrate,  and  by 
picking  out  and  panning  throughout  the  period  pans  of  dirt  taken 
haphazard  both  from  the  workings  and  when  on  their  way  to  the 
sluices.     The  recovery  during  the  10  days  was  19  ounces  of  almost 

*  Trans.  Inst.  M.  E.,  1915,  vol.  xlix. ,  page  628  ;  and  vol.  1.,  page  14. 

1915-1916.]  DISCUSSION' — MIXING  IX  BURMA.  105 

quite  clean  coarse  o()]d-i)latiiuim  concentrate,  and  the  immediate 
expenditure  on  labour,  native  supervision,  and  oil  for  the  pump 
was  as  follows  :  — 

35  coolies  at  12  annas  per  shift  of  9  hours 

Overseer  and  pumpman  ... 

Cost  of  oilfor  the  pump  

t       s.        .1. 


17  11     0 


1     6    0 


6  10    0 


Total £-25     7     0      Rs.  383 

This  work  was  carried  on  at  a  locality  wliere  it  had  l)een  learnt 
from  local  evidence  that  there  was  good  gold  and  jade,  and  the 
foregoing  figures  must  in  no  sense  be  used  to  indicate  average 
expenditure  for  the  Uru  bed.  They  might  be  taken,  however, 
with  all  due  caution,  as  a  confinnation  of  the  conclusions  that  had 
led  the  writer  to  .st<ite  that  the  working  of  certain  portions  of  the 
Uru  gravels  ought  to  prove  very  profitable.  Any  great  extent  of 
gravels  of  this  average,  which  was  over  1  dwt.  to  the  cubic  yard, 
would  not  be  expected  ;  but  those  of  a  lower  value  could  be  worked 
at  a  profit  with  the  help  of  a  little  machinery.  Moreover,  the 
value  of  the  jade  recovered  as  boulders  should  be  added.  The 
quantity  recovered  from  the  above  working  during  about  3 
months  was  valued  on  the  spot  at  some  thousands  of  rupees.  He 
understood  that  the  average  value  of  the  ground  in  gold  over  that 
period  was  not  quite  so  good  as  when  he  carried  out  the  test,  but 
was  not  far  .short  of  1  dwt.  to  the  yard.  When  a  depth  of  15  to 
20  feet  was  reached,  the  labour  of  delivering  the  material  to  the 
boxes  by  hand  became  enormous,  and  about  80  per  cent,  of  the 
labour  was  engaged  on  removing  big  boulders,  as  funds  did  not 
permit  of  the  erection  of  a  crane. 

Although  most  of  the  jade  output  of  the  district  had  been  (and 
was  still  being)  recovered  as  boulders  which  were  originally  part 
of  the  Tawmaw  Dyke  (and  others  similar  to  it,  on  the  presump- 
tion that  there  were  any),  this  dyke,  if  it  extended  underground 
to  even  a  shallow  depth  and  retained  its  size  and  quality,  should 
prove  of  high  commercial  value.  With  the  view  of  a.scertaining 
this,  he  had  now  a  pumping  plant  on  the  way  up  to  Tawmaw.  and 
hoped  that  it  would  be  set  to  work  this  season.  The  present 
workings  by  Chinese  and  Kachins  were  A-ery  primitive. 

The  market  for  jade  was  mostly  in  China  at  present,  but 
possibly  no  effort  had  been  made  to  introduce  it  into  any  other 
countries.     The  industrj'  had  only  been  tackled  by  the  Chinese. 

VOL.  LXVI.-191o-131i;.  ^      ^ 

106    TKANSACnoXS       TIIK    XOKTU    Ol"    K,\(;LAXI)    IXSTITUTE.     ['^'ollxvi. 

Some  jade  ]ia<l,  however,  gone  lately  to  America  and  Europe. 
A  possible  use  lor  jade  might  be  for  linings  and  balls  in  tube- 
mills,  as  it  was  exceedingly  tough;  also  for  knife-edges,  pestles, 

mortars,  etc. 

He  knew  that  a  considerable  amount  of  literature  had  been 
written  on  the  Jade  Mines  district,  but  unfortunately  he  had 
read  very  little  of  it.  He  could,  however,  as  a  miner,  appreciate 
the  interest  evinced  in  the  district  by  those  writers  from  other 
points  of  A'iew. 

He  ought  to  have  explained  that  in  Burma  the  general  term 
"  jade  "  was  used,  but  the  rock  was,  as  Mr.  J.  Coggin  Brown  had 
pointed  out,  really  jadeite. 


Mr.  Edward  W.  Parker  (Anthracite  Bureau  of  Information, 
AVilkes-Barre,  Pennsylvania)  wrote  that  he  had  read  the  paper 
with  much  pleasure,  and  must  congratulate  Mr.  Dean  iipon  the 
complete  manner  in  which  he  had  covered  the  situation. 

He  could  not  say,  however,  that  he  agreed  entirely  with  Mr. 
Dean  that  the  principal  reason  for  the  lead  of  the  United  States 
in  the  production  of  coal  per  man  was  the  large  capacity  of  the 
mine-cars  used  in  American  mines.  The  most  decided  increase 
in  the  production  of  coal  per  man  in  the  last  25  years  had  been 
in  the  bituminous  mines.  The  increase  in  the  production  per 
man  in  the  anthracite  mines  had  not  shown  the  same  progress, 
although  there  had  been  the  same  tendency  to  operation. in 
larger  units  in  the  anthracite  mines,  not  only  so  far  as  the  mine- 
car  was  concerned,  but  in  the  number  of  cars  to  a  trip,  in  the 
size  of  the  breakers  for  the  preparation  of  the  coal,  and  in  the 
size  of  the  cars  in  which  the  coal  was  transported  to  market. 
Until  the  last  year  or  two,  however,  no  anthracite  had  been  mined 
by  the  use  of  machinery.  On  the  other  hand,  the  use  of  machines 
in  the  production  of  bituminous  coal  had  shown  a  phenomenal 
increase.  In  1891  only  about  5^  per  cent,  of  the  total  output  of 
bituminous  coal  was  won  by  the  use  of  machines,   whereas  in 

*  Tran>i.  Inst.  M.  E.,  1915,  vol.  1.,  page  170. 

1'J15-191G.]  DISCrSSTOX AMEUICAX    COAL-MIMXG    iir.TI10]).S.       107 

191;5  more  tlian  50  per  cent,  of  the  production  was  macliine- 
niined.  Moreover,  there  had  been  a  marked  increase  in  the 
average  capacity  of  the  machines  themselves.  In  1901  the  pro- 
duction for  each  machine  was  less  than  11,400  tons  per  annum, 
whilst  in  1913  it  was  nearly  15,000  tons  per  annum.  He  was 
strongly  of  opinion  that  it  was  this  increase  in  the  use  of 
mechanical  methods  that  was  principally  responsible  for  the 
larger  production  per  man  in  the  United  States,  as  compared  with 
the  results  accomplished  in  European  mines.  An  e^en  more 
striking  comparison  would  be  shown  if  it  were  not  for  the  limita- 
tions placed  upon  the  more  modern  machines  by  the  trade-union 
regulations.  This  was  mentioned  by  Mr.  Dean,  who  spoke  very 
justly  of  the  manner  in  which  the  efficiency  of  the  shortwall 
machine  was  reduced  by  the  limitations  put  upon  the  number  of 
men  who  were  allowed  to  load  after  the  machine  had  done  its 

He  regretted  to  state  that  Mr.  Dean's  criticism  of  the  rather 
unsightly  surface  improvements  in  the  bituminous  coal-mines 
of  the  United  States  was  warranted.  There  was,  however,  he 
thought,  a  tendency  there,  as  in  the  other  coal-regions,  towards  a 
more  aesthetic  attitude  than  there  had  been  in  the  past.  In 
the  anthracite  region  this  was  particularly-  noticeable,  and  the 
new  breakers  in  this  region  were  constructed  of  steel,  concrete, 
and  glass.  In  their  very  nature  they  were  not  of  architectural 
beauty,  but  the  surroundings  were  made  as  attractive  as  possible 
by  landscaj)e  gardening,  and  by  the  construction  of  auxiliary 
buildings  that  were  not  blots  upon  the  landscape.  He  wished  that 
it  had  been  possible  for  Mr.  Dean  to  have  visited  one  or  two  of  the 
bituminous  camps  where  some  attention  had  been  given  to  the 
better  construction  both  of  the  company's  buildings  and  of  the 
miners'  houses.  Examples  of  these  might  be  cited  in  the  town  of 
Phillips  (Pennsylvania),  where  the  H.  C.  Frick  Coke  Company 
had  built  a  model  village;  in  the  city  of  Earlington  (Kentucky), 
where  it  had  been  said  that  the  St.  Bernard  Coal  Company'  had 
made  "the  desert  blossom  as  the  rose;  "  and  in  Jenkins  (Ken- 
tucky), where  the  Consolidation  Coal  Company  of  Baltimore  had, 
within  the  last  few  years,  developed  a  large  property  and  con- 
structed an  ideal  city  in  a  region  which  four  years  ago  was 
penetrated  only  by  trails  and  hunters'  paths. 

He  would  like  to  add  that  the  technical  portion  of  Mr.  Dean's 

108    TRAXSACTIOXS— THE    NOHTII    Ol'    EXGLAXJ)    IXSTITUTK.     fVollxvi. 

paper  on  the  different  types  of  machine  and  their  methods  of 
operation  was  above  criticism. 

Mr.  AV.  K.  WiLSOX  (Fernie,  British  Columbia)  wrote  express- 
ing- with  pleasure  the  trouble  and  pains  taken  by  Mr.  Dean  in 
dealing  with  the  various  details  that  pertained  to  the  very 
interesting-  subject  of  his  paper. 

He  (Mr.  Wilson)  had  had  experience  in  England,  Germany, 
the  United  States  of  America,  and  Canada,  in  the  planning-  of 
mines  and  plants,  and  in  responsible  management.  In  adding 
his  views  to  those  already  expressed  by  Mr.  Dean,  he  would  say 
that  experience  had  taught  him  that  the  higher  production  in 
tons  per  year  of  contract  miners  on  tlie  American  Continent 
might  be  said  to  be  due  to  the  following-  causes :  — 

(1)  The  men  employed  at  the  coal-face  in  the  United  States 
worked  longer  hours  per  shift  than  the  averag-e  British  coal-miner. 

(2)  Contract  miners  on  the  American  Continent  came  from 
all  the  countries  of  Europe.  Their  initative  was  more  fully 
encouraged  by  the  mining  laws  of  the  United  States  than 
appeared  to  be  the  case  with  the  more  restrictive  laws  of  Great 

(3)  It  might  be  further  inferred,  from  what  had  appeared 
from  time  to  time  in  the  Transactions,  that  the  influence  of  labour 
unions  exercised  a  considerable  restraining  influence  upon 
individual  effort. 

(4)  The  large  percentage  of  machine-mining  in  the  United 
States  at  least  increased  the  average  productive  capacity  hj  about 
I  ton  per  miner  jier  day  over  and  above  what  the  total  returns 
would  show  if  all  mining  in  the  United  States  was  performed  by 

(5)  In  regard  to  the  larger  size  of  the  mine-cars  used  in  great 
variety  in  the  United  States  being  helpful  towards  increasing  the 
output  per  employee,  there  was  no  question  as  to  the  accuracy  of 
this  view.  For  example,  the  more  that  this  iniportant  branch  of 
mine  labour  in  the  general  system  of  haulage  was  reduced,  the 
greater  would  be  the  saving  in  actual  haulage  labour  cost.  Miners 
when  loading  a  10-cwt.  car  had  to  make  eight  movements  that 
used  up  time  while  2  tons  of  coal  were  being  loaded.  If  the 
miners  changed  their  own  tubs,  they  must  of  necessity  use  (or 
waste)  the  time  that  was  required  to  do  this  work.     If  haulage 



liaiids  did  the  clianging,  tlie  same  measure  of  lost  energy  must  be 
accounted  for  when  considered  in  rehition  to  manipulating  a  well- 
rigged  car  that  carried  from  1^  to  2  tons  of  coal. 

(6)  There  could  not  consistently  be  a  general  fixed  rule  for 
mine-tubs  or  pit-cars.  Beds  of  coal  varying  in  thickness  and 
numerous  other  conditions  that  accompanied  mining  in  the 
different  coalfields  in  America  made  such  a  rule  inexpedient, 
and  resulted  in  false  economy.  For  example,  the  presence  of 
tender  friable  roofs  necessitated  the  establishment  of  modes  of 
timbering  that  made  it  inexpedient  to  use  a  car  of  not  more  than 
certain  dimensions.  The  same  remark  might  be  used  about  beds 
of  coal  that  were  less  than,  say,  4  feet  thick,  where  heavy  dead- 
work  such  as  lifting  the  l)ottom  or  taking  down  the  roof  would 
he  necessary  in  order  to  provide  space  for  the  proper  manipulation 
of  the  cars.  The  pitch  or  grade  of  the  coal-beds  also  constituted 
a  factor  that  should  not  be  overlooked  in  mine-car  organization. 

In  the  case  of  a  coal-bed  3  feet  thick  and  pitching  35  degrees, 
it  might  consistenth-  with  all  the  circumstances  be'  worked 
from  the  working-face  with  modern  shoots  right  down  to  the 
main  haulage-levels.  In  a  case  of  this  kind  2,  3,  or  4-ton  cars 
could  be  expeditiously  used,  without  excessive  deadwork  charges 
being  incurred  in  preparing  main-level  roadways  for  motor  and 
large-car  haulage. 

Again,  if  the  coal-bed  were  3  feet  thick,  and  the  pitch  did  not 
exceed,  say,  10  per  cent.,  there  would  be  a  new  set  of  haulage 
conditions  to  consider,  namely,  the  propriety  of  keeping  the  car 
up  to  the  face,  v.hich  implied  that,  instead  of  shoots  being  used  on 
which  to  slide  the  coal  down  to  the  main  levels,  either  the  roof 
would  have  to  be  taken  down,  or  the  floor  lifted  to  make  the 
roadway  dimensions  suitable  for  the  car.  In  circumstances  of 
this  kind  a  car  that  carried  from  1  to  about  li  tons  of  coal  might 
be  planned  to  meet  the  conditions,  and  could  be  operated  at  less 
cost  than  a  tub  that  only  carried  10  cwt.  of  coal  could  be 

In  the  mining  practice  of  the  United  States  strong  compact 
pit-cars  were  often  built,  to  carrj-  li  tons  of  coal,  that  did  not 
weigh  more  than  11  to  12  cwt.  when  empty,  with  wheels  15  and 
18  inches  in  diameter,  operated  on  tracks  with  gauges  that 
varied  from  3  to  3i  feet. 

It  might  be  added  in  conclusion  that  after  40  years'  continued 

110    TRAXSACTI(3NS — THE   XOKTH    OF    KXCi^^AXD    IXSTlTrTK.     [Vol.lxvi. 

experieiue  in  nuittois  of  this  kind,  one  was  led  to  tlie  l)elief  that 
a  raiue-mr  or  tub  to  be  nearly  suitable  for  all  the  varying  con- 
ditions that  he  had  encountered  should  be  constructed  as 
follows :  — When  the  general  condition  of  mine-timbering  would 
allow  a  space  of  not  less  than  6  feet  between  stationary  timbering, 
the  gauge  of  track  should  be  3i  feet ;  the  length  of  the  cars  over 
the  bumpers,  8  feet;  and  the  capacity  of  the  car  in  coal-load,  li 
to  2  toQS.  The  weight  of  the  car  when  empty  should  not  exceed 
12  cwt.  This  gauge  of  track  afforded  ample  room  in  which 
either  men  or  horses  could  work,  and  complete  stability  for  any 
kind  of  motive  power  or  traction  power  that  it  might  be  desirable 
to  use. 

Mr.  Edward  H.  Coxe  (Knoxville,  Tennessee)  wrote  that  the 
questions  of  mine-cars  and  tracks  brought  out  by  Mr.  Dean  were 
both  extremely  important  features  in  mining. 

Where  the  thickness  of  the  seam  would  permit,  the  writer 
was  of  opinion  that  the  larger  the  car  was  (up  to  a  capacity  of 
3  or  3|  tons)  the  better,  as  a  large  car  could  be  handled  as  quickly 
as  a  small  car,  and,  as  suggested  by  Mr.  Dean,  the  time  spent 
in  topping,  tramming,  and  waiting  was  thereby  reduced.  The 
haulage  cost  was  also  reduced,  as  it  did  not  take  any  longer  to 
gather  and  switch  a  large  car  than  it  did  a  small  one.  It  was  the 
opinion  of  the  writer,  however,  that  a  car  became  unwieldy  when 
of  a  larger  capacity  than  3h  tons. 

With  regard  to  the  question  of  topping,  the  writer  did  not 
advocate  much  topping,  if  it  could  be  avoided,  on  account  of  the 
fact  that  the  coal  was  knocked  off  the  cars  and  ground 
up.  This  resulted  in  dirty  tracks,  with  the  consequent 
cost  of  frequent  cleaning,  and  a  dust-laden  atmosphere,  with  the 
accompanying  danger  of  dust  explosions.  The  writer  would 
rather  advocate  a  car  of  sufficient  capacity  to  carry  the  desired 
load,  which  should  be  rounded  slightly  above  the  top  of  the  car, 
where  the  thickness  of  the  seam  would  permit  this,  especially  in 
the  case  of  mechanical  haulage,  when  the  cars  were  subjected  to 
hard  jolts.  In  order  to  prevent  the  spilling-  of  dust  along  the 
roads,  cracks  in  the  cars  should  be  avoided,  and  solid  cars  (that 
was,  without  end  gates),  and  the  use  of  rotary  dumps  were  recom- 
mended. The  maintenance  cost  of  this  style  of  car  would  also 
be  less  than  in  the  case  of  cars  with  end  gates. 


As  suggested  h\  Mr.  Dean,  roller-bearing  wheels  greatly 
increased  the  haulage  capacity,  allowed  of  increased  output  with 
the  same  ef|uipment,  and  reduced  the  haulage  cost. 

With  regard  to  the  increased  danger  resulting  from  the  use 
of  electric  haulage,  it  had  been  the  experience  of  the  writer  that 
this  did  not  exist  to  a  material  extent  if  the  voltage  was  kept 
down  to  250,  although  he  had  known  of  a  number  of  fatalities 
resulting  from  500-volt  electric  haulage. 

The  writer  advocated  a  track-gauge  of  3^  to  4  feet  as  being 
well  adapted  to  mine  use,  as  it  allowed  room  for  clearance  and 
ditching  without  excessive  width  of  entries  or  excessive  overhang- 
to  the  sides  of  the  cars. 

With  regard  to  the  weight  of  rails,  he  (Mr.  Coxe)  advocated  40 
to  60-pound  rails  on  main  roads,  according  to  the  thickness  of 
the  seam  and  consequent  size  of  equipment,  with  30  to  40-pound 
rails  for  secondary  roads,  and  16  to  20-pound  rails  in  rooms. 
Steel  ties  were  advocated  in  rooms,  especially  in  thin  coal,  in 
order  to  save  height.  Substantial  ties,  extending  at  least  a  foot 
on  each  side  of  the  rail,  should  be  used  in  headings. 

Mr.  Haeeixgtox  Emeesox  (New  York  City)  wrote  that  he 
had  read  Mr.  Dean's  paper  with  great  interest  and  advantage 
to  himself. 

While  coal-mining  was  merely  one  of  many  sub-divisions  of 
the  work  of  an  "  efl&ciency  "  firm,  it  might  prove  of  value  to 
summarize  some  of  the  experiences  of  the  firm  with  which  he 
was  connected. 

It  was  often  sceptically  asked  how  it  was  that  an  efficiency 
engineer  could  go  into  a  business  in  which  his  experience  was 
small,  if  not  nil,  and  advise  competent  and  experienced  men 
who  had  spent  a  successful  life  on  the  work  as  to  its  manage- 
ment and  operation.  The  specialist  could  give  valuable  advice, 
because  there  were  certain  general  phases  of  engineering  applic- 
able to  all  industries.  As  to  these  general  phases  he  was  com- 
petent, first,  because  he  had  seriously  studied  them,  and, 
secondly,  because  he  had  had  very  wide  and  unusual  opportu- 
nities of  applying  them.  Xo  doctor  would  know  as  much 
about  a  patient's  wounded  leg,  and  its  pains  and  how  it 
happened,  as  the  patient  himself;  but  the  doctor  who  had  been 
treating  a  thousand  legs  in  all  sorts  of  states  on  several  battle 

112      llf.VXS.U^riO.XS — TIIK  NDinir  OV  ENGJ.ANI)  IXSTTTr'IK.       [Vol.  Ixvi. 

fronts  for  fifteen  months  knew  far  better  what  was  good  for  the 
leg-  than  tlie  patient. 

The  efficiency  engineer  tabulated  the  flow  of  money  through 
a  coal-mine  from  the  first  expense  until  the  final  return  in  cash 
for  coal  sold.  This  flow  was  a  very  complicated  matter,  requir- 
ing a  whole  system  of  stop-cocks,  meters,  and  gauges.  "With  a 
given  system  of  circulation,  the  flow  should  be  as  frictionless, 
as  rai)id.  and  as  A'olumiiious  as  possible,  and  the  difference  in 
level  between  the  first  expenditure  and  the  final  return  as  large 
as  possible. 

Without  a  diagrammatic  analysis  that  not  only  showed  the 
usual  balance-sheet,  but,  in  addition,  indicated  where  the  assets 
and  liabilities  momentarily  were,  how  fast  they  were  shifting, 
by  whose  authority,  into  what  records,  and  without  friction,  it 
was  usually  impossible  to  tell  where  the  biggest  leaks  were 
occurring.  For  instance,  the  difference  in  value  between  one 
man  and  another,  both  drawing  the  same  wages,  was  sometimes 
as  much  as  100  per  cent.  A  method  of  selection  and  assign- 
ment of  employees  that  resulted  in  having  each  job  filled  by 
the  best  available  man  would  often  do  more  to  lower  costs  than 
any  amount  of  improved, equipment. 

He  had  known  the  same  man,  under  different  methods  of 
supervision,  to  vary  in  oiitput  from  four  units  to  forty.  In 
America  two  evils  were  almost  universal — (1)  over-equipment, 
and  (2)  under-supervision. 

The  four  important  considerations  in  any  industry  were  (1) 
not  to  over  invest;  (2)  to  use  the  most  suitable  units,  whether 
men,  mat-erials,  or  machines  (equipment  generally);  (3)  to  stan- 
dardize operating  and  maintenance  costs  and  attain  standards ; 
and  (4)  to  obtain  the  rational  maximum  from  each  unit. 

The  law  of  dependent  sequences  here  came  into  play.  Depen- 
dent sequences  were  at  once  the  cause  of  modern  low  efficiency, 
and  they  were  also  the  salvation  of  the  efficiency  engineer.  If 
six  operations  were  in  dependent  sequence,  as  when  a  man 
gambled  and  only  received  back  on  an  average  90  per  cent,  of 
his  stake  on  each  turn,  at  the  end  of  six  turns  he  would  have 
only  53  per  cent,  of  his  original  stake  left.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  banking  gambler  who  won  10  per  cent,  on  eveiy  throw,  at 
the  end  of  six  throws  had  increased  his  capital  by  77  per  cent. 
The  usual  manager  was  so  busy  with  his  big  problems  that  he 

1915-1916.]        DISCUSSION— AMERICAN    COAL-MIXIXG    METHODS.  113 

overlooked  the  small  autl  avoidable  percentage  that  was  working 
against  him  at  every  step.  The  efficiency  engineer  aimed  not 
only  at  reaching  a  practical  efficiency  of  100  per  cent,  (not  a 
theoretical  100  per  cent.),  but  he  aimed  at  reaching  110  per 
cent.,  not  by  some  spectacular  change  in  equipment,  men,  or 
methods,  but  by  the  microscopic  improvement  of  many  steps. 
Moreover,  as  the  aim  of  the  efficiency  engineer  was  to  achieve 
the  greatest  improvement  in  the  shortest  time  at  the  lowest 
expense  and  with  the  least  effort,  he  did  not  apply  remedies  in 
theoretical  sequence.  He  concentrated  his  attention  on  the 
.serious  leaks  wherever  they  occurred.  A  leak  of  small  per- 
centage, but  of  large  volume,  might  be  far  more  serious  than 
a  leak  of  big  percentage,  but  of  small  volume.  It  might  be 
more  advisable  to  stop  easily  and  immediately  a  leak  of  small 
percentage  than  spend  a  long  time  on  a  leak  of  serious  propor- 

Mr.  I.  C.  Parfitt  (Jerome,  Pennsylvania)  wrote  that  he  had 
read  Mr.  Dean's  paper  with  much  interest,  and  was  greatly 
impressed  by  its  scope  and  comprehensiveness.  He  did  not  wish 
his  remarks  to  be  construed  as  adversely  critical,  but  would  like 
to  have  them  considered  as  explanatory  and  suggestive.  There 
were  many  details  that  went  to  form  the  general  phase  of  in- 
dustrial life,  and  especially  was  this  true  in  the  United  States  of 
America.  This  general  aspect  was  often  very  different  in 
character  from  that  of  the  factors  that  produced  it.  He  had 
endeavoured  to  explain  some  of  these  details,  and  to  show  their 
bearing  and  relationship  to  the  general  result. 

So  far  as  his  personal  experience  and  observation  went, 
which,  unfortunately,  had  been  limited  to  a  very  small  section 
of  the  United  States,  he  would  say  that  he  regarded  the  cause 
for  the  pre-eminence  in  the  production  of  coal  per  man  in 
America,  as  compared  with  that  of  other  countries,  as  being  due 
primarily  to  the  development  and  establishment  of  the  mecha- 
nical coal-cutting  machine  rather  than  to  the  use  of  a  mine- 
car  of  large  capacity. 

That  a  car  of  large  capacity  had  been  a  very  important  contri- 
butory factor  was  unquestionably  true ;  but,  where  the  produc- 
tion depended  upon,  or  was  the  measure  of,  the  collective 
individual  capacity  of  the  miner,  as  in  pick-mining,  the  amount 


was  (leteiininate  for  any  given  seam,  and  would  not  be  affected 
by  tlie  sisie  of  the  car,  but  would  depend  upon  other  conditions — 
principally  the  tliickness  of  the  seam  and  its  cleanness. 

A  man  was  capable  of  exerting  only  a  definite  amount  of 
natural  energy.  If  this  energy  was  expended  upon  a  seam  6 
feet  thick,  it  would  produce  practically  twice  the  amount  of  coal 
a-s  the  same  energy  when  exerted  upon  a  seam  3  feet  thick. 
The  same  remark  was  true  with  reference  to  mechanical 
power,  with  this  advantage  in  favour  of  the  latter — that  it  was 
capable  of  longer  continuous  application,  and,  therefore, 
capable  of  a  larger  relative  production  when  the  element  of 
time  was  not  taken  into  consideration. 

In  view  of  the  foregoing  facts,  he  could  not  agree  with 
Mr.  Dean's  statement  that  "  the  principal  reason  why  the 
United  States  of  America  leads  in  production  per  man  is  be- 
cause large-capacity  mine-cars  are  used  in  American  mines." 
When  mechanical  coal-cutting  machines  were  used,  the  use  of 
the  car  of  small  capacity  became  impracticable,  principally 
owing  to  the  fact  that  it  would  require  too  great  a  number  to 
meet  the  increased  production;  consequently,  the  mine-car  of 
large  capacity  became  ,a  necessity  under  these  conditions. 

The  mine-car  of  large,  as  compared  with  that  of  small 
capacity,  had  its  advantages  and  disadvantages,  the  principal 
of  which  might  be  enumerated  as  follows :  — 

Advantages. — (a)  Saving  of  time  in  loading.  Mr.  Dean 
had  very  clearly  pointed  out  the  importance  of  this  feature.  A 
very  decided  saving  in  this  and  other  directions  would  be  secured 
when  the  car  was  of  such  a  capacity  as  to  meet  the  required 
demands  without  the  necessity  of  "  topping,"  or,  as  the  term 
was  used  in  the  United  States,  "chunking"  or  "lumping  the 

(b)  Reduction  in  number  of  rolling-stock  units  for  a  given 
output,  and  a  less  proportional  increase  to  meet  a  larger  propoi'- 
tional  output.  It  was  always  an  economic  and  desirable  feature 
in  the  operation  of  a  plant  to  reduce  the  expenses  to  a  minimum. 
This  in  particular  would  reduce  much  of  the  expense  incidental 
to  purchase,  repair,  replacement  of  stock,  and  the  consumption 
of  power. 

(c)  An  increase  of  output  proportional  to  the  production  and 
the  capacity  of  the  car,  if  the  haulage  power  were  increased  to 

1915-1916]        DISCUSSIOX AMERICAN    COAL-MIXIXG    METHODS.         115 

make  tlie  time  of  tlie  trip  ami  the  leugtli  of  the  train  the  same 
as  that  for  smaller  cars.  Au  increased  output  under  anj^  con- 
ditions required  an  increased  expenditure  of  power.  If  the 
increased  output  were  proportionately  greater  than  the  increased 
cost  of  power,  the  condition  mio-ht  be  regarded  as  adyantageous, 
otherwise  it  would  be  objectionable.  This  consideration  might 
be  regarded  as  academic. 

Disadvantages. — {a)  The  necessity  for  the  maintenance  of  a 
secondary  haulage  (generally  animal)  on  moderate  and  heavy 
grades.  Even  with  the  use  of  the  size  of  rails  mentioned  by 
Mr.  Dean  in  room-work,  and  the  improvement  in  car  construc- 
tion, it  frequently  required  the  efE'orts  of  five  or  six  men  to  push 
a  large-capacity  car  from  the  point  of  delivery  by  the  motor  to 
the  working-face ;  and,  unless  a  secondary  haulage  was  main- 
tained to  meet  such  conditions,  places  of  this  character  could 
not  be  worked ;  while  with  cars  of  small  capacity  one  or  two 
men  could  handle  the  cars  easily  to  and  from  the  working-face. 

(&)  Longer  delays  in  cases  of  derailment  or  wrecks,  due  to  a 
longer  time  being  required  to  retrack  cars,  clean  up  the  debris, 
and  repair  damages  to  the  road  caused  by  the  increased  weight 
of  the  cars  and  loads.  When  a  train  of  large  cars,  travelling 
at  the  velocity  that  was  required  in  some  of  the  mines,  derailed, 
the  results  were  more  disastrous  and  productive  of  greater  delay 
than  those  of  a  like  train  of  small  cars  :  for,  despite  the  use  of 
"■  climbers "  and  other  retracking  devices,  it  happened  quite 
frequently  that  the  cars  were  thrown  into  such  positions  that 
the  haulage  power  was  not  adequate  to  remove  them,  and  it  was 
often  necessaiy  for  the  wrecked  cars  to  be  unloaded.  A  wreck 
of  this  kind,  especially  in  a  timbered  haulage-road,  caused  long 
delays,  sometimes  necessitating  the  closing-down  of  the  district 
for  an  entire  day  in  order  to  secure  properly  the  overlying  strata, 
clean  up  the  debris,  and  repair  tbe  road.  Mr.  Dean  had  con- 
sidered this  phase  of  the  matter  and  its  decrease  by  the  main- 
tenance of  roads  suitable  to  the  weight  that  had  to  be  trans- 
ported; but  it  was  an  old  saw  that  "  where  there  are  railroads 
there  will  be  wrecks,"  and,  while  good  roads  might  decrease, 
they  would  not  eliminate  wrecks,  and  while  they  might  be  less 
frequent  in  occurrence,  they  would  be  no  less  disastrous  in 
results.  The  maintenance  of  good  roads  suitable  for  the  haul- 
age of  small  cars  and  their  necessary  equipment  would  attain 


the   same   desirable   feature   of  reductiou   in   the   oeeurrenee   of 

(c)  Increased  size  and  strength  of  lioisting  machinery  when 
the  mine  opening  was  a  shaft.  When  the  capacity  of  the  car 
was  increased,  the  weight  of  the  car,  composed  of  the  same 
material,  must  also  be  increased.  For  the  same  output,  the 
same  (or  even  a  decreased)  power  might  be  used  with  a  large- 
capacity  car  as  compared  with  a  small  car;  but  when  the  output 
was  to  be  increased  in  order  to  meet  the  increased  production, 
the  size  and  power  of  the  hoisting  machinery  must  be  materially 
increased  also.  With  the  deep  shafts  that  he  (Mr.  Parfitt) 
understood  existed  in  the  British  Isles  and  Continental  Europe, 
the  question  of  an  increased  hoisting  power  to  meet  the  equivalent 
output  of  an  American  mine  would  demand  serious  considera- 
tion. Deep  shafts  in  either  the  bituminous  or  the  anthracite 
regions  of  the  United  States  were  conspicuous  by  their  absence, 
and  mining  engineers  there  had  yet  that  problem  with  which  to 
contend.  In  the  West  Virginia  field,  where  a  large  part  of  the 
data  used  by  Mr.  Dean  seemed  to  have  been  collected,  there  were 
very  few  shaft  mines.  The  larger  part  of  the  Coal-Measures  at 
present  worked  were  situated  at  considerable  elevations  above 
the  narrow  defiles  of  that  mountainous  region,  and  were  in  the 
majority  of  cases  drift-openings,  from  which  the  coal  could  be 
hauled  to  the  surface  in  large  trains,  the  "tipple"  or  drift- 
mouth  arrangement  sometimes  being  so  far  above  the  railroad 
that  the  coal  must  be  transported  down  the  grade  by  retarding 
conveyors.  Large-capacity  cars  could  be  adapted  to  such  opera- 
tions with  greater  facility  and  better  results  than  to  shaft- 

(d)  The  necessary  increased  use  of  timbers  on  haulage-roads 
where  the  roof  conditions  were  bad.  Mr.  Dean  had  named  this 
as  an  anticipatory  objection  to  the  use  of  large-capacity  cars, 
and  had  cited  instances  in  which  they  were  used  under  such 
conditions.  Such  a  proviso  did  not  necessarily  prohibit  the 
use  of  large-capacity  cars;  but  their  use  under  such  conditions 
was  productive  of  greater  danger  than  the  use  of  small  cars,  and 
especially  was  this  true  where  the  cars  must  enter  branch  or 
lateral  entries,  as  they  must  do  under  the  present  system  of 
coal-mining.  The  curves  for  such  entries  must,  necessarily,  be 
long  for  large-capacity  cars,   even  though  the  wheel-base   was 

1915-1916.]  DISCUSSION AMERICAN    COAL-MINING    METHODS.        117 

small ;  the  i)oiuts  of  coal  on  one  side  of  such  curves  were  veiy 
thin  and  long',  and  must  be  reinforced  by  timbers  either  in  the 
form  of  posts  or  of  double  sets.  It  was  an  acknowledged  maxim 
in  mining.  esi>ecially  in  Pennsylvania,  that  timbers  on  haulage- 
roads  should  be  avoided  where  possible,  and  reduced  to  the 
minimum  where  necessary. 

"With  respect  to  the  capacity  of  mine-cais  in  any  individual 
case,  his  personal  opinion  was  that  the  economic  principle  with 
respect  to  conditions,  production,  cost,  and  safety  should  be  the 
deciding  factor.  The  consideration  of  this  principle  with 
respect  to  any  one  or  two  of  the  conditions  named  would  tend 
only  towards  extremes  in  either  direction. 

In  considering  the  adaptation  of  the  mechanical  devices  used 
in  the  mines  of  the  United  States  to  the  collieries  of  Great 
Britain,  there  was  one  important  feature  that  should  receive 
serious  consideration.  The  coal-mining  classes  of  the  United 
States — that  was,  the  men  actually  engaged  in  the  digging, 
loading,  and  hauling  of  coal — numbered  among  them,  at  the 
present  time,  a  very  small  percentage  of  practical  coal-miners — 
men  who  had  spent  all  or  the  greater  part  of  their  lives  in  actual 
mining  work.  He  did  not  believe  that  he  exaggerated  when  he 
stated  that  practically  90  per  cent,  of  the  coal-miners  in  the 
mines  of  the  United  States  at  the  present  time  were  foreigners. 
In  this  term  he  did  not  include  miners  from  Germany,  Belgium, 
France,  or  Great  Britain  :  for,  without  flattery,  it  could  be  truly 
said  that  the  men  from  these  countries  who  entered  American 
mines  were  regarded  as  practical  miners,  and,  in  fact,  the 
present  status  of  the  industry  was  admittedly  due  to  the  prac- 
tical coal-miners,  former  subjects  of  Great  Britain.  He  applied 
the  term  "  miner"  to  the  agricultural  emigrants  from  Southern 
Europe — Italy,  Austria,  the  Balkan  States,  Poland,  and  Russia 
— men  who  had  never  seen  a  coal-mine  before  they  came  to 
the  United  States,  who  were  allowed  to  enter  the  mines  entirely 
ignorant  of  the  perils  which  they  were  to  encounter,  and  for 
whose  safety  and  conduct  the  American  mine  official  was  made 
and  held  strictly  accountable.  This  class  had  been  the  main 
factor  in  compelling  the  English-speaking  miner  to  leave  the 
mines  and  seek  enjployment  in  other  branches  of  industry  (this 
might  be  a  blessing  in  disguise).  As  a  result,  the  introduction 
of  mechanical  coal-miuina-  uiachinery  had  been  precipitated  in 

118    TlfANSACTKKNS TllK  .NOinil  OFENGI.AMJ  INSTITUTE.        [Vol.lxvi. 

order  to  {'Oiuiteibalauce  tli<*  foice.s  opposed  to  the  re(iiiired  i)TO- 
ductiou  tliroug-h  the  hu-k  of  ability  on  the  part  of  this  class. 
The  coal-mining-  popnlation  of  the  United  States  was  not  a 
stable  class :  they  had  no  industrial  axioms,  dogmas,  or  prin- 
ciples, no  such  homogeneity  of  consolidation,  or  mutuality  of 
interests,  as  should  characterize  a  definite  unit  in  the  industrial 
econoniy.  As  a  consequence  of  this  condition,  the  introduc- 
tion of  new  devices  for  an  increased  output  encountered  but 
very  little  (if  any)  opposition  from  the  miners  themselves, 
whether  the  device  was  beneficial  or  detrimental  to  their  inter- 
ests and  safety.  He  did  not  advocate  this  condition  as  either 
favourable  to  the  establishment  and  operation  of  a  system  of 
imposition  on  the  part  of  the  operators,  or  as  militating  against 
the  operation  of  beueficient  progress.  He  simply  stated  it  as  a 
condition  in  which  one  of  the  factors  affected  by  the  change  was 
not  competent  to  pronounce  as  to  the  nature  of  the  effects,  and 
as  being  the  direct  opposite  of  a  condition  in  which  the  industry 
was  based  upon  customs  and  intelligence  and  established  upon 
traditions  as  in  the  British  Isles,  in  which  any  change  would 
have  to  be  sanctioned  by  the  continuity  of  such  customs  and 

Mr.  Dean  stated  that  "  the  opinion  exists  in  some  countries 
that  great  danger  is  attached  to  the  use  of  electric  trolly- 
locomotives  in  coal-mines,"  but  he  did  not  state  the  nature  of 
this  suppo%sed  danger.  A  very  strong  opposition  was  urged  by 
many  good  practical  mining  men  in  the  United  States,  whose 
interests  were  as  much  concerned  with  the  safety  of  the  work- 
man as  with  the  emoluments  of  the  employer,  against  the  use  of 
electricity  in  any  form  in  mines  in  which  explosive  gases  were 
being  generated  either  in  large  quantities  from  the  seam  or  in 
indeterminate  quantities  from  roof-falls,  and  also  in  mines  in 
which  the  dust  was  known  to  be  of  a  hig-hly  inflammable  and 
explosive  character.  Experiments  in  England  and  at  the 
United  States  Federal  Bureau  Testing  and  Experimental  Station 
at  Pittsburgh  had  clearly  demonstrated  that  great  danger  existed 
from  the  use  of  electricity  under  such  conditions.  In  the  face 
of  such  evidence,  it  would  seem  unpardonable  crimiualitj'  to 
introduce  such  a  device  into  mines  where  the  given  conditions 

Mr.  Dean  had  referred  to  the  statistical  figures  given  by  Mr. 

1915-1916.]         mSCUSSIOX AMERICAN    COAL-MIXIXG    METHODS.  119 

Haniugton  Emerson  of  ^'ew  York  City  relative  to  the  startling 
low  selliny-price  and  costs  of  production  despite  the  high  wages 
paid  to  the  workman,  leaving  it  to  be  inferred  that  the  rates  in 
Great  Britain  did  not  compare  favourably  with  those  given.  He 
(Mr.  Parfitt)  had  no  data  at  hand  to  compare  what  was  regarded 
as  a  low  cost  of  production  and  low  selling-price  relative  to  other 
countries.  He  would  take,  however,  the  figures  given  bj-  Mr. 
Dean  in  the  first  part  of  his  paper,  that  the  English  miner  loaded 
Ih  long  tons  (2.2-40  pounds)  for  Ts.  (I'To  dollars).  This  meant 
that  he  received  112d.  (23j  cents)  per  ton  for  digging  and  load- 
ing his  coal.  The  machine-loader,  that  is,  a  miner  loading  in  a 
place  cut  by  a  mechanical  mining  machine,  in  the  locality  where 
he  (Mr  Parfitt)  was  situated  received  Is.  6d.  (36  cents)  per  long 
ton,  and  the  ''  cutter"  and  "scraper  "'  (the  men  who  operated  the 
machine)  each  received  3d.  (6  cents)  per  ton,  making  a  total  initial 
cost  of  2s.  (48  cents)  per  long  ton,  which  was  more  than  double 
the  initial  cost  in  an  English  colliery  for  pick-mining.  This 
allowed  an  expenditure  of  12jd.  (24f  cents)  per  ton  for  general 
mine  expense  to  equalize  the  initial  cost  in  the  case  given.  The 
coal  could  be  placed  on  the  railroad  car  at  the  tipple  in  the  United 
States  for  about  4s.  (1  dollar)  per  ton.  It  would  be  very  readily 
I)erceived  that  the  initial  cost  per  ton  of  the  coal  on  the  car  at 
the  working-face  was  greatly  in  favour  of  the  English  colliery, 
despite  the  use  of  mechanical  devices  in  production  and  haulage. 
Mechanical  devices  would,  undoubtedly,  decrease  the  initial  cost, 
increase  the  production,  and  augment  materially  the  daily  wage 
of  the  miner  in  the  British  collieries  if  other  conditions  con- 
fonned  or  could  be  made  to  conform  to  the  change.  He  did  not 
mention  this  case  as  typical  for  comparison  where  a  minimum 
initial  cost  was  the  desideratum,  for  the  field  from  which  Mr, 
Dean  had  collected  the  larger  portion  of  his  data  could,  and  un- 
doubtedly did,  produce  coal  at  a  much  less  initial  cost  than  that 
stated,  although  the  figures  that  he  had  given  might  be  regarded 
as  the  average  for  the  Pennsjdvania  bituminous  fields.  He  had 
been  informed  by  men  who  had  worked  in  the  "West  Virginia 
fields  that  in  some  parts  the  miner  was  paid  only  Is.  (25  cents) 
for  a  car  of  4  tons  capacity.  The  cause  of  this  low^  cost,  how- 
ever, was  not  altogether  due  to  the  mechanical  means  and  methods 
employed.  There  were  other  conditions  that  it  would  not  be 
politic  to  discuss. 

120     IKANSACTTOXS THE  NORTH  OF  iiS(i\..\S\)  INSTITUTP:.       [Vol.  Ixvi. 

As  ail  interpolated  tliouglit  for  individual  or  collective  con- 
sideration, lie  would  state  that  the  high  wages  of  the  coal-miner 
in  the  United  States  should  not  be  regarded  as  a  constituent 
determinative  factor  either  in  the  cost  or  in  the  selling-price,  so 
far  as  profits  to  the  operator  were  concerned,  however  paradoxical 
and  inconsistent  such  an  expression  might  appear  :  for,  if  the 
wages  were  relatively  high,  the  cost  of  living,  due  to  the  com- 
mercial conditions  attendant  upon  or  resulting  from  the  opera- 
tion of  a  protective  tariff,  was  proportionately  higher,  and  the 
larger  portion  of  such  wages  returned  as  rent  and  profits  to  an 
unwritten  compulsory  trade  system.  The  same  was  true, 
though  probably  not  to  such  a  degree,  of  all  classes  of  work- 
men connected  with  the  industry,  whose  places  of  residence 
were,  necessarily,  in  the  mining  camps.  This  was  a  feature 
that  Mr.  Dean  had  mentioned,  but  not  directly  in  this  relation. 
This  system,  he  (Mr.  Parfitt)  understood,  was  non-existent  in 

Mr.  Dean  had  mentioned  that  trade-union  regulations  had 
retarded  progress  in  some  parts  of  the  United  States.  This  was 
unquestionably  true,  but  it  was  also  historically  true  that  a 
democracy  in  the  making-,  especially  a  democracy  of  labour,  had 
made  serious  mistakes  in  political  as  well  as  in  industrial 
economy,  and,  in  attempting  to  establish  an  equality,  had 
licensed  restriction.  Britain,  as  well  as  the  United  States, 
could  review  its  own  political  and  industrial  evolution,  and 
perceive   prominent  landmarks  of  this  character. 

Mr.  Dean  had  given  a  very  accurate  description  of  pillar- 
drawing  by  machines,  but  the  dimensions  of  the  overcutting 
after  that  at  the  extremity  of  the  room  were  largely  determined 
by  the  nature  of  the  overlying  strata.  He  (Mr.  Parfitt)  had 
personally  conducted  the  drawing  of  both  room  and  entry  pillars 
by  machines  under  conditions  where  the  roof  was  very  brittle. 
The  drawing  of  entry  pillars  by  machine  was  an  unusual  proceed- 
ing, work  of  this  kind  being  done  almost  exclusively  by  pick, 
but  it  could  be  successfully  accomplished  where  the  conditions 
were  favourable.  In  both  cases,  the  shortwall  or  longwall 
machine  was  best  adapted  for  this  kind  of  work. 

The  distinction  between  shortwall  and  longwall  machines, 
so  far  as  he  had  been  able  to  discover,  was  that,  while  both  were 
of  the  continuous-cutting  type,  the   shortwall  was  not  adapted 



for  the  cutting  of  entries  or  for  any  narrow  work  where  straight 
ribs  on  both  sides  were  to  be  maintained  by  the  machine — for 
tlie  reason  that  its  cutting-bar  was  of  a  less  width  than  the  body 
of  the  machine,  and,  in  order  to  cut  tlie  required  width,  the 
macliine  must  be  deflected  to  the  left  from  a  perpendicular  line 
to  the  face,  thus  leaving  an  irregular  rib  as  shown  at  A  in  Fig.  1 
in  the  text.  The  longwall  machine  had  a  cutting-bar  of  the 
same  widtli  as  the  machine-case,  and  consequently  need  not 
be  deflected  in  order  to  secure  straight  cutting. 

Mr.  Dean's  brief  but  accurate  and  comprehensive  description 
of  American  mining  camps  was  unfortunately  too  true.  The 
American  coal-miner,  of  whatever  nationalitv,  was  more  or  less 

Fig.  1 .  — Illustrating  Mr.  I.  C.  Parfitt's  Remarks. 

an  industrial  nomad.  He  had  no  settled  habitation  that  he 
could  call  home.  The  lives  of  the  majority  of  the  camps  were 
brief.  The  houses  or  "  shacks  ''  were  the  property  of  the  com- 
pany. The  miner  had  no  inducement  to  beautify  his  dwelling, 
because  his  tenure  was  brief  and  uncertain.  He  had  spent  his 
life  in  such  camps,  and  fully  realized  the  depressing  effects  of 
their  environment.  They  possessed  no  characteristics  such  as 
could  elevate  the  class  either  physically,  mentally,  or  morally. 
In  electric-locomotive  haulage  the  combined  use  of  sand  and 
brakes  on  grades  had  a  great  wearing  effect  upon  the  wheels  of 
all  rolling-stock,  but  especially  on  those  of  the  mine-cars.  Even 
the  best  design  of  chilled  M-heels,  under  these  conditions,  soon 
presented  anything  but  a  circular  wheel  tyre.     A  very  ludicrous 

VO[„  LXVI.— 19lD-191fi  9     E 

122     TRANSACTIONS TllKNOinil  ()!■    KN(.  I  AND  1  NSI ITITE.      [Vol.lxvi. 

illustration  of  this  effect  was  given  by  a  miner  in  a  plant  where 
the  haulage  was  entirely  electrical ;  he  remarked  that  he  had  a 
car  one  day  that  had  so  many  flat  places  on  the  wheels  that  when 
he  and  his  (•()nii)iini()u  attempted  to  })usli  the  car  forward  the 
wheels  revolved  backward  ! 

Mr.  Josiah  Keely  (Kayford,  West  Virginia)  wrote  that, 
whilst  his  experience  had  been  confined  to  certain  districts  of 
Pennsylvania  and  West  Virginia,  his  connexion  had  been  with 
companies  operating  in  several  States,  thus  bringing  their 
methods  to  his  attention. 

Fig.  2.— New  Type  of  Coai.-cutting  Machine.     Illustratinc;  Mr.  Josiah 
Keely's  Remarks. 

He  thought  it  rather  unfortunate  that  Mr.  Dean  had  not 
so  extended  his  paper  as  to  cover  the  one  point  that  was  of  ulti- 
mate interest  to  all  coal-producers,  namely,  profits. 

With  all  their  devices  and  improvements  for  increasing 
tonnage  per  man  and  decreasing  costs,  they  were  not  taking  into 
consideration  the  cost  of  production  when  the  mine  became  more 
than  half  worked  out.  New  mines  competed  with  old  mines 
when  the  difference  in  costs  of  production  was  as  much  as  20 
cents  per  ton,  and  new  mines  were  being  opened  and  old  ones 

1915-1916]        DISCUSSION AMERICAX    COAL-MIXING    METHODS.       123 

Fig.  3.  — New  Type  of  Coal-cdtting  Machine.     iLLusxRATiNri  Mr.  Josiah 
Keely's  Remarks. 

Fig.  4. — New  Type  of  Coal-cctting  Machine.     Illustrating  Mr.  Josiah 
Keely  s  Remarks. 

124     THAXSACTIOXS — THE  NORTH  OF  KN(;i,ANl)  INSTITl'TK.      F^'"'    '^vi. 

Some  of  the  memher.s  would  probably  be  interested  in  unusual 
types  of  foal-(nittin<>-  machines.  Figs.  2,  3,  and  4  in  the  text 
illustrated  a  machine  wliich  was  being'  experimented  with  by  an 
inventor  in  the  Xew  River  field.  He  (Mr.  Keely)  thought  that 
there  seemed  to  be  some  merit  in  his  conception — it  was  at  least 
rather  ingenious.  The  cutter-bar  was  auger-shaped,  with  bits  set 
along  the  worm.  This  auger  had  both  a  rotary  and  a  saw  move- 
ment, and  was  sumped  and  drawn  across  the  face  after  the 
manner  of  a  shortwall  machine.  Imagination  would  suggest 
some  of  the  claims  made  for  this  machine. 

Mr.  Hugh  Archbald  (Scranton,  Pennsylvania)  wrote  that 
Mr.  Dean  had  confined  his  attention  almost  entirely  to  the 
machinery  used  in  mines,  and  had  given  but  a  hint  of  the 
economic  engineering  wliich  was  developing  and  promised  results 
as  important  as  those  derived  from  machine-mining. 

There  was  in  the  United  States  more  coal  than  was  needed  at 
present — Colorado  was  estimated  to  possess  enough  to  last  for 
32,000  years  at  the  present  rate  of  production.  It  had  been  so 
easy  a  matter  to  open  up  a  mine  (particularly  so  in  the  past)  that 
over-production  was  a  constant  factor.  In  consequence,  the 
prices  that  were  obtained  for  the  coal  were  lower  than  the 
quotations  which  he  had  seen  for  English  coal.  In  the  last 
10  or  15  years  the  demand  for  Pennsylvanian  anthracite,  which 
was  the  highest  priced  coal  in  the  Vnited  States,  with  more 
difficult  mining  conditions  than  bituminous  coal,  had  about 
equalled  the  production,  and  the  price  per  ton  at  the  mines  had 
been  about  10s.  (2^  dollars).  The  price  for  Pennsylvanian 
bituminous  had  averaged  half,  or  less,  of  this  amount,  and  the 
demand  had  not  equalled  what  it  was  possible  for  the  mines  to 
produce . 

The  relatively  flat  seams  of  the  bituminous  regions  presented 
conditions  favourable  to  the  development  of  machine-mining, 
while  the  pitching  seams  of  the  anthracite  region  necessitated 
hand- work. 

The  first  mines  opened  in  the  United  States  were  those  where 
a  drift  could  be  run  in  on  the  hill-side  on  the  outcrop  of  the 
seam,  for  this  involved  the  least  expense.  A  great  quantity  of 
coal  Mas  now  produced  from  these  mines.  As  there  was  in  the 
past  more  idle  time  even  than  there  was  now,  it  had  been 
necessary  to  keep  down  the  overhead  expenses,  and  so  the  very 
cheapest  supervision  had  been  maintained. 



The  beg^intiingr  of  each  of  these  mines  was  simple  :  the  coal 
was  near  the  surface  and  the  veins  larg-e  ;  there  was  no  distance 
underground  to  cover  with  any  organization  ;  but,  as  the  mining 
continued,  the  space  opened  up  underground  increased,  and  the 
cost  of  mining  also  went  up.  In  order  to  keep  the  output  up 
and  the  costs  down,  relief  had  first  been  sought  in  the  application 
of  machinery.  The  competition  between  the  manufacturers  had 
developed  the  quality  of  the  machines  faster  than  the  absorptive 
power  of  the  people  who  were  intended  to  use  them  and  who  were 
good  practical  men  accustomed  to  manual  methods.  In  conse- 
quence, the  hopes  for  the  economic  salvation  of  some  mines 
through  the  introduction  of  machinery  had  not  always  been 
realized:  for  the  reason  that  with  each  machine,  and  consequent 
division  of  labour,  a  complication  in  organization  had  also  been 
introduced.  This  fact  was  now  being  realized,  and  attention 
was  beginning  to  be  paid  to  it.  The  next  great  development 
in  American  practice  would  be  along  lines  similar  to  the 
organization  which  had  been  progressing  in  the  factories  in  the 
past  few  years,  and  had  been  known  as  "  efficiency  engineering." 

An  instance,  slight  in  itself,  but  showing  the  false  reliance 
which  had  often  been  placed  on  machinery,  occurred  at  an 
anthracite  mine.  The  desire  was  to  increase  the  output.  A  new 
headframe  had  been  built  and  machinery  to  load  the  coal  for 
hoisting  at  the  two  levels  inside  the  mine  installed ;  but  the 
output  did  not  increase  immediately.  On  examination  of  the 
proper  use  of  the  machiuerj^  it  was  discovered  that  the  hoisting- 
engineers — although  old,  reliable,  and  steady — took  from  10  to 
20  seconds  to  respond  to  the  signal  to  hoist.  This,  repeated  300 
times  a  day,  lost  a  substantial  part  of  the  working-  day.  When 
the  attention  of  the  engineers  was  called  to  this  matter,  they 
promptlj'  corrected  the  fault  themselves,  and  the  amount  of  coal 
hoisted  increased. 

At  a  bituminous  mine  176  loaders  were  employed,  and  the 
company  advei-tised  for  more  men.  The  miners'  union  advertised 
in  opposition  that  enough  men  were  already  employed.  On 
organization  of  the  work,  the  same  amount  of  coal  was  produced 
witli  120  men. 

At  the  first  mine  mentioned,  through  the  attention  given  to 
many  details  in  the  organization  of  the  work,  the  output  was 
increased  from  450  cars  with  a  capacity  of  108  cubic  feet  to  over 
GOO,  and  some  fewer  men  were  employed. 


During  an  investigation  it  was  foimd  that  under  the  loose 
organization  customary  in  many  mines,  a  "company-hand" — 
a  track-layer,  a  timberman,  a  mason,  etc. —  spent  only  about  25 
per  cent,  of  his  time  in  effective  work,  the  rest  of  his  time  being 
employed  in  procuring  material  or  tools,  or  in  learning  exactly 
what  had  to  be  done. 

He  (Mr.  Arclibald)  mentioned  these  incidents,  not  in  order  to 
call  attention  to  bad  points  in  American  mining  methods,  but  in 
order  to  call  attention  to  an  improvement  that  was  in  progress. 
There  were  many  bright  spots  in  work  of  this  kind.  In  some 
mines  the  trains  of  cars  were  handled  by  a  despatcher  who  was  in 
constant  telephonic  communication  with  all  parts  of  the  mine, 
and  the  trains  were  run  on  schedule  time. 

Mr.  Dean  spoke  in  a  disparaging  manner  of  the  sentiment  in 
favour  of  "  welfare  work "  at  American  mines.  He  (Mr. 
Arclibald)  imagined  that  the  workmen  in  the  United  States  were 
much  more  dependent  upon  the  mine  management  for  the 
conditions  under  which  they  lived  than  were  the  workmen  of 
Britain,  because  the  mines  were  often  situated  in  districts  where 
mining  was  the  only  industry,  and  it  was  necessary  for  the 
management  to  build  a  .town  when  the  mine  was  opened. 

It  was  a  pleasure  to  many  to  see  on  the  part  of  the  operators 
the  steadily  increasing  assumption  of  their  responsibilities  to 
furnish  reasonably  good  living  conditions.  Men  of  all  nationali- 
ties worked  in  American  mines,  and  the  new  recruits  were  mostly 
from  non-English-speaking  countries,  although  the  older  miners 
were  Engdish-speaking,  more  of  whom  would  be  welcomed. 
Even  though  the  non-English — who  were  often  known  as 
"foreigners"  even  in  the  United  States — were  accustomed  to 
low-living  conditions,  it  was  realized  that  it  did  not  pay  to  allow 
conditions  such  as  would  not  permit  a  man  to  recuperate  from 
his  work  during  his  hours  of  leisure. 

Mr.  Dean  was  right  in  painting  a  cheerful  picture  of  mining 
in  America,  and  the  outlook  for  advancement  in  mining 
engineering  and  in  the  accompanying  economic  and  social  con- 
ditions, based  on  present  and  past  performance,  was  bright.  The 
output  per  man  might  at  present  be  high  in  comparison  with 
other  countries,  but  one  could  expect  to  see  this  materially  in- 
creased as  organization  of  work  concurrently  with  the  use  of 
machinery  was  developed. 


Mr.  H.  Eeisser  (Chicago,  Illinois)  wrote  that  Mr.  Dean  had 
apparently  made  a  very  careful  study  of  what  was  being  done 
in  the  West  Virginian  mining  field,  and  had  certainly  covered 
the  ground  correctly. 

There  was  veiy  little  to  which  he  (the  writer)  coukl  take 
exception,  saving,  possibly,  the  last  paragraph.  Truly  no 
mining  village  was  beautiful,  but  eiforts  were  achieving  results, 
and  the  writer  could  instance  quite  a  few  villages  which  had 
been  laid  out  with  pleasant  surroundings,  and  were  being 
improved  for  comfort  and  the  incentive  of  the  workers. 

As  to  the  construction  of  elaborate  surface  preparing  plants, 
he  believed,  without  exaggeration,  that  West  Virginia  led  the 
American  bituminous  fields  in  the  extent  of  careful  refinement 
and  handling  of  their  coal.  The  character  of  the  mineral  was  so 
fragile  as  to  make  it  almost  impossible  to  grade  it  into  more  than 
five  sizes,  namely,  so-called  lump,  egg",  nut,  pea,  and  slack; 
any  more  than  these  would  be  simply  a  mixture  of  two  or  more 
sizes,  and  the  demand  did  not  warrant  it.  For  the  production 
of  these  sizes,  however,  preparation  was  becoming  very  stringent, 
and  breakage  due  to  rough  handling  was  something  that  would 
not  be  tolerated.  When  one  considered  that  the  operators  were 
willing  to  spend  from  £200  to  £240  (|1,000  to  |1,200)  each  for 
the  laying  of  the  first  three  named  sizes  into  the  railroad-cars, 
with  a  guarantee  of  no  breakage  over  2  to  3  per  cent.,  it  could 
readily  be  seen  to  what  extent  the  modern  preparation  was 

The  tendency  towards  steel  structures  was  also  becoming 
popular,  probably  largely  on  account  of  fire,  but  appropriate 
design  could  often  convert  these  otherwise  dismal  structures  into 
ones  pleasant  to  the  eye,  and  he  believed  that  manufacturers  were 
aiming  at  making  them  as  unobtrusive  as  possible. 

Mr.  W.  R.  Peck  (Big  Stone  Gap,  Virginia)  wrote  that  it  was 
with  great  interest  that  he  had  read  Mr.  Dean's  paper.  Since  the 
writer  had  had  no  opportunity  of  a  visit  to  the  coal-mining 
regions  of  Europe,  the  comparisons  made  in  the  paper  could  not 
be  verified;  but  the  allusions  to  the  American  coal-mining 
industry  were  correct,  and,  for  a  short  paper,  gave  to  the  reader 
a  very  complete  and  comprehensive  idea  of  its  several  interesting 

128     THANSACTIONS THE  NORTH  OF  KXOI.A.Nl)  IXSTITUTK.      ry,,!.  Ixvi. 

Mr.  l)e;m  called  attention  to  the  fact  that  modern  mines  in 
the  United  States  had  improved  their  hanlaj^-e-roads  until  they 
were  really  under <>roniHl  tracks  that  compared  favonrably  with 
the  railroads.  This  was  very  true  concerninj^-  the  large  com- 
panies, and  to  a  less  extent  amon<^'  all  mining  companies.  It 
was  due  to  the  fact  that  the  operating  companies  had  realized 
that  every  improvement  in  the  haulage-roads,  hoth  in  track  and 
in  equipment,  involved  a  larger  output  with  decreased  cost  per 

The  conditions  in  the  IJnited  States  were  such  that  a  mining 
company  had  a  fixed  price  to  pay  for  the  cutting  and  loading  of 
the  coal.  This  price  could  not  be  lowered,  either  through  labour 
unions  or  because  of  the  prices  prevailing  in  the  particular  coal- 
field in  which  the  company  was  located  :  so  that,  in  order  to 
decrease  the  cost  of  mining,  it  was  necessary  to  reduce  the  trans- 
portation charge — that  was,  to  reduce  the  cost  per  ton  that  must 
be  expended  to  haul  the  loaded  car  from  the  working-face,  to 
dump  it  into  the  railroad-cars,  and  to  return  it  empty  to  the 
loader.  To  obtain  this  decrease  the  best  of  tracks  were  required, 
which  made  wrecks  either  impossible  or  reduced  their  number 
to  a  minimum,  while  a  iigh  rate  of  speed,  with  large  trips,  could 
be  maintained.  Better  and  larger  capacity  cars,  equipped  with 
tracks  that  could  stand  the  greatest  wear  and  cause  the  least 
friction,  and  large  haulage-motors  of  the  best  type  that  would 
handle  the  large  trips  with  the  least  demand  on  the  power-house, 
and  with  the  minimum  of  upkeep  charge,  were  also  the  result 
of  this  practice. 

To  secure  good  alignment  and  grade  on  the  motor-roads, 
alignment  sights  were  set  on  tangents  for  the  track-layers  every 
100  feet,  and  on  curves  every  25  or  10  feet,  depending  on  the 
degree  of  curvatiire.  Top  or  bottom  was  taken  when  necessary, 
in  accordance  with  the  engineers'  grades,  in  order  to  ensure  a 
good  gradient ;  careful  prospecting  was  the ,  rule  in  laying  out 
the  main  haulage-roads  in  the  development  of  new  territory,  in 
order  to  have  the  best  natural  grade  and  provide  also  for  natural 

It  would  seem  (from  Mr.  Dean's  paper)  that  an  increase  in  the 
size  of  the  mine-cars  used  in  Britain  would  be  of  material 
advantage  to  the  operating  companies.  The  large-capacity  car, 
with  the  improved  roller-bearing  wheels,  had  done  wonders  in 


the  United  States.  The  conclusion  must  not,  however,  be  drawn 
from  the  foreg'oing'  remarks  that  all  that  was  necessary  was  to 
increase  the  capacity  of  the  mine-car  in  order  to  procure  a  greater 
tonnage  per  loader  with  a  decreased  cost  per  ton.  A  great  many 
elements  entered  into  this  question,  as  it  was  also  necessary 
at  all  times  that  the  supply  of  cars  should  be  sufficient  to  supply 
the  loaders  with  only  a  minimum  delay,  that  the  different  places 
were  cut  and  shot  down  on  time,  and  that  the  many  causes  of 
delays  around  the  mines  were  all  reduced  to  a  minimum. 

The  gauge  of  mine-car  tracks  was  also  very  important,  and, 
in  order  to  secure  the  best  results,  it  was  imperative  that  the 
g'aug-e  of  the  track  should  be  such  that  it  best  fitted  the  conditions 
found  in  the  individual  mine.  In  America  the  g^auge  varied 
from  -30  to  50^  inches,  but  the  most  popular  gauge  was  from 
42  to  48  inches.  A  gauge  of  less  than  40  inches  was  very 
uncommon,  the  tendency  being  to  secure  a  car  of  wide  gauge, 
large  capacity,  but  low  in  height. 

Modern  mining  machinery  (coal-cutters  and  tipple  equip- 
ment) had  also  done  its  part  in  increasing  the  average  output 
in  tons  per  loader.  Competition  had  been  keen  among  the  manu- 
facturers of  all  kinds  of  mining  machinery,  and  this  fact  had  led 
to  the  rapid  improvement  in  each  and  every  machine,  so  that 
at  the  present  time  one  could  obtain  almost  any  type  of  machine, 
car,  or  dump  that  would  suit  the  conditions  of  the  particular 
mine  that  one  was  operating. 

Nevertheless,  before  any  radical  change  was  made  in  any 
mine,  a  very  careful  study  of  the  existing  conditions  should  be 
made,  so  that  when  the  proposed  changes  were  accomplished  one 
would  have  the  pleasure  of  viewing  an  improvement,  and  not  be 
rudely  awakened  to  the  fact  that  a  quantity  of  machinery  had 
l)een  purchased  that  was  absolutely  unfitted  for  the  particular 

Judging  from  the  several  descriptions  of  surface  plants  of 
European  coal-mines  that  the  writer  had  had  the  opportunity  of 
reading,  Mr.  Dean's  report  on  the  surface  plants  of  the  bitu- 
minous mines  of  the  United  States  was  correct  when  compared 
with  those  of  Great  Britain  and  other  countries  of  Europe.  But 
the  conditions  in  the  United  States  were  very  different  from  those 
met  with  in  the  older  countries  :  a  great  many  of  the  bituminous 
mines  were  on  leaseholds  of  from  20  to  30  years,  perhaps  with  a 


renewal  clause  at  au  increased  royalty.  As  the  usual  term  of 
years  was  such  that  the  lease  would  be  exhausted  under  the 
normal  conditions  of  the  coal-market,  there  was  no  need  to  huild 
for  several  years  beyond  that  term. 

The  last  ten  years,  however,  liad  sliown  a  marked  improve- 
ment in  the  buildings  erected,  and,  while  the  miners'  houses  were 
seldom  constructed  of  brick  or  concrete,  the  present  type  was  one 
of  g'ood  wooden  construction.  Many  were  now  equipped  with 
what  was  rapidly  becoming  to  be  considered  a  labourer's  neces- 
sity— electric  light  and  running  water.  The  companies  were  also 
trying  by  the  means  of  cash  prizes  and  other  encouragement  to 
induce  the  mine-labourer  to  take  an  interest  in  his  house  and 
garden,  and  this  method  had  produced  wonderful  results.  The 
fact  tbat  the  average  mine-labourer  did  respond  had  caused 
several  of  the  mining  companies  to  take  still  greater  pride  in 
their  camps;  and  it  was  a  fact  that  in  many  instances  mine- 
labourers  had  been  discharged  because  they  had  not  kept  their 
house  and  yard  according  to  the  standard  of  the  camp.  These 
methods,  combined  with  this  spirit,  would  eventually  turn  many 
of  the  present  "eye-sores"  into  mining  villages  that  would 
compare  favourably  with  those  of  any  other  country. 

In  the  construction  of  tipples,  power-houses,  etc.,  permanent 
buildings  of  steel,  concrete,  and  brick  now  predominated 
throughout  the  United  States.  This  was  partly  due  to  the 
demand  for  better  prepared  coal,  requiring  more  men  on  the 
tipples,  and  also  to  the  use  of  more  expensive  machinery  that 
must  be  protected  from  fire  and  the  weather. 

While  he  was  dealing  with  the  improvements  made  in  the 
housing  of  employees  and  mining  machinery,  it  did  not  seem 
amiss  to  mention  some  of  the  improvements  due  to  the  interest 
taken  by  both  the  company  and  the  labourer  in  first  aid  and  mine- 
rescue  work.  The  "safety  first"  idea  was  very  new  in  the 
United  States,  but  it  had  gained  a  permanent  foothold,  and  would 
continue  to  gain  in  all  American  industries.  "  Safety  first  "  had 
brought  the  company  and  the  individual  closer  together,  and 
had  made  each  realize  that  in  many  cases  their  interests  were 
identical.  It  had  brought  about  many  improvements  in  the 
safety  of  handling  the  machines,  the  setting  of  props,  the  removal 
of  dangerous  roof,  and  in  general  had  produced  greater  efficiency 
among  mine-labourers. 

1915-1916]      DlSCrSSIOX AMERICAN    COAL-MIXIXG    METHODS  131 

Working  on  this  idea  of  ''  safety  first,"'  several  large  cor- 
porations had  installed  series  of  moving  pictures  that  explained 
to  the  foreign  miner  and  mine-labourer  the  correct  way  to  perform 
his  many  duties  connected  with  the  mining  of  coal. 

Practically  eveiy  mine  had  its  first-aid  team,  and,  in  order 
to  create  more  interest  in  this  work,  many  companies  paid  every 
man  who  was  on  a  first-aid  team,  or  who  attended  the  lectures 
and  instruction  courses,  for  all  the  time  thus  spent  at  the  same 
rate  as  his  daily  earnings. 

In  conclusion,  the  writer  could  not  positively  state  what  all 
American  engineers  would  say  if  they  received  a  wire  from  their 
mine-owners  directing  them  to  replace  their  3-ton  cars  by  cars 
of  only  10  cwts.  capacity,  as  suggested  by  Mr.  Dean.  If  the 
owners,  however,  insisted  on  the  change,  the  message  from  the 
engineer  would  be  a  resignation,  to  take  effect  at  once :  for, 
if  the  change  were  made,  in  most  of  the  American  mines  the 
engineer  or  manager  who  did  not  resign  would  in  six  mouths' 
time  be  discharged,  because  his  costs  would  be  eliin1)ing  upwards, 
his  output  dropping  in  the  opposite  direction,  and  his  camp  a 
nest  of  disgruntled  and  disloyal  employees. 

Mr.  Alfeed  J.  ToxGE  (Glace  Bay,  Xova  Scotia)  wrote  that 
Mr.  Dean's  paper  was  apparently  intended  to  invite  further  dis- 
cussion on  the  relative  capacities  of  the  tubs  or  boxes  as  gener- 
ally used  in  Great  Britain  and  in  the  United  States  of  America. 
That  the  considerable  outputs  from  the  collieries  in  the  T'nited 
States  must  be  associated  with  the  large  candying  capacity  of  the 
mine-cars,  and  the  haulage  problems  involved,  allowed  little 
room  for  doubt;  but  that  the  same  universal  system  could  be 
applied  in  Great  Britain  would,  on  the  otlier  hand,  give  much 
room  for  a  contrary  opinion.  There  was,  however,  a  possible 
need  for  serious  reflection  on  the  part  of  British  colliery  engineers 
as  to  how  far  they  could  go  towards  increasing  the  caiTying 
capacity  of  the  boxes  and  improving  the  rolling-stock,  the  per- 
manent way,  and  the  haulage  facilities  in  the  mines. 

It  was  not  difficult  to  see  that  Mr.  Dean  had  constantly  in 
mind  in  his  paper  the  use  of  the  electric  mine  locomotive.  With 
this  in  view  and  the  concomitant  good  track,  easy  grades,  and  the 
minimum  of  risk  of  derailment  and  breakage,  there  was  justifica- 
tion for  improving  the  '*  starting  torque "   by   such   means   as 

182      I  UANS.UTIONS TIIK  NORTH  OF  EXGL.VNJ)  INS'IITITE.      fVol.  Ixvi. 

spring-  drawbars,  roller-bearing's,  a  reduction  in  tlie  gross  tare  of 
tlie  boxes,  etc.  A  large  mine-car  involved  the  provision  of  good 
roadways  and  substantial  tracks  right  up  to  and  including  the 
woiking-face,  and  the  use  of  motive  power  either  for  the  entire 
distance,  or  motive  power  for  the  major  and  horse  or  mule  power 
for  a  very  minor  portion  of  the  distance.  Manual  labour  in  con- 
nexion witli  the  moving  of  the  boxes  was  almost  eliminated. 

Very  few  collieries  in  Great  Britain  would  be  found  to  offer 
the  same  field  as  America  for  the  conditions  of  work  described 
and  implied  by  the  writer  of  the  paper.  The  deep  seams  had  per- 
force to  be  worked  by  longwall,  which  necessitated  brushing; 
the  roadways  presented  a  continually  changing  surface,  which 
rendered  electric  locomotives  and  trolley  work  difficult,  even  if 
the  use  of  electricity  were  considered  advisable,  which  was  scarce- 
ly likely.  The  thicker  and  often  the  shallower  seams  where  the 
j)illar-and-stall  system  was  in  vogue,  and  where  the  conditions 
would  approach  those  that  Mr.  Dean  probably  had  in  mind, 
were  becoming  very  scarce.  Other  mines  were  either  small,  dry, 
steep,  of  faulted,  all  of  which  conditions  would  again  aff'ect  the 
situation  as  to  the  use  of  large  boxes.  In  his  (Mr.  Tonge'«) 
opinion  the  use  of  a  box  of  increased  capacity  could  be  advant- 
ageousl}'  extended  in  collieries  in  Great  Britain,  although  not 
perhaps  under  the  conditions  which  prevailed  in  the  United 
States.  Among  these  might  be  mentiojied  the  collieries  that 
proposed  to  adopt  extensively  the  face-conveyor. 

That  much  could  be  gained  by  a  study  of  the  methods  of  the 
United  States  need  not  be  stated.  The  importance  attached  to 
the  quick  handling  and  dispatching  of  coal  in  and  out  of  the 
mine,  the  substantial  rolling  and  permanent  stock,  and  the  neces- 
sity for  the  use  of  machinery,  not  only  for  transporting,  but  for 
handling-  the  coal,  had  developed  several  classes  of  skilled  under- 
ground men.  Each  of  these  classes  was  capable  of  carrying  on 
certain  operations  for  supplying  the  needs  of  the  man  at  the 
face,  whose  almost  sole  duty  it  was  to  fill  as  large  an  amount  of 
coal  as  possible.  There  could  be  no  gainsaying  that  Mr.  Dean 
was  right  in  avowing  that  this  man  could  in  a  given  time,  assum- 
ing that  there  was  room,  fill  more  coal  in  a  few  large  boxes  than 
in  many  small  ones  ;  but  the  conditions  at  the  coal-face  were  only 
a  part  of  the  whole  conditions  requiring  consideration. 

1915-1916.]       DISCUSSIOX AMERICAX    COAL-MINING    METHODS.  133 

Mr.  Ealph  ^V .  Mayer  (Eoslyn,  Washington)  wrote  that  a 
hig"h  degree  of  efficiency  conhl  only  be  obtained  from  a  steani- 
eugine  and  boiler  if  a  good  grade  of  coal  and  that  in  sufficient 
quantity  was  used.  In  the  same  way.  a  high  degree  of  efhciency 
in  a  miner  working  at  the  coal-face  could  only  be  obtained  if  he 
had  an  abundance  of  g'ood  wholesome  food  for  himself  and  family, 
congenial  and  healthy  surroundings,  and  paj'  sufficiently  large  to 
allow  him  to  take  a  ])ride  in  his  work  and  an  interest  in  life. 

The  large-capacity  cars  of  the  United  States  might  be  a  reason 
for  the  high  production  per  man,  as  mentioned  by  Mr.  Dean  ;  but 
there  were  many  mines  in  America  which  used  cars  with  a  capa- 
city of  only  1  ton.  and  their  output  per  man  was  also  large,  with- 
out the  use  of  coal-cutting  machines  or  face-conveyors.  Mr. 
Dean  stated  that  ''  in  South  A\  ales,  the  outi)ut  per  man  is  no  more 
than  in  the  districts  where  small  tubs  are  in  use."'  The  personal 
equation  entered  into  tlip  larger  production  per  man  more  than 
the  size  of  the  cars. 

A  few  years  ago,  when  American  bricklayers  were  taken  over 
to  London  to  work  on  a  large  store,  they  laid  from  two  to  three 
times  as  many  bricks  per  day  as  their  British  cousins  were  in  the 
habit  of  considering  a  fair  day's  work,  and  they  were  also  paid 
accordingly.  Materials  were  placed  more  conveniently  for  them. 
They  had  taken  lessons  in  motion  studies,  and  knew  how  to  do 
the  most  work  with  the  least  exertion.  Before  the  job  was  fin- 
ished their  British  cousins  were  able  to  duplicate  their  work,  and 
incidentally  their  pay  also. 

The  same  truth  applied  to  working  at  the  coal-face.  At 
European  mines  there  were  many  superannuated  men  who  had 
been  faithful  employees  of  the  company  for  many  years.  They 
did  almost  no  work,  and  were  practically  pensioners.  The  effect 
of  the  influence  that  these  men  exerted  about  a  mine  in  the 
direction  of  inefficiency  could  hardly  be  estimated.  Certainly  a 
man  should  not  be  shelved  on  account  of  his  age,  no  matter  what 
it  was,  so  long  as  he  could  do  his  work  satisfactorily.  But.  when 
the  time  arrived  when  he  could  not  do  this,  it  was  far  better  for 
the  efficiency  of  the  mine  that  he  should  be  pensioned  outright 
and  taken  out  of  the  mine. 

Mr.  Dean  had  mentioned  an  instance  in  whicli  only  a  fifth  of 
the  loader's  time  was  spent  in  shovelling  into  the  cars,  the  rest  of 
his  time  being  practically  wasted  so  far  as  output  of  coal  for  the 
mine  was  concerned.      That  instance  was  very  illuminating,  and 

134     THANSACTIONS THE  NORTH  OF  EXCa.AXl)  INSTITUTE.      [Vcl.  Ixvi. 

presentefl  the  difference  in  a  nutsliell  between  American  mines, 
with  a  high  tounag-e  per  man,  and  the  European  mines,  or  badly- 
managed  American  mines,  where  the  tonnage  per  man  was  low. 
European  mines  had  not  a  monopoly  of  low-tonnage  records,  as 
there  were  plenty  of  mines  of  that  kind  in  the  United  States. 

When  the  miner  had  to  wait  for  empty  cars,  as  in  the  instance 
mentioned  by  Mr.  Dean,  or  for  props,  track,  or  a  thousand  and 
one  things  which  a  mine  under  good  and  efficient  management 
would  have  ready  for  his  use  as  soon  as  or  before  he  needed  them, 
the  tonnage  was  bound  to  be  low.  The  miner  lost  interest  in  his 
work,  and  considered  that,  if  the  management  took  so  little  inter- 
est in  having  things  run  efficiently,  he  would  obtain  no  credit ; 
nor  was  it  of  any  use  for  him  to  try  to  break  any  records  in  effi- 
ciency or  tonnage. 

The  advantage  that  was  to  be  obtained  by  using  large  cars 
instead  of  smaller  or  medium-sized  cars  might  be  more  imaginary 
than  real  in  some  coal-seams.  The  cost  of  driving  wide  tunnels 
and  opening  up  the  mine  was  high.  The  expense  of  timbering 
and  holding  up  a  bad  roof  was  a  greater  and  never  ending 
expense.  Heavier  track  and  better  ballasting  was  needed  for 
the  heavy  locomotives  and  cars. 

Mr.  Carnegie  was  the  first  large  manufacturer  in  America  to 
inti'oduce  the  idea  that  the  wages,  no  matter  how  large,  paid  to 
an  employee  were  immaterial,  provided  that  he  increased  propor- 
tionately the  production  of  the  manufacturing  plant,  or  of  the 
particular  machine  at  which  he  worked.  Carnegie  made  a  huge 
success  with  that  idea,  and  American  mines  now  worked  on  that 
principle  much  more  than  European  mines.  A  large  tonnage  per 
man  resulted  in  the  overhead  expenses  per  ton  of  coal  mined 
being  decreased  enormously. 

Gasoline  locomotives  were  coming  into  use  much  more  gener- 
ally, and  under  certain  conditions  gave  good  satisfaction.  A  non- 
gaseous mine  could  not  have  a  much  better  system  of  haulage 
than  the  electric  locomotive ;  but  to  pull  coal  from  an  entry  with 
an  electric  locomotive,  and  at  the  same  time  require  the  miners 
to  use  safety-lamps,  was  out  of  all  reason.  Either  the  safety- 
lamps  were  not  necessary,  or  the  electric  locomotive  should  not 
be  used.  Spqrks  from  the  trolley- wheel  or  from  the  motor  would 
surely  ignite  methane  if  it  were  present. 

The  U.S.A.   Bureau   of  Mines  had  cited  instances  in  their 


Miners'  Circidar  ]Vo.  3,  page  11,  where  a  runaway  trij)  of  cars 
knocked  down  a  trolley- wire,  short-circuiting'  the  ciurent,  and  at 
tlie  same  time  raised  a  dense  cloud  of  coal-dust  which  was  ignited 
by  the  sparks  from  the  trolley-wire,  and  caused  a  dust  explosion. 

Much  attention  had  of  late  jears  been  given  to  the  prevention 
of  coal-dust  explosions  in  coal-mines  in  the  United  States.  CarvS 
fitted  with  doors  allowed  much  leakage  of  coal  and  coal-dust  on 
to  the  entry,  and  this  coal  was  ground  by  the  cars  into  a  fine  and 
dangerous  dust.  Cars  consisting  of  a  solid  box  and  no  door  were 
now  being  installed  in  many  mines.  They  were  emptied  by 
means  of  rotary  tipples,  which  turned  the  car  upside  down  to 
dump  out  the  coal. 

Mr.  Dean  had  mentioned  a  case  in  Illinois  where  tlie  miners' 
union  allowed  only  a  certain  number  of  men  to  load  coal  behind 
a  coal-cutting  machine.  It  was  only  fair  to  the  miners  and 
operators  that  some  explanation  should  be  given  as  to  this  point. 
It  was  to  the  miner's  advantage  to  have  enough  coal  to  load,  so 
that  he  would  lose  no  time,  but  could  keep  working  steadily  all 
the  shift.  Likewise,  it  was  to  the  operators'  advantage  to  have 
plenty  of  loaders,  so  that  the  coal-cutting  machines  could  be  kept  all  the  time.  The  miners,  in  order  to  protect  themselves, 
must  of  necessity  meet  with  the  operators,  and  agree  on  the  num- 
ber of  loaders  to  a  cutting  machine  which  would  be  fair  to  both 
of  them ;  and  if  a  coal-cutting  machine  having  a  larger  capacity 
than  those  at  present  in  use  was  installed,  the  agreement  would 
be  altered  to  suit  the  circumstances. 

Some  of  the  mines  in  the  Western  States  had  been  working 
very  slack  time  (one  day  per  week)  last  winter,  but  Avith  their 
full  force  of  men.  This  kept  the  mines  in  working  condition  at 
small  expense  to  the  companies.  The  miners  timbered  their  rooms 
and  cleaned  up  the  rock  at  no  expense  to  the  company  on  the  one 
day  that  they  worked.  The  coal  sent  out  of  the  mine  was  paid  for 
through  the  companj-'s  store  in  goods,  on  which  the  company  re- 
ceived a  profit.  Theoretically  this  would  make  very  cheap  coal, 
but  the  salaries  of  the  monthly  men  were  continuing  all  the  time, 
as  well  as  unavoidable  expenses,  such  as  pumping,  etc.  This 
made  the  overhead  expenses  for  the  one  day's  work  verj^  liigt?  so 
that  probably  neither  the  miners  nor  the  operators  desired  to  see 
a  repetition  of  such  an  experience. 

loG      I'liANSACTlOXS TIIK  .NOKTII  OK  KN(.I,AN1)  LNSTITITE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

Mr.  James  Asiiwortii  (\'aiicouver,  British  Columbia)  wrote 
that  the  question  as  to  which  was  the  best  size  and  form  of  mine- 
car  or  tub  wavs  a  most  important  and  interesting?  one,  especially 
when  the  outputs  of  various  coal-mines  were  compared.  Taking- 
a  modern  colliery,  say,  in  the  Nottinghamshire  coalfield,  and 
comparing  it  with  many  of  the  mines  on  the  American  Continent, 
it  w^ould  be  found  that  the  Nottinghamshire  output  was  not 
deficient  wdien  it  came  to  haulag'e  costs. 

In  the  faulted  and  unevenly-deposited  seams  of  coal  in  the 
Province  of  British  Columbia  large  steel  cars,  holding,  say,  2 
tons  or  more  when  loaded,  caused  a  greater  number  of  accidents 
to  both  horses  and  men  than  was  the  case  with  smaller  and 
lighter  cars.  This  referred  particularly  to  those  mines  where 
the  cars  had  to  be  taken  up  and  down  self-acting  inclines.  The 
large  cars  were,  however,  permissible  w^here  the  coal  was  loaded 
out  of  shoots  on  a  main  haulage-road,  and  could  be  handled  by 
mechanical  traction,  compressed  air,  or  electric  locomotives. 

A  large  car  required  a  large  road,  and  what  might  be  possible 
in  a  mine  500  feet  deep  might  be  absolutely  ruinous  in  a  mine 
2,000  feet  deep.  The  whole  subject  amounted  to  this :  that  the 
size  and  shape  of  a  car  must  be  made  to  suit  the  requirements  of 
the  mine,  and  not  the  mine  made  to  suit  the  requirements  of  the 

The  big-  tonnage  per'man  produced  by  many  coal-mines  on  the 
American  Continent  was  certainly  astonishing,  and  one  of  the 
explanations  of  this  fact  was  ilhistrated  in  Mr.  Dean's  photo- 
g'raphs  showing  roadways  in  a  mine  without  a  stick  of  timber, 
and  falls  of  coal  the  result  of  heavy  blasting. 

Generally  speaking,  coal-mining  operations  on  the  American 
Continent  were  carried  out  under  very  much  lighter  cover  than 
in  Great  Britain,  and  therefore  the  cost  of  the  maintenance  of  a 
large  road  had  not  been  appreciated  or  realized  in  the  same  way 
as  it  was  in  Great  Britain. 

The  writer  agreed  entirely  with  Mr.  Dean  that  roller-bearings 
had  effected  an  immense  saving  both  in  oiland  in  power,  and  he 
was  also  of  the  opinion  that  the  more  extended  use  of  coal- 
cutting  machines  in  America  might  be  one  of  the  best  means  of 
reducing  the  number  of  explosion  disasters,  the  largest  number 
of  which  were  undoubtedly  due  to  the  use  of  very  heavy  charges, 
the  too  frequent  blasting  oif  the  solid,  and  to  c-arelessness  in  the 
use  of  explosives.     The  latest   explosions   in   Canada   were  nn- 


doubtedly    due    to    recklessnes.s    iu    the    use    of    explosive.s    or 

Mr.  George  S.  Brackett  (Flemiugton.  Virginia)  wrote 
that  a  niisconceptiou  of  some  of  the  American  metliods  might  be 
caused  by  Mr.  Dean's  remarks  on  the  capacities  of  mine-cars,  the 
gauges  of  the  track,  and  the  arc  wall  or  turret  type  of  mining 
machines.  American  practice  in  all  industries  experimented 
with  extremes,  only  to  return  to  moderation.  As  other 
gentlemen  would  deal  with  other  States,  he  would  confine  his 
remarks  to  West  Virginian  practice.  West  Virginia  stood  second 
as  a  coal-producer  in  the  United  States,  exceeded  only  by 
Pennsylvania ;  and  its  coal  was  mined  from  many  beds  under 
different  mining  conditions.  The  method  of  working  was  almost 
exclusively  room-and-pillar.  In  the  smaller  seams  the  loaded 
mine-cars  were  pushed  by  the  miner  from  the  face  to  the  room- 
switch.  In  the  larger  seams  animals  or  gathering  motors 
pulled  the  loads  and  placed  the  empties  at  the  working-face. 
The  room-track  was  laid  by  the  miner  as  the  place  advanced, 
and  was  commonly  insecure  and  defective,  and  this  had  its 
effect  upon  the  most  popular  gauge  and  size  of  the  mine-car. 

Derailments  along  the  main  haulage-roads,  which  were 
commonly  in  good  condition,  were  quickly  corrected  by 
*' replacers,"  while  derailments  in  the  working-places,  where 
they  were  more  likely  to  occur,  were  diflBciilt  to  replace,  on 
account  of  the  absence  of  appliances  ;  in  fact,  the  getting  together 
of  the  necessary  material  took  more  time  than  the  actual  work. 
The  heavier  the  loaded  car  was,  the  greater  was  the  trouble; 
hence  the  tendency  on  the  part  of  the  majority  of  the  operators  to 
limit  the  size  of  the  car.  The  commonest  car  held  from  1^  to 
2  tons  (gross).  These  sizes  of  car  were  not  difficult  to  re-rail,  con- 
sidering the  short  wheel-base.  Granting  the  popularity  of  these 
smaller  cars — and  they  were  by  far  the  most  prevalent — the 
necessitj^  for  wide  gauges  vanished,  and  the  commonest  gauge 
proved  to  be  36  or  42  inches.  These  sizes  pertained  to  the 
large  majority  of  mines,  even  though  the  thickness  of  the  seam 
and  the  roof  permitted  of  larger  equipment.  jS^aturally,  the 
■equipment  of  the  smaller  coal-beds  approached  this  car  capacity 
as  closely  as  the  thickness  would  permit. 

There  was  another  strong  argument  iu  favour  of  the  36  or  42- 

TOL.  LXVT.— I9I5-I9J6.  10  E 

138      THAXS.VCTIOXS THE  NOinil  Ol'  KNCI.AM)  IXSTITITK.      [A'nllxvi. 

inch  gauge:  for  the  same  radius  of  curvature  the  switch  leiigtl» 
was  shorter,  with  less  s]Kire  reijuircd  uiisui)i)orte(l  at  the  braucli- 
roads  and  room-necks;  in  phu'es  of  unusually  bad  roof  (locally) 
the  working-places  could  be  driven  narrower,  and  the  track  wa.s 
more  flexible  in  pillar-work.  The  frequent  occurrence  of  local 
f^rades  made  the  excessively  large  car  difficult  to  handle  by  animal 
power,  and  accidents  and  delays  more  frequent. 

The  ultimate  economy  of  the  large  car  (over  3  tons)  and 
standard-gauge  track  (56 J  inches)  was  generally  questioned  by 
mining  men  ;  and  if  popular  opinion  was  of  any  value,  the  vast 
jjrevalence  of  the  moderate  equipment  should  imply  its  greater 
efficiency.  Correspondingly,  the  Ki-jxiund  steel  track  was  com- 
moner upon  all  animal  haulage-roads. 

The  strong  argument  in  favour  of  the  large-sized  mine-car 
was  the  greater  percentage  of  coal  in  the  gross  weight  and  the 
greater  efficiency  in  the  haulage.  The  maximum  efficiency  on 
the  main  haulage-roads  was  not  consistent  with  the  maximum 
efficiency  in  the  working-places ;  the  most  economic  was  the  happy 
mean,  which  was  difficult  to  determine  except  by  experiment. 
The  size  of  the  mine-car  had  its  influence  over  the  total  daily 
tonnage  loaded  by  the  miner;  he  should  be  able  to  load  the  car 
furiously,  resting  between  cars,  and  not  wear  himself  out  with 
too  much  uninterrupted  exertion  on  one  car.  His  experience  had 
been  that  mines  equipped  with  large  cars  did  not  produce  as 
great  a  tonnage  per  miner  as  those  mines  that  were  equipped 
with  a  smaller  car.  The  greater  tonnage  per  man  resulted  in 
greater  satisfaction  among  the  miners.  The  smaller  mine-car 
required  a  cheaper  room-track.  These  points  were  of  more  value 
than  efficiency  (in  the  maximum)  on  the  main  haulage-roads. 

Of  the  mining  machines  in  use  in  West  Virginia,  62  per  cent, 
were  of  the  chain-breast  type,  the  next  most  popular  being  the 
puncher  type,  followed  by  the  shortwall  machine.  The  short- 
wall  machine  was  fast  replacing  the  puncher,  as  they  both 
worked  in  a  small  space  between  the  face  and  the  timber.  He 
(Mr.  Brackett)  failed  to  see  where  the  shortwall  was  replacing 
the  chain-breast,  except  in  mines  where  the  rooms  and  working- 
places  could  be  driven  wider  than  30  feet.  For  widths  less  than 
this,  they  were  not  as  efficient  as  the  chain-breast  machine.  The 
arcwall  and  turret  cutters  were  being  introduced,  although  the 
conditions  under  which  they  could  be  used  were  more  restricted,. 

1915-1916.]     DISCUSSION — A^rEKICA^-    COAJ, -MIXING    METHODS.  139 

and   their  cost    higher,    than    in    the    ease    of    the    eluiin-breast 

The  heavier  and  hirg-er  mine-cars,  the  broader  gauges,  the 
new  types  of  mining   machines,   the   gasolene    hauhige-motors. 
and   tlie   electric   gathering   motors   of  various   types   might   be 
looked  upon  as  experiments — not  as  indicating  the  future  gen- 
eral practice.      The  most  conservative  operators  clung  to  com- 
moner  methods.     The   more    complicated    and    expensive    the 
mechanical  equipment  became,  the  greater  would  be  the  delays 
due  to  breakdowns,  and  a  larger  output  would  be  curtailed  by  any 
single  break  ;    consequently,  the  conditions  would  be  less  satis- 
factory to  the  force  of  employees.     There  was,  in  all  things,  an 
economic  mean  beyond  which  it  was  not  policy  to  step,  except 
to  prove  that  the   limit  was  reached.      Many   coal-miners   pre- 
ferred pick  or  hand-mining  to  loading  machine-cut  coal,  and  it 
was    readilj'    seen    that    a    pick-operated    mine    situated    in    the 
neighbourhood  of  machine-operated  mines  had  some  advantage 
over  the  latter  in  times  of  labour  and  railroad-car  shortages. 
The   pick-miner    was    less   troubled    with    delays,    as    he    could 
make  surplus  coal,  and  much  of  his  time  was  spent  in  under- 
cutting.      Although  the  price  paid  to  the  miner  for  pick-work 
coal  was  in  excess  of  that  paid  for  machine-cut  coal,  the  relation 
of  the  overhead  expense  and  the  tonnage  might  offset  this  incre- 
ment.    Some  operators  in  West  Virginia  regretted  or  doubted 
the  present  policy  of  excessive  machine  equipment  in  contrast 
with  the  older  pick-work  basis  and  its  better  class  of  more  skilled 
labour.       The   ultimate   outcome   was   uncertain,    but  it  would 
probably  remain  as  it  was  now,  namely,  some  of  each  class  of 
equipment,  so  as  to  accommodate  the  various  preferences  and 
skill  of  the  miners.     Although  the  increase  in  the  percentage  of 
machine-cut  coal  was  great  when  a  period  of  15  years  was  con- 
sidered, the  contrast  was  not  so  vivid  for  the  past  few  years,  as 
would  be  seen  from  the  following  table:  — 

Total  niim 






of  tonnage 








51  13 








The  increase  wgs  not  so  great  as  it  would  be  if  the  circum- 
stances were  decidedly  in  favour  of  the  power-equipped  mines. 


Both  i)ifk  and  iiKU'liine-oiJeratcd  mines  had  tlieii-  ad\aiita}^e.s, 
and  tli^  availability  of  labour  was  one  worthy  of  consideration. 
He  had  endeavoured  in  an  article  in  i\\e  ColJicnj  Engineer* 
to  estimate  the  additional  cost  of  operating  the  complete  elec- 
trically-equipped mine  over  and  above  the  pick-mine.  The 
labour  cost  was  higher  in  the  former  obviously.  Under  some 
existing  rates  of  wages  it  was  not  an  economy  to  use  coal-cutting 
machinery,  the  only  advantage  being  the  better  grade  of  lump- 
coal  from  the  machine  mines.  This  advantage  was  due  only  to 
the  difficulty  in  securing  a  sufficient  number  of  skilled  pick 

Mr.  Benedict  Shubart  (Denver,  Colorado)  wrote  that  Mr. 
Dean's  very  interesting  paper  on  American  coal-mining  methods 
was  well  worthy  of  thought  and  discussion. 

Beside  the  question  of  equipment,  there  were  other  factors, 
even  more  vital,  that  entered  into  the  larger  output  per  man  in 
American  mines.  The  United  States  was  a  young  country,  it 
had  a  most  heterogeneous  and  growing  population,  its  labour 
was  of  a  changing  character,  and  it  had  not  become  set  in  its 
ways,  as  was  the  case  in  England.  Furthermore,  there  was  an 
entire  lack  of  caste  that  hindered  a  man  from  rising  above  the 
station  in  which  he  Avas  born.  On  the  contiary,  every  man  was 
continually  advised  of  the  fact  that  he  was  as  good  a  man  as  he 
could  make  himself,  that  he  was  entitled  to  the  position  and  the 
benefits  that  his  earnings  could  bring  him,  and  that  these  were 
not  in  any  way  hindered  by  his  birth  or  accident  of  position. 

This  was  not  a  glorification  of  American  institutions,  but  he 
had  seen  so  many  men,  imbued  with  this  ambition,  rise  from 
the  lowest  positions  to  the  highest.  Almost  every  worker  in  the 
mine  felt  that  a  better  position  was  within  his  reach,  so  that  this 
was  one  of  the  greatest  compelling  forces  in  mining  operations 
in  the  United  States. 

In  a  few  fields  where  the  worst  type  of  unionism  was 
rampant,  there  was  a  lack  of  this  energy,  together  with  a 
diminution  of  output,  and  a  curtailment  of  the  amount  of  work 
possible  with'  machines — in  general  conditions  such  as  ob- 
tained to  a  large  extent  in  the  English  mines.       On  the  other 

*  "Comparative  Costs  of  Operating,"  Colliery  Eiujineer,  1915,  vol.  xxxvi. , 
page  132. 


linud,  where  the  union  recognized  the  pos.sibilities  of  advance- 
ment in  their  worker.s,  tlie  condition.s  of  large  output  and 
miniiiiuni   cost.s   prevailed. 

This  had  made  possible  the  use  of  mining-  machines.  The 
use  of  mining  machines  to  so  large  an  extent  had  encouraged 
their  improvement  to  a  very  high  degree,  and  the  energy  and 
ambition  of  the  miner  had  created  a  class  of  high-grade  mining- 
machine  operators  who  had  the  ability  to  handle  machines 
economically  and  effectively.  Xeedless  to  say,  these  men  did 
not  work  upon  a  day-wage  basis,  but  on  contract  at  a  given 
price  per  ton  of  coal,  or  per  foot  of  face  undercut. 

Unquestionably,  the  better  wages  paid  in  the  mines,  as 
compared  with  other  industries,  tended  to  attract  a  very  good 
class  of  mechanics,  who  become  machine-drivers  or  locomotive- 
drivers.  The  loading  of  coal  by  contract,  as  well  as  the  cutting 
by  contract,  together  with  the  pyschological  effect  of  ambition, 
unquestionably  spurred  tlie  men  to  greater  effort  and  greater 

As  an  example  of  the  feeling  of  the  men  towards  a  large 
output,  he  had  repeatedly  seen  men  leave  the  mine  because  they 
were  obliged  to  wait  for  cars.  The  American  miner,  particularly 
the  miner  working  on  contract,  would  not  permit  a  curtailment 
of  liis  output  by  reason  of  lack  of  cars  ;  and  here  unquestionably 
the  American  idea  of  large  cars  and  few  turns  gave  the  miner  a 
larger  percentage  of  loading  time,  together  with  less  wasted 
time,  than  was  the  case  with  the  very  small  tubs  in  use  in 

To  say  that  pit-cars  in  America  were  all  large  would  be 
untrue,  except  when  a  comparison  was  made  between  their  size 
and  those  in  use  in  Britain.  In  his  opinion,  it  seemed  that  the 
size  of  the  pit-car  was  almost  in  proportion  to  the  capacity  of 
the  mine.  A  mine  with  a  capacity  of  about  500  tons  per  working 
day  would  use  a  car  of  3,000  to  4,000  pounds  capacity;  a  mine  of 
1,000  tons  capacity  would  use  a  car  of  approximately  5,000 
pounds;  and  where  an  output  of  1,800  to  3,000  tons  was  required, 
a  car  with  a  capacity  of  6,000  to  7,000  pounds  would  usually  be 
found.  Of  course,  exceptions  occurred,  but  these  would  not 
disturb  the  general  rule. 

He  did  not  at,  all  agree  with  Mr.  Dean's  enthusiastic  cham- 
pionship  of   the    roller-bearing    mine-car    wheel.     Except    in    a 


lar«>(>  mine,  where  the  mechanical  force  was  of  hij^h  wrade, 
tl»<^  roller-lx'aring  wlieel  was  apt  to  be  a  failure.  His  own 
personal  experience  was  for  a  railway  type  of  truck,  where 
round  axles  were  used  with  one  wheel  fitted  tig-ht,  the  other 
self-oiling  and  loose,  and  the  axles  rotating  in  a  half-brass  box 
fixed  rigidly  to  the  car.  In  the  long  run,  tliis  type  of  wheel 
would  show  very  low  maintenance  cost,  a  vei-y  low  average 
friction,   and  very  great  dependability. 

With  regard  to  the  gauge  of  the  tracks,  standard  gauge 
(56A  inches)  was  awkward,  except  where  the  mine  output  was 
very  large,  and  the  mine  laid  out  on  a  large  scale  with  wide 
cui-ves.  The  average  mine  would  do  better  with  a  gauge  of 
approximately  42  inches,  as  this  width  lent  itself  well  to 
capacity,  and  also  permitted  of  the  use  of  proper  electric 
locomotives.  Under  American  mining  conditions,  a  gauge  of 
less  than  this  was  apt  to  cramp  the  haulage  capabilities. 

Deep  undercutting  was  a  recent  development,  and  was,  in 
his  opinion,  more  or  less  of  a  caprice,  although  occasionally 
places  were  found  where  deep  undercutting  would  be  of  ad- 
vantage. In  general  the  rule  that  the  undercut  should  not 
exceed  the  thickness  of  the  coal  was  not  a  bad  one  to  follow. 
There  were  grave  mecKanical  disadvantages  in  the  use  of  a 
lOj-foot  cutter-bar,  and,  unless  the  floor  was  perfectly  level, 
the  physical  disadvantages  w-ere  obvious. 

Mining  machines  had  been  brought  to  a  high  state  of 
strength  and  simplicity.  The  entire  mechanism  of  the  Good- 
man shortwall  machine  contained  only  five  gears  and  five 
pinions.  The  use  of  heat-treated  hardened-steel  gears,  a 
hardened-steel  bushed  cutting-chain,  and  extraordinary  large 
motor  capacity,  all  assisted  in  producing  a  machine  that  gave 
a  minimum  amount  of  trouble. 

At  the  mines  of  the  Crystal  Salt  Company  and  the  Inde- 
I>endent  Salt  Company,  both  at  Kanopolis  (Kansas),  Goodman 
shortwall  machines  were  undercutting  rock-salt  to  a  depth  of 
5j  feet,  and  winning  an  average  of  120  feet  of  face  per  day. 
This  was  to  his  knowledge  the  hardest  test  to  which  a  mining 
machine  had  yet  been   subjected. 

The  Goodman  straight-face  and  the  Jeffrey  arcwall 
machines  would  unquestionably  cause  more  or  less  of  a  revolu- 
tion   in     mining    methods.      Their    immense    capacity     (thirty 


places  cut  per  8  hours)  showed  cutting  possibilities  that  were 
unthouglit  of  with  the  older  types  of  inacliiiies.  Here,  again. 
recurred  an  incident  in  the  writer's  experience  at  Clear  Creek, 
Utah,  where,  following  a  cut  with  a  straisrht-face  machine, 
the  room  was  shot,  loaded  out,  and  recut  in  a  period  of  six 
hours,  three  miners  loading  a  total  of  -j-D  tons  from  this  room. 

As  to  the  cost  of  mining  machines,  the  chain-breast  machine 
now  sold  for  £250 ;  the  shortwall  machine,  either  with  a  direct 
or  with  an  alternating-current  motor  sold  for  £'}80 ;  and  the 
straight-face  and  arcwall  type  of  machine  cost  about  £700. 

He  must  take  distinct  exception  to  Mr.  Dean's  remarks  con- 
cerning the  lack  of  beauty  of  American  surface  jjlaiits.  With- 
out question  the  past  would  supi)Oi't  his  criticism,  but  also 
unquestionably  the  future  would  disproye  it.  The  tendency 
to-day  was  toward  good  housing,  pleasant  surroundings,  and 
good  treatment.  Many  of  the  mining  towns  started  in  the  last 
ten  years  would  form  models  for  any  industrial  community, 
and  more  and  more  of  the  operatois  were  realizing  the  .value  of 
pleasant  environment. 

Mr.  Carl  Sciiolz  (Chicago,  Illinois)  wrote  that  Mr.  Dean 
had  described  in  a  very  interesting  manner  American  mining 
methods  and  equipment,  but  he  could  not  agree  with  him  in  his 
statement  that  "  the  principal  reason  why  the  United  States  of 
America  leads  in  production  per  man  is  because  large-capacity 
mine-cars  are  used  in  American  mines."  He  did  not  think  that 
it  would  be  any  more  difficult  for  a  British  mining  engineer  to 
adopt  such  cars,  if  he  were  ordered  to  do  so,  than  it  would  be  for 
an  engineer  in  the  United  States  to  be  compelled  to  use  the 
British  cars;  indeed,  he  thought  that  the  latter  task  would  be 
the  easier  of  the  two. 

There  were  many  reasons  why  men  produced  more  coal  in 
the  United  States  per  working  day  than  in  Europe,  and  he 
wished  to  enumerate  a  few  which  occurred  to  him  ofp-hand  :  — 

(1)  The  veins  m  the  United  States  were  uniformly  much 
thicker  than  in  Europe.  The  large  producing  mines  in  Illinois 
and  West  Virginia  had  veins  from  7  to  9  feet  thick. 

(2)  Xearly  all  the  veins  in  the  United  States  lay  level,  or 
with  a  sufficient  dip  for  economical  haulage  operations.  The 
major  portion  of  the  Continental  coal  lay  in  pitching  veins, 
ranging  from  10  degrees  to  almost  vertical. 

144-    TUANSACTIONS THE  NOinil  OK  ENGLAND  INSTITUTE.      ["Vol.  Ixvf. 

(8)  The  ininiuo'  metliods  on  the  Continent  necessitated  the 
complete  extraction  of  the  coal,  which  called  for  more  labour 
and  reduced  the  output  per  man.  The  labour  required  in  fillinpr 
worked-out  places  in  Germany  and  Belgium  represented  an  ex- 
pense of  about  Is.  (25  cents)  per  ton,  which  necessarily  meant  a 
material  expenditure  of  labour.  This  was  due  mainly  to  the 
fact  that  tlie  coalfields  on  the  Continent  were  situated  in  thickly- 
populated  districts,  where  the  ])uilding"s  on  the  surface  must  be 
protected  against  subsidence.  This  coiulition  did  not  exist  in 
the  United  States.  The  West  Virginian  fields,  for  instance, 
were  situated  entirely  in  mountainous  country  where  the  surface 
had  no  value  whatsoever,  except  for  grazing  and  as  timber  land, 
and  the  question  of  settlement,  therefore,  did  not  receive  any 

(4)  In  Continental  mines  the  work  of  mining  coal  was  divided 
between  tlie  miner  and  the  loader.  The  miner's  entire  time  was 
devoted  to  getting  the  coal  and  timbering  tlie  face.  The  loader's 
time  was  given  to  filling  the  cars.  Tin's  condition  undoubtedly 
led  to  more  or  less  waste  of  time,  but  it  was  an  apprentice 
system  which  had  become  an  established  custom.  In  the  United 
States  any  man  upon  obtaining  employment  was  permitted  to  go 
to  the  face,  to  mine  and  load  the  coal,  and  also  to  timber  his 
working-place.  The  great  difference  in  conditions  made  this 
practice  possible. 

(5)  Greater  precautions  were  taken  for  the  prevention  of  acci- 
dents and  more  foremen  and  supervisors  were  employed  than 
in  European  mines  as  compared  with  American  practice.  In 
Europe  there  was  a  mine-foreman  for  every  twenty  or  twenty- 
five  miners  ;  in  the  United  States  there  was  one  to  every  100 
or  150  miners,  depending  upon  the  size  of  the  mine. 

(6)  The  increased  difficulties  in  mining  coal  from  greater 
depths,  the  handling  of  large  volumes  of  water,  and  the  method 
of  mining  a  number  of  different  veins  from  the  same  shaft  (a 
condition  which  was  very  common  abroad),  increased  greatly 
the  forces  required  against  the  simpler  operations  in  the  United 
States,  where  a  great  many  drift-mines  produced  coal  without 
the  use  of  any  mechanical  power,  where  the  mines  were  self- 
draining,  and  where  cars  were  run  by  gravity  from  the  working- 
face  to  the  tipple. 

(7)  The  restrictions  against  shooting  from  the  solid  and  fre- 


quently  the  entire  elimination  of  explosives  in  coal-j?etting,  as 
compared  with  the  solid  shooting-  methods  in  the  United  States. 
Where  powder  performed  the  major  portion  of  the  work,  this 
necessarily  resulted  in  a  greater  production  per  man. 

From  the  above  comparisons,  it  would  seem  that  mine-cars 
had  not  so  much  to  do  with  the  increased  production  per  man 
as  the  great  difference  in  physical  conditions.  As  a  matter  of 
fact,  in  longwall  mines  in  the  United  States  small  cars  and 
narrow  gauges  proved  more  successful  than  large  cars,  on 
account  of  the  great  cost  of  "  brushing."  Where  the  conditions 
more  closely  reseni])led  those  in  Europe,  owing  to  thinner  veins 
or  pitches  (as  was  the  rase  in  Missouri,  Oklahoma,  and 
Michigan),  the  tonnage  per  man  was  greatly  reduced,  and  did 
not  exceed  very  much  that  produced  in  Europe. 

It  was  undoubtedly  true  that  very  close  supervision  had  made 
men  more  cautious,  and,  perhaps,  less  aggressive.  That  they 
were  less  daring  and  less  willing  to  take  chances  was  well 
reflected  in  the  lower  accident  rate,  and  there  was  a  tendency  in 
the  United  States  to  work  in  this  direction.  There  was  no  ques- 
tion that  the  "  safety  iirst  "  slogan  tended  to  reduce  the  output 
per  man,  but  also  lessened  the  loss  of  life.  The  mine-operators 
and  manufacturers  in  the  United  States  together  had  been  more 
active  in  the  design  and  employment  of  labour-saving  devices, 
chiefly  undercutting  machinery,  a  condition  which  was  largely 
due  to  the  relatively  high  rate  of  wages  ;  but  the  physical  con- 
ditions had  contributed  their  share  towards  making  these  tests 
more  encouraging. 

While  American  practice  had  been  in  the  direction  of  large 
output  and  heavy  production  per  man,  this  practice  had  carried 
with  it  a  large  loss  of  coal  in  the  ground.  The  Continental 
mines,  on  the  other  hand,  took  out  all  the  coal  that  they  could, 
and  obtained  results  in  directions  which  had  not  been  aimed  at 
generally  in  the  United  States — namely,  the  utilization  of  fine 
coals  by  destructive  distillation,  briquetting,  and  better  prepara- 
tion by  sizing  and  the  removal  of  impurities — all  of  which  called 
for  more  men  and  reduced  the  output  for  each  employee. 

The  low  selling  price  of  coal,  furthermore,  had  not  prompted 
economies  in  its  use  as  a  general  proposition,  as  was  the  case  in 
Europe.  It  was  true  that  all  the  newer  plants  were  designed 
and  built  with  the  view  of  greater  economy ;  but  it  appeared  that 
the  United  States  with  its  large  agricultural  interests  in  1911 

146     'I'HAXSACTIOXS THE  N()l{  I'll  OF  ENGLAND  INSTITUTE.      fVol.  Ixvi. 

<'onsume(l  454  tons  per  id  pita.  Germany,  whicli  was  essentially 
a  manufacturmg-  nation,  had,  on  the  other  hand,  consumed  only 
2'03  tons  per  capita  ;  and  France  only  1"44  tons.  Jiist  where  the 
correct  answer  lay  was  a  matter  of  speculation. 

Mr.  George  N.  Lantz  (New  Straitsville,  Ohio)  wrote  that 
the  section  of  the  paper  which  dealt  with  the  size  of  mine-cars  was 
of  particular  interest  to  American  mining  men  at  the  present 
time,  as  a  correspondent  in  Coal  Age  had  recently  suggested  a 
change  to  the  lighter  and  simpler  car  of  former  days.  The 
correspondent's  objection,  however,  was  not  founded  on  the 
capacity  of  the  mine-car,  but  rather  on  its  weight. 

It  might  be  true  in  some  cases  that  excess  weight  was 
carried.  He  was  convinced,  however,  that  in  nearly  all  cases 
the  use  of  larger  and  heavier  cars  was  justified.  The  evolution 
of  the  American  mine-car  had  been  a  natural  process.  From 
the  time  w'hen  the  coal-mining  industry  was  new,  and  the 
bituminous  mine  in  particular  was  regarded  as  "  a  hole  in  the 
ground  with  a  hen-coop  over  it,"  to  the  present  time  when 
equipment  must  be  installed  for  a  large  tonnage  and  easy 
preparation,  capacity  and  weight  had  been  added  to  mine-cars 
only  when  the  need  for  a  more  serviceable  car  became  apparent. 

Just  as  the  railwa}'  companies  had  been  able  to  reduce  the 
cost  per  ton-mile  by  the  use  of  heavier  equipment,  so  the  mining 
companies  had  found  it  expedient  to  lay  heavier  track,  instal 
more  powerful  locomotives,  and  stronger  and  larger  cars,  in 
order  to  move  a  larger  tonnage  in  a  shorter  time  with  less  power. 
Steel  cars,  or  cars  with  thicker  wooden  sides  and  bottoms,  had 
been  installed,  the  greater  initial  cost  and  the  greater  weight 
being  justified  by  less  frequent  repairs.  Heavier  binders  had 
served  to  hold  the  car  more  rigidly,  and  to  keep  it  to  its  proper 
shapej  and,  in  the  case  of  wooden  cars,  to  prevent  the  machine- 
cuttings  from  spilling  in  the  roadway.  Heavier  and  thicker 
car-bumpers  had  prevented  buckling,  and  had  been  the  means 
of  reducing  the  number  of  derailments  on  curves .  Larger  axles 
and  heavier  axle-binders  had  served  to  maintain  proper  align- 
ment, decreasing  the  cost  of  repairs,  and  requiring  less  power, 
by  eliminating  friction  between  the  rails  and  the  flange  of  the 
car-w^heel.  It  had  been  found  easier  for  the  loader  to  move 
by  hand  car-wheels  of  a  large  diameter  than  wheels  of  small 

1915-1916.]       DlSCrssiOX AMERICAX    COAL-MIXIXi;    METHODS.  147 

diameter.  Roller-bearing  self-lubricating-  wheels,  while  somewhat 
heavier  than  the  simpler  wheels,  had  justified  their  use.  Cars 
equipped  with  such  wheels  had  been  known  to  start  on  a 
^-per-eent.  grade.  Engineers  tests  had  shown  them  to  be  so 
wonomical  as  to  save  a  half  in  power  consumption. 

In  general  the  larger  cars  in  use  throughout  America  had 
proved  their  value  directly.  They  had  also  an  indirect  value  in 
the  saving  that  might  be  effected  in  labour.  Larger  cars  were 
as  easily  moved  by  hand  under  proper  conditions  as  smaller  cars. 
A  motorman  and  trip-rider  could  haul  much  more  coal  at  the 
same  labour  cost  by  the  use  of  larger  cars  and  larger  loco- 
motives. On  the  tipple  the  same  force  that  would  be  needed 
for  small  cars  could  dump  the  larger  cars.  Obvioush-,  in  a 
tipple  equipped  to  handle  entire  trips  at  a  time,  the  machinery 
would  manipulate  a  large  tonnage  as  easily  as  a  small  tonnage. 
In  the  less  pretentious  tipples,  where  dumping  was  done  by 
hand,  a  dumper  could  dump  a  hundred  cars  containing  three  tons 
each  in  the  time  it  would  take  him  to  dump  a  liundred  cars 
containing  1^^  tons  each,  thus  doubling  his  productiveness  at  the 
same  labour  cost.  Part  of  this  saving  would  necessarily  be  added 
to  a  slightly  increased  cost  of  labour  for  trimming  and  cleaning 
the  coal,  but  the  entire  transaction  would  show  a  lower  cost  per 

The  loader  was  able  to  produce  a  higher  tonnage  by  the  use 
of  larger  cars,  as  he  would  spend  less  time  in  waiting  for  cars, 
changing  cars,  and  cribbing  his  car.  In  general,  the  size  of  the 
car  was  limited  only  by  the  abilitj'  of  the  loader,  and  by  the 
natural  conditions  of  the  mine.  The  cars  must  not  be  too  high 
or  too  long,  or  the  loader  would  not  be  able  to  load  easily.  The 
width  of  the  entry  or  the  length  of  the  car  would  limit  the 
width.  The  height  of  the  vein  did  not  always  limit  the  height 
of  the  car. 

English  visitors  in  America  were  probably  more  familiar 
with  the  higher  veins  than  with  the  low  coal  that  abounded  in 
some  districts,  but  it  had  been  found  in  many  instances  that 
taking  up  bottom,  or  taking  down  top,  to  permit  of  the  entrance 
of  a  larger  car,  reduced  the  cost  of  mining  per  ton. 

There  might  be  changes  in  the  construction  of  the  mine-car 
in  America :  there  might  be  changes  in  type,  or  slight  changes 
in  the  various  makes  so  as  to  conform  to  a  certain  standard ;  but 
the  large-capacity  mine-car  had  come  to  stay. 


Prof.  George  J.  Young  (University  of  Minnesota,  Minne- 
apolis) wrote  that  the  paper  was  an  excellent  presentation  of 
modern  mechanical  equipment  used  in  the  coal-mines  of  the 
United  States  of  America.  The  title  of  the  paper  was  somewhat 
misleading,  since  it  covered  the  mechanical  appliances  used  in 
breaking",  undercutting,  transportation,  etc.  The  term  "mining 
method  "  was  generally  used  in  a  broader  sense — the  lay-out  of 
the  mine,  the  system  of  mining,  the  support  of  the  ground,  and 
the  underground  mechanical  equipment.  The  mining  methods 
in  common  use  were  so  well  understood  that  tlieir  omission  from 
the  paper  would  not  be  taken  as  a  serious  objection. 

Mr.  Afdley  Hart  Stow  (Pocahontas)  wrote  that  he  had  read 
Mr.  Dean's  paper  with  much  interest.  The  impression  left  was 
that  the  subject  had  been  covered  clearly,  yet  concisely.  Only 
one  criticism  occurred  to  the  writer. 

Unquestionably,  the  general  tendency  in  modern  coal-mining 
was  to  adopt  railroad  standards  in  so  far  as  was  practical.  The 
result  of  this  had  been  a  marked  improvement  in  several  respects. 
However,  in  regard  to  the  gauge  of  the  track,  it  was  doubted 
whether  the  standard  railroad  gauge  of  56i  inches  would  ever 
become  popular.  The, statements  in  this  connexion,  as  given  by 
Mr.  Dean,  were  correct.  It  was  only  the  impression  gained  in 
this  connexion  from  reading  the  paper  to  which  exception  was 
taken.  The  writer  happened  to  be  familiar  with  this  phase  of 
the  subject  in  the  district  under  consideration. 

The  wide  gauge  unquestionably  had  certain  advantages,  and 
also  a  few  advocates;  it,  however,  unfortunately  also  had  certain 
disadvantages,  which  were  not  altogether  trivial  nor  to  be  lightly 
disregarded.  Its  advocates  were  thought  to  be  largely  in  the 
minority  as  the  extensive  developments  of  the  present  day  were 
practically  all  adapted  to  the  narrow  gauges.  With  regard  to 
gauge,  it  was  believed  that  the  railway  standard  would  never  be 
generally  adopted.  In  all  probability  48  inches  would  be  the 

1915-1916]         DISCUSSION-AMEKICAX    COAL-.IININC.     MKTUODS.  l49 



Held  in  the  Wood  Memorial  Hall,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

February  r2TH,  1916. 

Mr.  T.  Y.  greener,  Prksiuent,  in  the  Chair. 

The  Secretary  read  tlie  minutes  of  the  last  General  Meeting, 
and  reported  the  proceedings  of  the  Council  at  their  meetings 
on  January  29th  and  that  day. 

The  following  gentlemen  were  elected,  having  been  pre- 
viously  nominated:  — 

Mr.  YASUKurTuTruBAYASHi,  CoUierv  Manager,  Daixnyokoji,  Karatsun.achi, 

Sagaken,  Japan.  Kr^crineer    The   Maikop   Pipeline 

Mr.    John   Clark  Templeton,   Mechanical   Kngmeer,    Ihe   ■  P        ^ 

&  Transport  Company,  Limited,  Apsheron  sk  ay  a,  near  Maikop,  Kuban 

District,  South  Russia. 
M,   „...rB:™r.:Fo...-over..„,  41.  Ko,d,  T,..e  .oC.  BO., 
M.  j'hTcSm:":;  come.,  «„.«>.»  >„„  a,*..,.  0™„,„,„  35.  Sutio,, 

Colliery,  South  Sluelds. 

DISCUSSION    OF    MR.    ^^^^^^^,  ^^^,  ^^^^HOD^ 


Mr    S.MUEL  Dean  (Delagua,  Colorado)  wrote  that  it  was  n 

pleasure  to  him  to  find  that  his  paper  had  been  discuss.d  by  so 

'  Trans.  InsL  M.  E.,  1915,  vol.  1.,  pages  179  and  3SS. 


YOL.  LXTI.-1815-1916. 


hiifi'e  a  liumher  of  mining  men  in  diii'erent  countries,  and  he 
liojx'd  that  what  might  he  now  called  the  "  pit-car  controversy  " 
would  not  he  allowed  to  die. 

Mr.  E.  W.  Parker  and  others  disagreed  with  his  statement 
that  the  princi})al  reason  why  the  United  States  of  America  led 
in  jnoduction  i)er  man  lay  in, the  size  of  mine-cai\s  used,  and 
gave  the  credit  to  the  employment  of  mechanical  coal-cutters. 
He  (Mr.  Dean)  claimed  that  even  if  there  were  not  a  single  coal- 
cutter in  use  in  the  mines,  America  would  still  lead  in  output 
per  man,  and  when  the  members  had  read  his  remarks  they 
would  understand  why  he  made  this  statement.  He  agreed, 
however,  that  the  extensive  use  of  mechanical  coal-cutters  was 
one  of  the  reasons  why  the  United  States  was  so  far  in  the  lead 
in  that  direction. 

He  wished  particularly  to  direct  attention  to  the  remarks  of 
Mr.  Alfred  J.  Tonge,  who  was  formerly  a  well-known  English 
colliery  manager.  Mr.  Tonge  stated  that  there  was  need  for 
serious  reflection  on  the  part  of  British  colliery  engineers  as  to 
how  far  they  could  go  towards  increasing  the  mine-car  capacity, 
the  improvement  of  rolling-stock,  the  permanent  way,  and  the 
haulage  facilities  underground.  One  saw  improvements  in  the 
surface  equipment  at  Br-itish  collieries,  and  recognized  many 
Continental  features.  At  a  neM-  colliery — say,  Horden,  on  the 
south-east  coast  of  Durham — thanks  to  German  draughtsmen, 
there  was  a  modern-looking  heapstead  building;  but  the  under- 
ground methods  were  not  much  in  advance  of  those  of  30  years 
ago.  These  underground  problems  should  not  be  allowed  to  rest 
until  they  had  been  threshed  out  and  solved,  and,  naturally,  after 
that  improvements  would  continue  indefinitely. 

Mr.  Tonge  stated  that  the  use  of  electric  locomotives  would  not 
be  considered  likely  in  British  mines,  without  giving  his  reason 
for  this  opinion ;  but  the  writer  failed  to  see  why  that  should  be 
so.  Such  locomotives  could  be  employed  with  comparative  safety 
in  all  mines  w'here  open  lights  were  used  in  the  roadways,  and 
there  were  open-light  mines  in  Great  Britain.  Trolley-locomo- 
tives also  would  be  permissible  in  all  mines  where  other  than 
permitted  explosives  were  used  for  blasting  purposes.  It  was  a 
simple  matter  to  treat  haulage-roads  with  stone-dust,  so  as  to 
prevent  explosions  of  coal-dust  through  short-circuiting  or  from 
the  arcing  of  trolley-wires      This  matter  was  dealt  with  in  the 

1915-1916.]        DlSCrSSIOX AMERICAX    C()AL-MI.\I\(;     METHODS.  151' 

discussion  of  a  previous  paper.*  In  mines  giving  oft'  large  quan- 
tities of  gas  nuieli  could  he  done  by  increasing  the  height  on  the- 
secondary  roads,  and  by  employing'  three  to  six-horse  or  mule- 
teams  (six  mules  in  a  team),  driven  at  top  speed,  and  pulling- 
fairly  long  trains  of  large  tubs,  with  roller-bearing  wheels  over 
heavy  rails.  The  leading  mule  would  carry  a  permitted  "  bulls- 
eye  "  electric  lamp  on  the  collar,  which  would  resemble  a  minia- 
ture searchlight;  or  the  compressed-air  locomotive  could  be  used. 
This  was  not  a  terrible  machine  to  have  in  a  mine,  and  any  aver- 
sion to  its  use  vanished  on  closer  acquaintance.  If  subsidiary 
rope  haulage  on  secondary  roads  were  preferred,  the  mule  teams 
could  be  employed  on  such  roads  during  periods  preceding  the 
installation  of  the  rope-haulage.  Single  mules  could  be  used  be- 
tween the  furthest  iu-bye  partings  and  the  faces.  A  mule  could 
"  rough  it"  better  than  a  horse  underground;  his  "mine  life  " 
was  longer  ;  he  knew  M'hen  he  was  overloaded  ;  and  sometimes  dis- 
played a  nearly  human  sense  of  danger. 

It  was  doubtful  whether  endless-rope  haidage  was  as  efficient 
as  it  was  stated  to  be.  It  was  slow,  and  required  a  "  little  army  " 
of  men  and  boys  to  attend  to  it.  In  his  opinion  main-rope  or 
main-and-tail-rope  haulage,  pulling  up  main  down-brow  or  dip 
haulage-roads,  with  traction  haulage  on  the  levels,  would  beat  it. 

Mr.  Tonge  had  spoken  of  the  amount  of  brushing  which  would 
be  necessary  in  British  mines,  and  at  first  the  brushing  of  both 
the  top  and  the  bottom  in  thin  seams  in  America  had  appeared  to 
him  (Mr.  Dean)  to  be  an  unnecessary  expense ;  but  he  knew  now 
that  it  was  the  proper  course  to  follow,  and  that  it  "paid." 
Where  new  seams  were  being  opened  up,  and  face-conveyors 
employed,  it  would  be  madness  not  to  use  tubs  of  large  capacitJ^ 

Different  writers  had  drawn  comparisons  between  "  large  " 
and  "  small  "  cars  without  stating  the  respective  capacities  of  the 
cars,  and  he  wished  to  explain  that  when  an  American  spoke  of  a 
"  small  "  car,  he  meant  a  car  of  from  1  to  2  tons  capacity. 
From  a  British  point  of  view  a  2-ton  car  would  be  a  large  one. 

Mr.  W.  E.  AVilson  had  covered  the  ground  in  a  very  intelli- 
gent manner.  He  had  drawn  a  moving  picture  of  a  man  loading 
two  tons  of  coal  in  a  mine  when  10-cwt.  tubs  Avere  used.  That  man- 
would  fill  his  first  tub,  and  would  then  wait  until  it  had  beeit 

*  Trans.  Inst.  M.  E.,  1913,  vol.  xlvi.,  page  387  ;  and  vol.  xlvii.,  page  136. 


removed  and  replaced  by  an  empty  tub,  or  he  would  remove  it 
himself  and  return  with  an  empty  one.  He  would  repeat  this 
operation  four  times,  and  each  period  of  waiting  or  tramming 
would  doubtless  be  of  longer  duration  than  the  time  required  to 
fill  the  tub.  On  the  other  hand,  if  he  received  a  2-ton  tub  and 
filled  that  in  the  time  required  to  fill  two  10-cwt.  tubs,  including 
the  periods  of  waiting  or  tramming,  which  was  quite  likely,  it 
was  at  once  apparent  that  his  output  would  be  doubled,  and  that 
only  half  the  number  of  men  would  be  required  at  the  face  to 
produce  the  same  quantity  of  coal.  A  .similar  picture  could  be 
drawn  all  the  way  from  the  face  to  the  shaft-bottom.  When  a 
putter,  drawer,  trammer,  or  driver  took  a  10-cwt.  tub  from  the 
flat,  shunt,  siding,  or  parting,  he  travelled  a  certain  distance  to 
the  coal-face  and  back,  returning  with  half-a-ton  of  coal.  If  he 
had  taken  a  2-ton  tub,  he  would  have  covered  the  ground  in  the 
same  period  of  time,  but  would  have  returned  with  2  tons  of 
coal.  In  handling  the  tubs  between  the  furthest  in-bye  parting 
and  the  shaft  similar  comparisons  held  good,  and  the  number  of 
haulage  hands  could  be  reduced  at  least  50  per  cent,  and  yet  deal 
with  the  same  quantity  of  coal. 

There  was  little  difficulty  in  dealing  with  large  tubs  in  deep 
shafts :  they  had  been  in  use  in  the  deep  mines  of  South  Wales 
for  over  half  a  century,  as  Mr.  W.  H.  Eoutledge  had  pointed 
out;  but  it  was  difficult  to  induce  the  miners  there  to  fill  them  to 
their  fullest  capacity,  and  on  account  of  super-unionism  the 
advantages  of  large  cars  had  not  been  allowed  to  become  known. 
In  the  United  States  over  35  per  cent,  of  the  bituminous  output 
came  from  shaft  mines  where  large  cars  were  used. 

Mr.  G.  S.  Brackett  spoke  of  the  characteristic  which  went  to 
extremes,  and  Mr.  I.  C.  Parfitt  had  certainly  gone  to  an  extreme 
in  his  contribution  to  the  discussion.  He  had  painted  life  in  the 
mining  camps  in  very  drab  colours,  yet  it  was  true  that  many 
companies  were  building  .superior  houses  for  their  employees,  and 
others  were  improving  existing  conditions ;  but  about  these 
improvements  and  the  brighter  side  of  the  picture  Mr.  Parfitt 
was  silent.  That  there  was  plenty  of  room  for  improvement  he 
(Mr.  Dean)  would  not  deny,  but  Mr.  Parfitt,  having  gone  so  far, 
might  have  explained  the  political  system  which  permitted  any- 
one to  go  into  the  "  coal-mining  business,"  and,  in  an  effort  to 
get  rich  quickly,  to  throw  up  a  number  of  wooden  ' '  shacks  "  or 

1915-1916.]  DISCrsSlOX — AMKKICAX    C(JAL-M1XINC;    MKTIIODS.  163 

huts,  and  employ  a  butclier  or  a  l)aker  as  superintendent  or 
manager  of  the  "  mine."  In  a  previous  paper*  he  (Mr.  Dean) 
had  described  and  illustrated  a  modern  mining  village  at 
Marianna,  Pennsylvania. 

The  writer  j\ould  now  deal  with  the  remarks  of  Mr.  H.  W.  G. 
Halbaum,  who  had  stated  that  the  supposed  superiority  of  the 
American  miner  sank  to  zero  or  became  a  minus  quantity  in  thin 
seams,  and  that  the  general  output  of  the  British  filler  was  11  to 
13  tons  per  sliift  in  3-foot  seams.  He  (Mr.  Dean)  was  delighted 
to  hear  this,  but  he  was  probably  correct  in  assuming  that  these 
fillers  did  nothing  but  fill ;  they  did  no  datalling,  and  many 
things  that  they  might  do  for  themselves  were  done  for  tlieni  by 
others.  He  (Mr.  Dean)  had  not  forgotten  what  he  had  to  do  for 
them.  After  serving  his  apprenticeship  with  a  firm  of  mining 
engineers,  he  had  secured  employment  as  a  dataller  at  some 
Lancashire  collieries.  As  the  colliers  advanced,  it  was  part  of 
his  duty  to  follow  and  take  up  "  bottom  "  for  them  (the  local 
mine  term  was  "warrant"),  and  they  made  him  carry  props, 
etc.,  for  them.  lie  had  long  ago  forgiven  them  for  this,  but,  as 
conditions  were  to-day,  they  might  do  much  of  this  work  them- 
selves, say,  while  waiting  for  empties,  and  at  other  times.  Later 
on,  he  found  that  in  the  county  of  Durham  the  hewers  had  to 
employ  deputies  even  to  set  their  props  for  them.  He  mentioned 
these  matters  so  that  Mr.  Halbaum  might  know  that  he  had  a 
little  knowledge  of  coal-mining  methods  on  both  sides  of  the 
Atlantic.  If  the  conditions  were  the  same  to-day — and  he  did 
not  suppose  that  they  had  changed — his  suggestion  was  that  the 
staffs  of  datallers  or  shifters  might  be  cut  down,  and  that  some  of 
ihem  might  be  sent  to  the  coal-face.  The  services  of  so  many  in 
these  departments  were  not  at  all  necessary,  and,  if  his  sugges- 
tions were  adopted,  the  national  output  would  be  raised.  That 
tliis  was  possible  was  shown  by  tlie  fact  that  one  man  alone  was 
capable  of  loading  25  tons  in  an  8-hour  bank-to-bank  shift.  Mr. 
Halbaum  used  the  term  "  county  average,"  and  it  occurred  to 
him  (Mr.  Dean)  when  he  read  of  the  filler  who  loaded  25  tons  (and 
it  was  assumed  that  he  was  not  loading  on  to  a  conveyor)  that  Mr. 
Halbaum  had  omitted  to  relate  the  conversation  which  this  man 
had  with  the  clieckweighman  on  the  following  day.      It  was  very 

*  "  Coal-mining  in  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  United  States  of  America," 
Trana.  Init.  M.  E.,  1914,  vol.  xlviii.,  page  367. 


likely  that  Ww  filler  would  be  told  tluit  he  had  done  something 
which  was  contrary  to  "  comity  custom." 

Mr.  Halbaum  knew,  of  course,  the  significaDce  of  these  terms, 
"  county  custom,"  or  "  local  custom,"  and  that  the  reason  why 
10-cwt.  tubs  were  used  was  partly  to  be  sought  in  local  custom. 
But  did  he  know,  when  he  spoke  of  high  outputs  per  man  at  the 
face  in  thin  seams,  as  high  as  or  higher  than  the  production  per 
man  in  American  6-foot  seams,  that,  instead  of  bolstering  up  the 
case  for  the  10-cwt.  tub,  he  had  simply  ruined  it?  If  the  output 
at  the  face  was  so  high,  why  was  it  that  the  output,  for  all  men 
employed,  was  so  low?  It  showed  that  thousands  of  men  and 
boys  were  required  to  move  those  small  tubs,  backwards  and  for- 
wards, between  the  coal-face  and  the  pit-bottom,  where,  if  tubs 
of  larger  capacity  were  used,  hundreds  could  do  the  work  and 
send  the  same  quantity  of  coal  to  the  surface. 

Mr.  Halbaum  could  imagine — and  Mr.  Carl  Scholz  also — how 
many  "  sea  tubs  "  and  men  would  be  required,  and  how  much 
time  would  be  occupied,  to  move  the  live  and  dead  "  freight" 
across  the  Atlantic,  in  normal  times,  if  cockle-boats  were  used 
instead  of  "  Aquitanias  "  and  "  Olympics." 

Mr.  Scholz  had  made  some  interesting  comparisons  between 
the  conditions  prevalent  in  Germany  and  those  in  America,  and 
had  stated  that  it  would  be  easier  to  adopt  British  cars  in  America 
than  vice  veisa.  There  was  no  doubt  about  that :  there  would  be 
ample  room  for  10-cwt.  tubs  in  American  mines,  but  Mr.  W.  R. 
Peck  had  explained  what  the  result  would  be. 

Mr.  Scholz's  mines  were  situated  in  Illinois,  Indiana,  and 
Oklahoma,  where  the  United  Mine  AYorkers  Association  of 
America  was  in  control,  and  the  coal  was  shot  from  the  solid 
with  black  powder — a  reprehensible  practice.  In  Oklahoma  it 
was  difficult  to  obtain  shot-firers  at  20s.  a  day  for  a  few  hours' 
work.  He  (the  shot-firer)  was  like  a  man  going  down  into  the 
jaws  of  hell  when  he  entered  the  mine  to  touch  off  the  heavy 
charges  after  the  other  employees  had  gone  home.  At  some 
Oklahoma  mines  all  the  shots  were  coupled  up  to  electric  wires, 
which  were  carried  to  the  outside,  and  when  the  switch  was 
thrown  in  they' a  11  went  off  together  in  the  whole  of  the  mine,  like 
the  simultaneous  firing  of  massed  batteries  of  field  guns.  Every- 
one was  out  of  the  mine  when  this  took  place,  but  the  outside 
world  did  not  know  how  many  dust  explosions  and  fires  occurred. 


In  the  State  of  Colorado — to  make  another  comparison — 
where  the  United  Mine  Workers  Association  was  not  recognized, 
nothing  l)iit  permissible  explosives  were  allowed  in  the  open-light 
coking-coal  mines,  and  the  coal  nnist  be  undermined  to  a  greater 
depth  than  the  shot-hole. 

Mr.  Scholz  had  given  a  number  of  reasons  why  the  output  per 
man  was  higher  in  America  than  Europe.  But  he  (Mr.  Dean) 
was  prepared  to  prove  that,  taking  seams  of  similar  thickness 
worked  on  the  room-and-pillar  or  pillar-and-stall  sj'stem,  includ- 
ing only  men  employed  in  mining  and  filling  and  haulage  work, 
America  was  in  front  of  any  other  country,  and  the  reason  for 
this  lay  in  the  size  of  the  mine-cars  used. 

Eeferring  to  the  6-foot  seam,  which  the  writ-er  spoke  of  and 
by  which  he  stated  that  an  average  output  of  10  tons  per  man 
could  be  kept  up  easily  if  the  men  received  a  regular  supply  of 
empties,  it  might  be  of  interest  to  add  that  the  machine  cut  out 
5  inches  of  slate,  but  there  were  three  other  bands  of  slate  in  the 
seam,  and  this  slate  was  picked  out  by  the  fillers  before  they 
loaded  the  coal.  This  work  took  up  a  great  deal  of  their  time. 
Few  of  the  fillers  were  what  could  be  called  "skilled  "  miners, 
and  they  were  made  up  of  the  following  nationalities  :  — 

Per  cent. 
Austrians  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         '2 

Italians  ... 
Greeks   ... 


In  addition  to  cleaning  the  coal  and  loading  it,  they 
systematically  cross-barred  and  timbered  their  working-places 
according  to  the  State  law,  laid  their  own  track,  drilled  their 
own  shot-holes,  and  removed  any  roof  slate  which  fell  at  the 
face.  They  worked  8  hours,  and'  their  earnings  averaged 
13s.  6d.  per  shift,  although  some  of  the  men  averaged  20s.  (4-80 
dollars)  a  shift.  The  earnings  of  some  of  the  Mexicans  often 
fell  to  10s.,  because  at  the  slightest  opportunity  a  native  of  that 
country  south  of  the  Eio  Grrande  would  stop  to  roll  and  smoke  a 
cigarette  in  an  open-light  mine.  He  was  also  fond  of  visiting  if 
other  men  of  his  nationality  were  employed  near  him,  and  was  a 
philosopher  in  a  way,  because  he  always  looked  to  the  future 


Mr.  Halbaiuu  had  surmised  that  he  (Mr.  Dean)  would  not 
wehome  a  comparison  of  tlie  results  of  British  maoliine-mining 
with  those  of  American  machine  and  hand-work,  but  he  was  mis- 
taken. Such  a  comparison  would  probably  convert  even  Mr. 
Halbaum,  and  it  was  invited — showing  outputs  for  all  men 
employed.  It  would  be  interesting  to  see  how  the  work  of  the 
ignorant  agricultural  emigrant  from  Eastern  and  Southern 
Europe  compared  with  that  of  the  "  practical  "  miner  now  in  the 
bondage  of  trade  unionism. 

He  agreed,  to  use  Mr.  Halbaum's  words,  that  safety  was  an 
essential  condition  of  modernity,  and  the  modern  mining  man 
in  America  realized  that;  but  each  State  had  its  own  mining 
law,  and  no  two  were  alike.  In  addition,  the  State  Mine  In- 
spector was  placed  in  office  by  the  politician :  the  two  worked 
hand  in  hand,  and  the  high  death-rate  in  American  mines  was  a 
monument  to  that  "combination."  However,  conditions  were 
slowly  changing  for  the  better,  and  the  future  would  see  a  much 
lower  accident-rate.  But  large  cars  and  locomotives  were  not 
the  cause  of  numerous  fatalities.  Locomotives  were  used  in 
Westphalia,  and  big  trams  in  South  "Wales,  and  the  accident- 
rates  were  not  unduly  liigh  in  those  two  coalfields.  He  could 
say,  after  Si  years"  experience  in  American  mines,  that  the  dan- 
gers of  electricity  were  much  exaggerated  by  labour  politicians 
in  Great  Britain.  There  were  hundreds  of  miles  of  mine  road- 
ways in  America  containing  bare  and  insulated  conductors,  the 
bare  wires  being  from  4  to  6  feet  above  the  rail.  One  unaccus- 
tomed to  sucli  conditions  would  imagine  tliat  the  roadways  were 
exceptionally  dangerous ;  but  it  was  remarkable  how  quickly 
even  a  "  greenhorn  "  learned  that  he  must  keep  away  from  bare 
live  wires.  And,  where  the  voltage  was  not  over  250,  men  wear- 
ing ordinary  cotton  gloves  frequently  handled  such  wires. 

In  looking  over  the /^ejso;'^  of  the  Committee  upon  Mechanical 
Coal-cutting,  published  by  The  North  of  England  Institute  of 
Mining  and  Mechanical  Engineers,  and  the  Yellow  Book  No.  7, 
issued  by  Messrs.  Mavor  &  Coulson,  Limited,  of  Glasgow,  he  was 
sorry  to  find  that  tlie  figures  given  did  not  compare  very  favour- 
ably with  Mr.,  Halbaum's  11  to  13  tons  at  the  face  in  3-foot 
seams.  The  following  particulars  were  taken  from  the  Report 
of  tlie  Committee  upon  Mechanical  Coal-cutting  :  — 







Thickness  of 

Output  per  man 
at  face. 

Output  per  man 
at  face. 



Ft.     Ins. 





3       2 





4      6 





5      5i 





3      6 





6      6 





5      6 




Yorkshire  ... 

4      4 





4      0 



The  following  figures  were  from  Messrs.  Mavor  &  Coiilsou's 
Yellow  Booh  No.  7,  and  related  to  machine-mining:  — 


Thickness  of  Seam. 




Ft.        Ins. 

3  6 

5        2 
5        2 
1         9 
1         6i 

4  3 

Output  to  haulage  per  man  per  shift,  3 "7  tons. 
Coal  filled  per  filler,  5  tons. 
Output  to  haulage  per  man  per  shift,  oh  tons. 
Coal  filled  per  filler,  4  tons. 

,,         ,,             ,,          8  to  9  tons. 

,,         ,,             ,,          4  tons. 

A  Belgian  colliery. 

j  A  Continental  colliery. 

Mr.  Halbaiim  had  criticized  what  he  cou.sidered  the  iuefii- 
ciency  of  machine-mining  in  America,  and  had  spoken  of 
machines  "  eating  their  heads  olf,"  and  of  methods  which  would 
cause  the  bankruptcy  of  British  collieries.  It  was  not  necessary  to 
explain  to  members  possessed  of  a  liberal  knowledge  of  machine- 
mining  that  the  time  consumed  in  flitting  (room-and-pillar 
work),  unloading  and  loading  the  machine,  pulling  up  to  and 
back  from  the  face,  oiling,  changing  bits,  clearing  small  falls, 
removing  and  resetting  props,  etc.  (a  dataller  was  not  provided 
to  do  this  work),  was  much  in  excess  of  that  required  to  cut 
across  the  places.  When  the  machines  were  actually  cutting, 
the  speeds  per  minute  were  those  stated  in  the  tables.  The  lineal 
cuts  per  shift  were  not  by  any  means  record  figures,  and,  if 
they  were  below  British  averages,  he  (Mr.  Dean)  was  glad  to 
know  it.  Comparisons  were  not  odious  :  this  was  a  platitude 
often  used  by  persons  who  did  not  understand  its  meaning.  A 
comparison  was  of  practical  utility  :  it  served  to  ascertain  the 
true  relation  of  objects.  Odious  signified  hateful,  and  he  felt 
sure  that  hate  did  not  exist  in  the  minds  of  the  writer  of  the 
paper  or  of  the  gentlemen  who  had  taken  part  in  the  discus.siou. 

158    TRANSACTIONS — ^TIIE   NORTH   OF    ENGLAND    INSTITUTK.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

On  the  contrary,  the  desire  was  to  aid  and  assist.     A  man  could 
only  gain  from  the  experience  of  others  by  making-  comparisons. 

The  writer  wished  to  thank  heartily  all  the  gentlemen  who 
had  taken  part  in  the  discussion.  His  object  in  writing  the 
paper  was  not  to  make  comparisons  unfavourable  to  Great 
Britain;  he  had  something-  much  larger  in  view,  and  he 
appealed  to  young-  British  mining  men,  when  they  went  abroad 
to  India,  China,  South  xVmerica,  Africa,  and  other  countries, 
not  to  take  their  10-cwt.  tubs  and  narrow  gauges  with  them. 

Just  as  the  timid  men  of  to-day  eclipsed  the  still  more  timid 
men  of  30  years  ago,  so  would  the  men  of  to-day  be  eclipsed  in 
their  turn  by  their  bolder  sons,  who  would  presently  increase 
output  and  profits  by  the  simple  means  of  doing  all  the  "  inept " 
and  "  unpractical "  things  which  their  fathers  labelled  im- 
possible. The  fruits  then  reaped  would  justify  the  comparisons 
that  were  now  being  made. 

Mr.  Simon  Tate  (Trimdon  Grange)  wrote  that  the  members 
were  much  indebted  to  Mr.  Dean  for  his  very  interesting  and 
instructive  paper.  In  offering  the  following  observations,  he 
would  like  it  to  be  understood  that  lie  did<  so,  not  in  a  spirit  of 
captious  criticism,  but  for  the  purpose  of  stimulating  a  full  and 
exhaustive  discussion,  to  elicit  further  information,  and  to  ascer- 
tain whether  it  were  possible  to  adopt  all  or  any  of  the  sugges- 
tions set  forth  in  the  paper,  with  the  view  of  improving  the  output 
of  British  collieries,  the  production  of  the  workmen  engaged 
therein,  and  of  lessening  the  cost  of  working. 

The  subjects  dealt  with  by  Mr.  Dean  were  familiar  to  all 
the  members,  and  the  question  of  reducing  the  cost  of  working- 
coal  was  one  that  was  daily  before  every  colliery  manager, 
engineer,  and  agent.  It  was  one  of  the  principal  ideas  set  forth 
in  the  Inaugural  Address  of  the  first  President  of  the  Institute 
at  the  first  meeting,  when  he  stated  that  one  of  the  purposes  of 
the  Institute  was  that  of  advancement  in  the  science  of  mining 
and  the  economical  working  of  coal.  Personally,  he  considered 
that  this  was  the  main  object  which  ought  ever  to  be  before  the 
eyes  of  mining  engineers,  especially  those  who  were  members  of 
this  Institute. 

The  writer  of  the  paper  had  adduced  statistics  to  prove  that 
the  American  methods  of  producing  coal  were  more  efficient  in 

1915-1916.]         DISCUS810X AMERICAN    COAL-MIXIXG    METHODS. 


obtaining  a  large  output  per  man  than  were  the  methods  adopted 
in  other  countries.  When  he  stated  that  the  annual  output  per 
man  employed  in  the  bituminous  mines  of  the  United  States 
had  been  raised  in  23  years  from  579  to  837  tons,  equal  to  an 
increase  of  44  per  cent.,  the  result  was  so  startling  that  British 
mining  men  were  bound  to  investigate  the  reasons,  and  to 
ascertain  whether  it  was  possible  for  them  to  adopt  such  of  the 
American  methods  as  were  applicable  to  the  conditions  prevail- 
ing in  British  mines.  Mr.  Dean  had  given  altogether  four 
principal  reasons  for  their  success,  namely  : — 

(1)  The  use  of  large-sized  mine-cars,  rendered  possible  by  the 
adoption  of  loose  wheels  and  axles. 

(2)  The  use  of  coal-mining  machines,  generally  electrically 
driven . 

(3)  The  use  of  electric  and  comp.ressed-air  locomotives  for 
underground  haulage. 

(4)  The  provision  of  strong,  heavy  underground  railroads, 
properly  engineered,  correctly  aligned  and  graded,  well  and  sub- 
stantially laid  throughout. 

(1)  Mr.  Dean  gave  it  as  his  mature  opinion  that  the  principal 
reason  why  the  United  States  was  so  far  ahead  in  the  output 
per  mail  was  due  to  the  use  of  large-capacity  mine-cars.  This 
was  an  important  assertion,  probably  the  most  important  in  the 
whole  of  his  paper. 

Probably  no  one  would  question  the  correctness  of  the  theory 
that  it  was  advisable  that  the  capacity  of  the  vehicle  used  for 
carrying  coal  or  similar  material  should  be  as  large  as  practicable, 
and  that  the  net  weight  of  such  a  vehicle  should  be  as  small  as 
possible,  compatible  with  sufficient  strength  to  stand  wear  and 
tear :  for,  all  other  factors  being  equal,  the  greater  the  difference 
was  between  the  load  carried  and  the  tare  of  the  vehicle,  the 
greater  would  be  the  useful  effect  obtained. 

It  appeared  to  him  (Mr.  Tate)  that  the  benefit  of  using  large 
cars  was  cumulative,  for  every  time  that  the  car,  whether  laden 
or  otherwise,  was  moved  by  man,  horse,  or  mechanical  means,  a 
proportionate  gain  accrued. 

He  was  strongly  of  opinion  that  in  the  Xorth  of  England 
tubs  of  too  small  a  capacity  were  often  used,  and  that  in  many 
cases  larger  tubs,  following  somewhat  American  ideas,  would  be 
an  advantage.    If  the  American  car  carrying  4  tons  was  com- 

160    TRANSACTIONS — THE   NORTH   OF    ENGLAND    INSTITUTE.      ["Vol,  Ixvi. 

pared  with  the  English  tub  carrying  10  cwts.,  it  woulcl  be  found 
that  for  tlie  same  load  of  4  tons  the  following  result  would  be 
obtained : — 

1  American  Car. 

Weight  of  one  empt}' car  ...     3,000 

Load  of  4  tons  carried    ...         ...     8,960 

Total  weight  of  one  loaded  car      1 1,960 

8  Engltsh  Tcbs. 

Weight  of   eight   empty    tubs 

(6  cwts.  each)         ...         ...     5,376 

Lovd  of  10  cwts.  per  tub  ...     8,960 

Total  weight  of  eight  loaded  tubs  14,336 

This  was  equal  to  20  per  cent,  less  weight  to  draw  on  the  full 
tub,  and  79  per  cent,  on  the  empty  tub,  every  time  that  the  tub 
had  to  be  forcibly  moved,  and  further,  each  time  that  the  large 
car  was  in  service  it  was  eight  times  as  effective  as  one  10-cwt. 

In  Xorthumberland  and  Durham  the  weight  of  coal  carried 
in  a  tub  was  not  quite  as  2  to  1 ;  in  fact,  sometimes  with  very 
small  tubs  it  was  as  low  as  1|  to  1.  In  America  with  the  big 
tubs  it  was  as  3  to  1,  which  was  50  per  cent,  better  than  British 
ordinary  practice. 

Moreover,  there  was  in  the  one  case  only  the  friction  of  four 
large-sized  wheels  to  overcome,  as  against  thirty-two  small 
wheels  in  the  other  case  r  and,  taking  into  consideration  the  fact 
that  the  one  had  roller-bearings  with  a  minimum  amount  of  fric- 
tion, and  that  in  the  other  there  were  thirty-two  wheels  with 
bearings  generally  of  a  very  crude  character,  the  difference  in 
favour  of  the  larger  tub  must  be  enormous. 

In  the  case  of  a  train  of  twenty  of  these  tubs,  which  would 
be  equal  to  a  train  of  160  of  the  British  small  tubs,  the  drawing 
power  required  to  haul  the  train  would  probably  not  be  more 
than  half  that  required  to  haul  the  train  of  small  tubs. 

Mr.  Dean  had  mentioned  especially  the  advantage  of  the 
large  tub  in  keeping  the  fillers  fully  employed,  and  had  stated 
that  these  men  filled  about  15  tons  per  shift  of  8  hours.  AVhilst 
not  wishing  to  belittle  this  statement,  he  (Mr.  Tate)  would  like  to 
mention  that  he  had,  during  the  last  30  years,  some  putters  and 
fillers  filling  and  putting,  from  a  seam  averaging  2  feet  3  inches 
thick,  10  to  12  tons  per  shift,  using  small  tubs  of  a  capacity  of 
7|  cwts.,  and  putting  the  tubs  an  average  distance  of  about  70 
to  80  yards.  This  arrangement  of  labour  had  the  following 
advantages: — {a)    constant    employment;    (h)    change    of    work 



almost  equal  to  a  rest ;  and  (c)  no  waste  of  labour  iu  changin.!^ 
"  led  "  tubs.  The  putter  in  most  cases  could  reach  the  flat  sooner 
than  he  could  change  the  tub,  for  it  must  be  remembered  that 
every  time  that  a  putter  changed  a  tub  he  travelled  the  distance 
between  tlie  siding  and  the  face  four  times — twice  with  a  tub 
and  twice  without  one;  in  fact,  all  his  exertions  in  changing  the 
tub  were  directly  and  positively  wasteful. 

This  system  of  filling  and  putting  was,  in  his  opinion,  better 
than  keeping  a  filler  coustantlj-  employed  at  the  face  at  one  class 
of  work,  because  the  work  was  not  so  monotonous,  the  filler  had 
a  necessary  change  of  work  and  position,  and,  instead  of  sitting 
down  to  rest,  he  received  to  some  extent  the  rest  that  he  needed 
by  the  change  of  labour ;  if  ordinary  care  were  taken  to  main- 
tain a  supply  of  tubs,  the  work  of  the  putters  and  fillers  was 
practically  continuous  from  start  to  finish  of  the  shift.  He  (Mr. 
Tate)  considered  that  it  was  bad  practice  to  have  a  long  distance 
between  the  flat  and  the  face. 

When  Mr.  Dean  gave  it  as  his  deliberate  opinion  that  the 
large  increase  in  the  output  per  person  employed  in  American 
mines  was  principally  due  to  the  adoption  of  tubs  carrying  4  tons 
of  coal,  he  (Mr.  Tate)  was  somewhat  sceptical.  He  could  realize 
that  in  thick  seams  or  in  longwall  working,  where  conveyors 
were  in  use  under  suitable  conditions  as  to  the  inclination  of  the 
seam,  etc..  such  tubs  could  be  favourably  used  :  but  lie  could  not 
imagine  such  manifold  results  as  did  Mr.  Dean.  For,  after  all,  it 
was  principally  a  question  of  getting  a  hewer's  or  a  filler's  work 
out,  and  if  he  was  supplied  with  an  unlimited  number  of  10-cwt. 
tubs,  this  was  equal  to  (or  better  than)  being  supplied  with  a  full 
quantity  of  4-ton  tubs.  In  British  seams  and  under  British  con- 
ditions, one  could  never  hope  to  approach  tubs  of  a  capacity  of 
4  tons. 

He  thouglit  that  if  he  had  to  lay  out  a  new  pit  he  would 
certainly  endeavour  to  adopt  to  some  extent  the  American  idea 
of  providing  a  considerably  larger  tub  than  was  generally  used 
in  Britain.  He  had  no  doubt  that  a  tub  built  on  the  American 
principle,  to  carry  15  or  20  cwts..  with  loose  wheels  and  roller- 
bearings,  would  be  as  light  and  as  easy  to  move  as  the  present 
ordinary  tubs,  and  would  travel  in  less  height  and  therefore  save 
making  height. 

He  need  hardlv  sav  that  the  larger  size  of  American  car  could 

102    TRANSACTIONS — THE   NORTH   OF    ENGLAND   INSTITUTE.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

not  readily  be  adojjted  at  tlie  old  collieries  ;  in  fact,  in  order  to  get 
room  in  a  shaft  for  two  cages  sufficiently  large  for  some  of  tlio 
cars,  a  circular  sliaft  22  feet  in  diameter  would  be  required.  Sucli 
a  change  might  possibly  be  effected  in  some  of  the  shallow  pits, 
but  in  deep  pits  it  would  be  too  great  an  undertaking. 

(2)  The  writer  had  mentioned  the  extensive  use  of  coal- 
cutting  machines,  and  here  he  (Mr.  Tate)  thought  that  he  was  on 
safe  ground,  because  in  these  days  of  restricted  physical  effort 
he  believed  that  mechanical  coal-cutfers  were  absolutely  essen- 
tial wherever  the  work  of  coal-getting  at  the  face  was  at  all 
laborious.  It  mattered  not  whether  the  seam  was  thick  or  thin, 
holing  by  manual  labour  in  strong  material  was  fast  becoming 

In  this  country  the  passing  of  the  Minimum  Wage  Act  had 
been  the  death-knell  to  strenuous  coal-hewing,  the  great 
majority  of  coal-hewers  preferring  to  earn  the  minimum  stan- 
dard wage  on  easy  terms  to  earning  a  moderately  good  wage  for 
which  they  had  to  work  laboriously ;  and  in  future  it  would  be 
necessary  that  the  coal-getting  must  be  made  easy  work,  either 
by  altering  the  method  or  the  system  of  work,  or  by  installing 
machinery  to  do  the  strenuous  part  of  the  coal-hewer's  duty. 

American  mining  engineers  seemed  to  be  far  ahead  of  their 
British  brethren  in  machine-mining.  Mr.  Dean  had  stated  that 
one  electrically-driven  Arcwall  machine  had  cut  in  one  shift  of 
10  hours  twenty  rooms  each  20  feet  wide  with  a  depth  of  holing 
of  7  feet.  This  was  equal  to  an  area  of  311  square  yards,  and 
with  a  seam,  say,  3  feet  thick,  one  machine  would  yield  about 
220  to  250  tons  of  coal.  It  seemed  more  like  a  fairy  tale  than 
honest  coal-mining,  and  yet  the  statement  was  further  verified 
by  the  number  of  fillers  allotted  to  each  machine.  Surely,  with 
such  facts  before  them,  it  was  time  for  British  mining  engineers 
to  alter  their  ways  and  methods. 

The  North  of  England  was  the  home  of  bord-and-pillar 
working,  which  system  seemed  particularly  adapted  to  the 
American  method  with  machines,  and  in  "  whole-mine  "  work- 
ing it  would  be  possible  in  many  cases  to  use  electricity  with 
perfect  immunity  from  danger,  whereas  in  longwall  working  in 
the  same  seam  it  might  be  considered  highly  risky. 

At  the  present  time,  owing  to  the  scarcity  of  hewers  and 
stonemen,  it  was  of  vital  importance  that  strong  efforts  should 


1915-1916.]  DlSCrSSIOX AMERICAN    CUAL-MIXIX(;    METHODS.  1C3 

be  made  to  use  macliines  wlierever  possible,  in  order  to  maiutaiu 
the  output :  aud,  as  it  was  necessary  that  as  few  hands  as  pos- 
sible should  be  employed  in  .stone-work  and  shift-work,  it  was 
advisable  to  work  the  coal  into  pillars  by  coal-cutting  machines 
wherever  the  coal  was  hard.  The  writer  had  not  mentioned  Ihe 
use  of  power-drills,  which  were  useful  and  labour-saving- 
machines  when  used  either  in  coal  or  in  stone. 

It  .should  be  borne  in  mind  that,  owing  to  the  war,  it  might 
be  many  years  before  the  full  complement  of  men  returned  to 
the  mine ;  and,  as  it  was  of  the  utmost  importance  to  obtain  as 
large  an  output  of  coal  as  possible,  it  was  one's  duty  to  intro- 
duce machinery  wherever  possible  to  take  the  place  of  human 
labour,  and  especially  so  for  all  such  laborious  work  as  coal- 
hewing  in  hard  seams. 

He  (Mr.  Tate)  had  recently  installed  some  compressed-air 
pick-machines  and  power-drills,  and  found  that  by  their  use  he 
could  materially  increase  the  output  per  man;  but,  owing  to  the 
obstructive  tactics  of  the  workmen,  the  benefit  in  costs  which  he 
ought  to  have  received  had  been  much  discounted. 

(3)  In  the  free  use  of  electricity  American  mining  engineers 
had  undoubtedly  a  great  advantage  over  their  British  brethren, 
as  they  were  not  fettered  by  stringent  and  restrictive  electrical 
laws  such  as  were  in  force  in  Great  Britain ;  consequently,  they 
were  able  to  take  full  advantage  of  its  adaptability  and  cheap- 
ness for  all  their  manifold  mechanical  requirements.  They 
could  use  trolley-locomotives,  and  self-propelling  coal-cutting 
machinery  which  travelled  from  place  to  place  under  its 
own  power;  in  fact,  for  all  purposes  where  steam  or  compressed 
air  would  otherwise  be  applied  they  used  electricity.  Xo  one 
could  appraise  the  full  value  of  this  freedom  and  liberty  to  the 
mining  engineer  in  adapting  and  using  self-propelling  electric 
machinery  for  such  purposes  as  coal-cutting,  and  locomotive 
haulers  for  conveying  the  coal  from  the  working-face  to  the 

If  the  electrical  restrictions  at  present  imposed  upon  British 
mining  engineers  could  be  relaxed  and  altered  so  as  to  give 
greater  facilities  for  its  use  wlierever  safe,  it  would  doubtless 
greatly  facilitate  the  coal  output,  and  do  more  material  good 
than  50  per  cent,  of  the  enactments  that  had  during  recent  years 
been  placed  on  the  statute  books;  and  in  some  measure  it  would 

VOL.  LXTI.-I915-191>;.  ]2E 

164     TKAXSACTIOX.S — THE  NOinU  OF  EXGI,ANU  IXSTITUTE.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

make  up  for  the  loss  of  output  which  liad  resulted,  and  would 
continue  to  result  after  the  war,  owing'  to  so  large  a  number  of 
men  having  joined  the  forces. 

The  American  legislators  evidently  did  not  wish  to  hamper 
their  mining-  industry  with  all  sorts  of  mischievous  and  grand- 
motherly legislation  such  as  was  recommended  in  this  country  by 
popularity-hunting  members  of  Parliament  and  amateur  mining 
experts,  who  were  unfortunately  supported  by  political  aspirants. 
If  onh-  they  would  be  content  to  confine  their  great  powers  for 
mischief  to  sanitary  measures  and  the  proper  distribution  of 
sanitary  pails,  etc.,  instead  of  meddling  with  all  sorts  of 
teclinical  subjects,  it  would  be  better  for  the  coal-trade  and  the 
country  generally. 

(4)  Owing  to  the  use  of  heavy  cars  in  the  United  States,  it 
followed  as  an  absolute  necessity  that  there  should  be  good  rail- 
roads. But  he  questioned  whether  American  practice  was  very 
much  ahead  of  British  practice,  except  as  to  the  strength  of  the 
rails  used,  which,  of  course,  was  simply  a  question  of  the  pro- 
portionate strength  of  the  rail  to  the  load  drawn  ;  in  fact,  he 
questioned  whether  in  America  the  strength  of  the  rails  in 
proportion  to  the  load  was  any  better  than  in  Great  Britain. 
Further,  he  doubted  whether  the  speed  of  their  trains  was  any- 
thing like  what  it  was  fn  some  of  the  pits  in  this  country.  He 
considered  that  in  the  matter  of  good  haulage-roads  many  British 
collieries  would  not  be  easily  excelled.  At  some  pits  the  trains 
were  travelling  at  about  20  miles  an  hour,  and  this  fact  alone 
proved  the  excellence  of  the  engine-roads.  He  considered,  there- 
fore, that  it  was  not  in  this  branch  of  equipment  that  British 
mines  fell  short. 

He  was  afraid  that  the  disability  that  existed  in  Northum- 
berland and  Durham  to  compete  with  America  in  the  output  per 
person  employed  was  almost  beyond  the  power  of  the  mining 
engineer  to  overcome  entirely,  as  the  physical  conditions  of  these 
coalfields  were  unfavourable,  inasmuch  as  they  were  now  prac- 
tically fully  exploited,  and  in  many  cases  very  thin  seams  were 
being  worked.  It  was  not  uncommon  in  the  west  of  the  County 
of  Durham  to  work  seams  20  inches  thick,  and  in  some  cases  as 
thin  as  18  inches. 

There  were  other  factors  which  operated  against  coal-mining 
in  Great  Britain,  such  as  stringent  Acts  of  Parliament,  all  tend- 



iug  to  have  a  detrimental  effect  upon  tlie  output,  costs,  etc. ; 
trade-unionism  with  all  its  restrictive  influences;  old  customs; 
restrictions  of  employment  of  both  young  and  old  ;  short  hours  of 
labour;  too  many  holidays,  including  the  fortnightly  pay  Satur- 
day; in  fact,  the  restrictions  were  almost  innumerable,  and 
many  of  them  were  practically  insurmountable.  It  was  not  only 
America  which  was  leaving  the  Mother  Country  so  far  behind, 
but  even  her  Colonies  were  forging  ahead. 

It  was  well  known  to  all  mining  engineers  that  the  restrictive 
influences  previously  mentioned  had  a  serious  detrimental  effect 
upon  the  output  per  person  employed,  and  although  it  was  quite 
impossible  for  the  writer  to  apportion  the  due  amount  to  any  of 
the  individual  adverse  influences  at  work,  yet  when  it  was  found 
that  the  output  per  person  employed  in  mining  in  this  country 
was  sinking  continuously,  it  became  imperative  that  the  matter 
should  receive  careful  attention,  and,  if  possible,  that  means 
should  be   devised  to  remedy  the  defects.  He  appended  in 

Table  I.  some  comparative  figures  bearing  upon  this  question 
which  were  strikingly  ominous  :  — 

Table  I. — Tons  of  Coal  Produced  Pee  Annum  Per  Person  Employed  in 
Various   Countries. 


United  Kingdom. 

United  States. 


New  Zealand. 

























472  per  cent. 

— . 





Decrease  per  cent. 






Strike  year. 

t  Calculated  from  1886  to  1911. 

It  would  be  observed  that  the  output  of  the  United  Kingdom 
was  steadily  decreasing,  and,  even  omitting  the  year  1912,  which 
was  the  great  strike  year,  the  output  had  fallen  17  per  cent,  from 
1886  to  1911  ;  in  America  the  output  had  increased  65  per  cent, 
from  1886  to  1912 ;  whilst  that  of  the  Colonies  mentioned  in  the 
table  had  also  gone  up  63,  40,  and  38  per  cent,  respectively. 

IS^aturally,  if  there  was  a  restricted  supply  of  any  article  of 
general  use  the  first  effect  of  the  shortage  was  to  enhance  the 
price  of  the  article.  This  was  clearly  shown  in  the  case  of  coal, 
for.  while  the  outj)ut  per  person  employed  had  lessened,  the  price 

ICG     TK.VNSACTIONS THE  XOimi  OF  EN(;i,A.\l)  IXSTITUTE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

or  value  per  iou  at  tlie  i)it-iuou11i  had  increased,  so  that  there  wa.8 
probably  the  same  margin  of  profit  at  the  best  collieries,  where 
the  labour  cost  bore  a  smaller  proportion  to  the  total  cost ;  but 
this  was  not  the  case  at  those  collieries  where  thin,  hard,  and 
difficult  seams  had  to  be  worked.  The  effect  of  the  reduced  out- 
put at  tliese  latter  collieries  had  been  serious,  and  had  resulted 
in  the  stoppage  of  man^-  such  pits. 

The  high  cost  of  coal  had  a  baneful  and  far-reaching  effect 
on  the  manufacturing  trade,  and  it  probably  accounted  for  the 
slow  advancement  in  iron-production,  which  for  many  years  had 
been  practically  stagnant :  for,  whereas  is  the  year  1805  Great 
Britain  made  five  times  as  much  iron  as  Germany,  Germany  had 
passed  us  in  1910,  and  made  50  per  cent,  more  than  we  did.  In 
the  production  of  steel  we  were  still  further  behind.  Table  II. 
showed  the  production  of  iron  and  steel  in  Germany  and  the 
United  Kingdom. 

Table  II. — Productton  of  Ikon  and  Steel  in  Germany  and  the  United 



Iron  production. 

Steel  production. 


United  Kingdom. 


United  Kingdom. 





































Mining  engineers  could,  however,  excuse  themselves  to  a 
certain  extent,  because  he  found  that  in  other  industries  the 
United  Kingdom  was  behind  America  to  a  similar  extent.  In 
about  twenty-six  trades  he  found  that  the  production  per  worker 
per  week  was  from  two  to  three  times  more  in  America  than  in 
Great  Britain. 

Why  was, this  country  being  left  so  far  behind?  In  the  life- 
time of  several  of  the  present  members  of  the  Institute  the  United 
Kingdom  had  produced  more  coal  than  all  the  rest  of  the  world 
combined;  in  fact,  in  the  year  1845  she  produced  twice  as  much. 
Now  she  was  only  second  in  the  race. 

1915-1916]         UlSCrSSIOX AMERICAN    COAL-MIXIXG     METHODS.  167 

In  his  opinion  there  were  three  principal  causes  for  this  back- 
wardness. First,  the  coal-owner  had  often  been  too  conservative 
in  his  ideas  of  business,  too  indifferent  to  the  changes  which  had 
been  g-radually  taking-  place  in  the  labour  world,  and  also  to  his 
dual  interests  in  the  working  man's  good  offices,  namely,  his 
labour  and  his  vote.  Secondly,  politicians  of  both  parties  desir- 
ing to  obtain  votes  had  increasingly  flattered  both  masters  and 
men,  and,  instead  of  preventing  the  workers  from  reducing  their 
output  to  a  minimum,  had  actually  encouraged  them  in  that 
suicidal  policy  by  restrictive  legislation.  By  striving  after 
popularity  and  votes,  and  by  passing  pernicious  laws, 
the  politicians  had  encouraged  idling  on  the  part  of  the  work- 
men, with  the  result  that  this  countrj^  had  fallen  much  more 
rapidly  than  she  ought  to  have  done  from  her  position  as  the 
premier  coal-producing  country  to  a  secondary  position.  At  the 
present  rate  of  decline  in  the  output  per  man  it  would 
be  found  that  Great  Britain  would  be  handicapped  as 
the  supplier  of  the  markets  of  the  world,  and  that  other 
countries  would  obtain  her  position  as  the  greatest  trading 
nation.  Thirdly,  there  was  the  restrictive  policy  of  the  trade 
unions.  During  the  last  fifty  years  great  improvement  had 
taken  place  in  all  kinds  of  mining  machinery  for  increasing  the 
output  and  reducing  the  more  laborious  part  of  coal-mining,  and 
great  economy  was  expected  to  follow;  but  unfortunately  the 
whole  benefit  expected  had  been  nullified  and  absorbed  by  the 
policy  of  trade  unions.  These  bodies  by  every  means  in  their 
power,  assisted  by  legislation,  had  endeavoured  to  restrict  the 
output  per  man,  not  always  by  the  bald  system  of  ordering  a 
member  to  do  only  a  certain  "stint"  of  work,  but  rather  by 
limiting  his  opportunities  for  producing  his  maximum  duty,  by 
limiting  his  hours  of  labour,  by  taking  away  the  incentive  to  put 
forth  his  best  efforts  when  difficulty  arose,  and  generally  by 
obtaining  a  greater  payment  than  was  warranted  for  his  labour, 
a  payment  much  higher  than  that  made  for  similar  duties  per- 
formed by  other  labouring  classes.  The  result  was  that  British 
coal-miners  had  succeeded  in  reducing  the  output  of  coal  per 
man  and  in  creating  an  artificial  scarcity  with  spuriously 
augmented  prices,  which  must  have  a  detrimental  effect  on  our 
manufacturing  industries,  and  would  some  day  result  in  a 
reduced  demand  for  both  our  manufactured  goods  and  for  our 
coal  and  iron. 


He  was  fully  aware  that  at  the  present  time  the  British  coal- 
trade  as  regarded  prices  was  in  a  flourishing  condition.  The 
only  great  drawback  was  the  shortage  of  labour;  consequently 
the  necessary  incentive  existed  for  mechanical  improvements,  so 
as  to  helj)  to  meet  the  present  abnormal  demands,  and  also  to 
educate  mining  engineers  and  workmen  alike  in  th-e  use  of  such 
macliinery  as  would  enable  us  to  improve  both  our  present  and 
future  output. 

In  the  present  abnormal  state  of  the  coal-trade  in  this  country 
coal  must  be  produced  at  any  cost ;  in  fact,  even  if  it  were  at 
some  loss  it  was  imperative  that  as  large  an  output  as  possible 
should  be  produced.  He  thought  it  would  be  found  that  for  the 
current  year  the  output  per  person  employed  would  be  consider- 
ably increased,  owing,  not  to  any  extra  effort  on  the  part  of  the 
miner,  but  rather  to  the  shortening  of  hands,  the  stoppage  of  all 
exploring  work  or  extensions,  and,  to  a  considerable  extent,  to 
the  stoppage  of  the  less  favourable  portions  of  our  mines. 

The  great  difference  in  the  methods  practised  in  America  and 
in  Great  Britain  seemed  to  be  that  in  America  the  wages  paid 
were  in  proportion  to  the  output,  whereas  in  Great  Britain  they 
were  in  proportion  to  the  selling  price.  The  result  was  that  in 
America  every  effort  was  put  forth  to  obtain  a  big  output 
cheaply,  whilst  in  Great  Britain  enhanced  wages  had  to  be  paid 
because  of  restricted  supply.  In  other  words,  in  America  the 
harder  the  men  worked  the  higher  were  their  wages,  whilst  in 
Great  Britain  the  smaller  the  output  was  the  higher  were  the 

He  would  like  to  mention  that  in  the  compilation  of  the  data 
and  figures  in  his  remarks  he  was  much  indebted  to  an  article  by 
Mr.  J.  Ellis  Barker  in  the  Nineteenth  Century  and  After  * 

Mr.  E.  0.  FoESTER  Brown  (London)  wrote  that  the  questions 
raised  in  the  paper  and  in  the  subsequent  discussion  could  not 
fail  to  be  of  great  benefit  when  problems  of  mine  haulage  and 
coal-cutting  were  being  considered,  especially  in  the  case  of  new 

He  could  "not  agree  with  Mr.  Dean's  opinion  that  the  prin- 
cipal reason  why  the  United  States  led  in  production  per  man 
was   because  mine-trams  of  large  capacity  were  used,  as  com- 

*  1915,  vol.  Ixxviii.,  page  1233. 



pared  with  those  in  use  at  German,  Belgian,  French,  and  British 
mines.  The  principal  reason  why  the  United  States  led  in  pro- 
duction per  man  was,  in  his  opinion,  because  a  greater  proportion 
of  the  coal  worked  in  that  country  was  obtained  from  thick 
seams  with  good  roofs,  lying  at  comparatively  shallow  depths 
and  at  a  slight  inclination,  and  because  of  the  few  restrictions 
against  taking  electricity  up  to  the  coal-face.  The  use  of  large 
trams  undoubtedly  enabled  better  advantage  to  be  taken  of  such 
natural  conditions  than  would  be  the  case  if  small  trams  were 
employed,  but  this  feature  could  hardly  be  claimed  as  the  prin- 
cipal reason  why  the  output  per  man  was  high. 

A  point  which  did  not  appear  to  have  been  raised  in  dis- 
cussing the  relative  merits  of  large  and  small  trams  in  the  two 
countries  was  that,  while  in  this  countiy  and  on  the  Continent 
collieries  were  usually  laid  out  with  a  view  to  eventually 
working  several  seams  of  varying  thickness,  so  that  the  trams 
had  to  be  designed  to  fit  the  thinnest  seam  as  well  as  the  thickest, 
in  the  United  States  it  was  far  more  common  to  find  collieries 
laid  out  to  develop  one  seam  only.  To  cite  cases  from  personal 
experience,  he  might  mention  the  Pittsburgh  Seam,  from  4  to 
(')  feet  thick  ;  the  Connelsville  Seam  in  the  Pennsylvania  coal- 
field, varying  from  7  to  10  feet  in  thickness;  and  the  Big  Vein 
in  the  Georges  Creek  coalfield,  12  feet  thick.  A  large  number 
of  collieries  were  laid  out  to  work  these  seams  alone,  and,  in  view 
of  the  .strong  competition,  it  was  improbable  that  they  could 
afford  to  work  seams  of  inferior  thickness  or  with  less  favourable 
natural  conditions,  even  when  such  existed  in  the  same  property 
— at  any  rate,  not  until  the  thicker  seams  mentioned  were  to  a 
large  extent  exhausted. 

Theoretically,  where  the  natural  conditions  permitted,  the 
case  for  large  trams  would  appear  to  be  a  very  strong  one.  A 
question  on  which  further  information  would  be  valuable,  how- 
ever, was  as  to  the  best  means  of  handling  large  trams  between 
the  main  haulage-roads  and  the  face.  His  experience  was  that 
it  was  a  comparativly  easy  matter  to  form  an  opinion  on  the 
expense  justifi.ed  in  making  and  in  maintaining  a  good  main 
haulage-road  to  handle  a  large  tonnage ;  the  difficulty  was  to 
determine  how  much  it  was  worth  while  spending  on  secondary 
haulage-roads  in  order  to  keep  and  maintain  a  good  road  and  track 
in  view  of  their  temporary  character.     As  a  rule,  secondary  haul- 


asi-e  cost  a  <^reat  deal  more  i)er  ton  than  main  haulage,  although 
the  distances  to  be  traversed  by  the  former  were  very  much  less, 
while  derailments  occurred  mucli  more  frequently.  With  larger 
trams,  for  the  same  quantity  of  coal  handled  as  by  small  trams, 
more  money  must  be  spent  on  secondary  haulage-tracks  and 
curves  in  order  to  avoid  derailments  and  excessive  friction.  The 
adoption  of  trams  beyond  a  certain  size,  except  in  very  flat  seams, 
would  appear  to  eliminate  the  question  of  horse,  mule,  or  manual 
haulage  on  the  secondary  roads ;  and  where  electricity  could  not 
be  used  near  the  face,  the  choice  would  appear  to  lie  between 
secondary  rope  or  compressed-air  locomotive  haulage.  Infor- 
mation on  the  application  and  cost  of  these  or  other  similar 
systems  in  the  United  States,  and  the  measure  of  success  which 
had  attended  them,  would  be  useful. 

He  could  confirm  from  personal  experience  the  care  taken 
in  laying  and  keeping  in  good  condition  the  main  haulage-tracks 
at  American  colliei'ies.  These  often  compared  favourably  with 
standard-gauge  tracks  kept  by  some  of  the  railway  companies  in 
that  country. 

Mr.  Samuel  Hare  (Bishop  Auckland)  said  that  Mr.  Tate 
appeared  to  agree  with  the  writer  of  the  paper  that  the 
labour-saving  machines — especially  coal-cutting  machines — 
in  America  were  responsible  to  a  large  extent  for  the  larger 
output  per  man  as  compared  with  England.  He  also  gathered 
that  Mr.  Tate  did  not  think  that  English  mining  engineers  had 
done  as  much  as  American  mining  engineers  in  adopting  labour- 
saving  machinery.  For  some  years  past  he  (Mr.  Hare)  had  been 
watching  American  mining,  and  had  admired  the  ability  of 
American  mining  engineers  in  overcoming  the  difficulties  in  con- 
nexion with  labour  by  developing  machine-mining.  He  had 
tried  their  very  latest  machines,  and  he  believed  that  he  had  had 
at  one  of  his  collieries  the  best  American  operator — at  least,  he 
was  said  to  be — sent  to  demonstrate  to  them  what  an  American 
machine  could  do  when  operated  by  an  American,  but  the  experi- 
ment had  been  an  absolute  failure.  This  expert  operator  could 
not  do  any  better  than  their  own  men,  and  the  particular  machine 
gave  no  better  results  than  they  were  already  achieving,  so  that 
the  experiment  had  to  be  abandoned. 

He  thought  that  most  of  them  would  agree  that  English  long- 
wall    coal-cutting    machines    were    as    good    as    the    American 

1915-1916.]      DISCUSSION" AMEIIICAX    COAL-MIMXG    METHODS.  171 

macliines.  He  liad  used  both  kinds,  and,  whilst  he  could  not  praise 
too  highly  the  best  American  longwall  machine,  he  believed 
that  long-wall  machines  were  being  produced  in  this  country 
whicli  were  equally  as  good.  In  the  case,  however,  of  bord-and- 
pillar  working,  the  condiiions  were  different.  They  had  only  to 
look  at  the  illustrations  in  the  paper  to  see  the  different  conditions 
under  whicli  the  American  machines  worked.  In  a  vast  space 
there  was  hardly  a  stick  of  timber,  a  condition  which  was  abso- 
lutely impossible  in  England.  Owing  to  the  bad  roofs,  they  had 
to  timber  nearly  up  to  the  face,  and,  in  addition,  they  had  to 
contend  with  the  Government  regulations,  so  that  it  was  prac- 
tically impossible  to  use  the  American  bord-and-i)illar  machines 
in  an  ordinary  English  pit. 

Then  there  was  the  question  of  depth.  He  could  not  imagine 
pits  of  the  average  depth  of  English  mines  being-  worked  with 
the  small  amount  of  timber  that  was  used  in  America,  and  he 
took  it  that  the  coal-cutting  was  done  at  very  limited  depths. 

He  had  tried  rails  weighing-  70  pounds  to  the  yard,  in  order 
to  get  the  machines  transferred  quickly  from  place  to  place  ;  but, 
although  he  had  employed  American  operators,  it  was  found 
impossible  under  English  conditions  to  do  this.  A  very  import- 
ant matter  with  regard  to  coal-cutting-  machinery  in  connexion 
with  bord-and-pillar  working  was  the  fact  that  it  was  absolutely 
necessary,  in  order  to  get  these  machines  moved  quickly  from 
place  to  place,  that  naked  wires  should  be  used.  This  was 
contrary  to  the  Government  regulations  in  Great  Britain,  and 
he  would  be  sorrj"  indeed  to  adopt  this  practice,  even  if  it  were 

He  thought  that  no  comparison  could  be  made  between  the 
working  conditions  in  the  two  countries,  and  it  would  be  very 
unfair  to  charge  English  mining  engineers  with  being  behind 
American  mining  engineers  in  up-to-date  practice.  He  was  per- 
fectly certain  that  if  they  had  anything  like  the  same  conditions 
as  those  obtaining  in  America,  they  had  in  England  mining 
engineers  who  fully  realized  the  advantages  to  be  gained  by  a 
more  extended  use  of  machinery  in  connexion  with  mining,  and 
who  possessed  the  necessary  ability  required  to  design  and  iustal 

He  agreed  with  Mr.  Tate  in  other  re.spects,  and  congratulated 
him  on  the  excellence  of  his  criticism  of  the  paper. 


Mr.  John  H.  Merivalk  (liroomLill)  said  that  he  was  inclined 
to  agree  that  the  principal  reason  for  the  larger  output  in 
America  was  due  to  the  conditions  there,  namely,  the  thicker 
seams  and  better  roofs.  At  the  same  time,  there  were  many 
important  points  to  which  attention  had  been  drawn  by  Mr. 
Dean  and  emphasized  by  Mr.  Tate  which  they  might  very  fairly 
consider.  First,  there  was  the  question  of  larger  tubs.  There 
was  no  doubt  that  if  a  larger  tub  could  be  used  it  would  be  an 
immense  benefit,  although  he  was  not  prepared  to  say  that  a 
larger  tub  could  be  used  in  very  many  cases.  There  was  a 
point  in  connexion  with  tubs  which  had  not  occurred  to  him  until 
looking  at  a  copy  of  the  Nineteenth  Century  and  After*  he  was 
surprised  to  find  it  stated,  according  to  Board-of-Trade  figures, 
that  only  \  per  cent,  of  the  life  of  a  railway-wagon  was  employed 
usefully,  and  for  the  remaining  99i  per  cent,  of  its  life  it  was 
standing  about  or  running  empty.  He  thought  that  they  would 
find  that  only  about  3  per  cent,  of  the  life  of  a  tub  was  employed 
usefully — that  is,  running  full.  If  that  was  so,  anything  which 
would  enable  them  to  get  more  work  out  of  their  tubs  by  increas- 
ing the  beneficial  load  and  decreasing  the  dead  load,  as  in  the 
case  of  a  larger  tub,  would  be  an  advantage. 

There  was  no  doubt  ihat  they  did  not  use  machinery  as  much 
as  they  might,  nor  as  much  as  was  done  in  America.  This 
was  not  entirely  due  to  the  different  conditions  of  working,  but 
to  a  great  extent  to  difficulties  experienced  with  the  workmen. 
Before  new  machinery  could  be  introduced  to  supersede  manual 
labour,  arrangements  had  to  be  made  with  the  men,  and  very 
properly  so  in  his  (Mr.  Merivale's)  opinion;  but  difficulties  were 
always  raised,  and  when  the  workmen  were  requested  to  give 
reasons  for  their  objections,  the  general  reply  was  that  the  new 
machinery  was  an  innovation.  "  It  had  never  been  done  be- 
fore "  was  a  stock  answer.  The  men  would  not  do  anything 
that  their  grandfathers  had  not  done  before  them.  He  thought 
that  matters  would  be  greatly  changed  after  the  war  in  that 
respect.  There  would  be  a  shortage  of  men,  and  owners  would 
be  bound  to  use  more  machinery  than  they  were  doing  at 
present.  Thfere  was  an  idea  simmering  in  the  minds  of  scien- 
tists, which,  if  it  came  to  fruition,  would  be  of  great  advantage, 
namely,  the  transmission  of  power  by  wave  motion.       Mr.  Tate 

*  1916,  vol.  Ixxix. ,  page  470. 

1915-1916.]      DISCUSSIOX AMERICAN'    COAL-MIXIXG     METHODS.  173 

liad  tlra"svn  attention  to  the  fact  that  they  were  hampered  by 
Government  regiihitions  which  restricted  the  of  electricity. 
In  many  ways  those  regulations  were  as  inidonbtedly 
electricity  had  its  dangers.  If,  however,  they  could  get  a  sub- 
stitute, if  they  could  get  power  conveyed  by  ineans  of  liquid 
waves,  they  would  have  a  means  of  transmitting  power  to 
their  coal-cutting  machines  which  was  simpler,  fool-proof  in 
fact,  and  at  the  same  time  it  was  incapable  of  doing  damage  by 
causing  an  explosion.     It  was  absolutely  safe. 

Finally,  there  was  the  other  point  to  which  Mr.  Tate  had 
drawn  attention,  namely,  their  method  of  regulating  wages,  and 
he  thought  that  they  hardly  realized  how  insane  that  method 
was.  They  paid  their  men  according  to  the  selling  price  of  the 
product;  in  so  many  words  they  said:  '"Produce  as  little  coal 
as  you  can:  it  will  raise  tlie  price  and  put  up  your  wages.''  He 
(Mr.  Merivale)  objected  to  this  arrangement.  Whilst  admitting 
that  it  was  a  great  advance  upon  former  methods  for  the  regula- 
tion of  wages,  he  thought  that  the  time  had  now  arrived  when  it 
should  be  superseded  and  wages  be  based  on  the  difference  between 
the  selling  price  and  the  cost.  There  would  be  no  more  difficulty 
in  arranging  a  sliding'  scale  on  that  basis  than  there  was  in 
arranging  a  sliding  scale  on  the  selling  price.  He  looked  for- 
ward to  the  day  when  that  method  would  be  adopted,  and  the 
effect  of  it  would  be  to  induce  men  to  produce  as  much  as  they 
possibly  could,  and  at  as  low  a  price  as  they  could.  They  would 
then  have  a  direct  interest  in  making  the  mine  a  success,  to  the 
benefit  of  themselves,  the  coal-owners,  and  the  country. 

The  President  (Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener)  said  that  Mr.  Tate  had 
given  them  much  food  for  thought.  He  had  not  gathered  that 
Mr.  Tate  was  casting  any  reflection  on  the  British  mining 
engineers,  but  rather  thought  that  he  was  emphasizing  the  fact 
that  the  reasons  why  the  outputs  in  America  were  larger  than  in 
this  country  were  that  the  conditions  were  very  much  better, 
there  was  less  legislative  interference,  trades  unions  did  not 
restrict  the  output  to  the  same  extent  as  in  Great  Britain,  and 
last,  but  not  least,  the  method  of  payment  was  better. 

Mr.  Simon  Tate  said  that  when  the  paper  was  read  lie  thought 
that  it  had  been  somewhat  overlooked  bv  the  mining  cnnineers 


in  the  Xortli  of  England,  luid  that  tliere  were  points  in  it  well 
worthy  of  their  attention.  Tlie  object  of  his  remarks  had  been 
to  call  their  attention  to  these  points,  and  he  thought  that 
bis  remarks  had  met  with  so  much  approbation  from  the 
members  that  his  puri)ose  had  been  fully  realized.  He  would, 
however,  be  pleased  to  discuss  the  nuitter  further  at  the  next 

Mr.  Hiram  H.  Hirsch's  paper  on  "  The  Hirsch  Portable 
Electric  Lamp"  was  taken  as  read,  as  follows  :  — 

1915-1916]  HIESCH THE   IIIRSCII   I'ORTABLE   ELECTEIC   LAME.        175 



Introduction. — The  writer  has  pleasure  in  suhinittina;  a  short 
description  of  the  Hirsch  lamp,*  which,  thoug'h  largely  used  in 
the  United  States  of  America,  has  not  yet  been  adopted  in 
Great   Britain. 

The  lamps,  which  consist  of  (1)  the  watchman's  lamp  and  (2) 
the  miner's  lamp,  are  portable,  and  have  been  designed  to  pro- 
vide a  safe  and  reliable  light  for  use  by  watchmen,  and  in  mines, 
rescue-work,  powder-works,  oil-refineries,  and  other  places  where 
special  precautions  become  necessary  on  account  of  the  presence 
of  explosive  materials  or  gases.  The  lamps  are  in  each  in- 
stance operated  by  a  storage-battery  contained  within  a  casing, 
and  this  supplies  the  current  necessary  for  a  miniature 
incandescent  lamp.  Each  safety-lamp  forms  a  complete  unit, 
and  can  be  carried  from  place  to  place  or  held  in  any  position. 

(1)  Miner  s  or  Watclnnans  Hand-lamp  (Fig.  1). — This  lamp 
consists  of  a  storage-battery  placed  on  an  asbestos  cushion  in  a 
cast-aluminium  casing  provided  with  a  hinged  top.  The  top  piece 
is  also  of  cast-aluminium,  and  is  provided  with  a  hook,  a 
reflector,  and  terminals  for  making  contact  with  both  poles  of 
the  battery.  The  reflector  unit  consists  of  concentric  safety 
shells,  an  incandescent  lamp,  a  safety  glass,  a  crystal,  and  a 

Battery. — The  battery  consists  of  two  horizontal  lead  plates, 
each  about  an  inch  thick,  placed  in  the  bottom  of  a  hard- 
rubber  jar  and  separated  by  wood  and  perforated  hard  rubber, 
the  bottom  plate  being  positive.  The  positive  and  negative 
leads  extending  from  the  battery  plates  are  enclosed  in  glass 
tubing.  The  solidified  electrolyte  consists  of  a  gelatinous  sub- 
stance developed  by  the  manufacturers.  The  battery  is  sup- 
plied  with   a   vent-plug,    and   the   top   of   the   battery   is   sealed 

*See  Trans.  Inst.  M.  E.,  1915,  vol.  xlviii.,  page  384. 


with  an  iiisulatiiig-  compound.     Botli  the  negative  and  the  posi- 
tive teriuiuals  consist  of  autimonious  lead. 

Casing. — The  casing-  for  the  battery  is  made  of  cast  alumin- 
ium about  i  inch  thick.  It  is  open  at  the  top,  the  top  edges 
being   provided   with    tapered   or   bevelled    edges.      A   magnetic 

spring  lock  is  housed  in  on 
the  bottom  casing,  and  a  soft 
rul)])er  cushion  is  placed  in 
tlie  bottom. 

Cover.  —  The  combined 
cover  with  reflector-holder  is 
made  of  cast-aluminium 
about  J-  inch  thick.  The 
sides  are  provided  with 
bevelled  or  tapered  edges  to 
lit  to  the  bottom  casing,  and 
a  hook  is  attached  to  the  top 
of  the  reflector  casting.  One 
end  is  drilled  and  tapped  for 
a  screw,  the  end  of  which  fits 
into  a  clearance  hole  in  the 
casing  and  secures  the  two 
parts  in  place.  Spring-clip 
contacts  are  insulated  and 
secured  to  the  underside  of 
the  cover,  and  make  contact 
Avith  both  terminals  of  the 
battery ;  it  is  connected  by 
a  short  length  of  insulated 
wire  to  the  central  contact- 
screw  of  the  miniature  lamp- 

Rtfledov. — The  reflector 
is  constructed  with  three 
concentric  shells,  the  inter- 
mediate shell  being  insulated  from  the  other  two  and  connected  to 
the  negative  pole,  and  the  other  two  shells  to  the  positive  pole  of 
the  battery.  The  distance  between  these  shells  varies  at  different 
points  from    ^V  to  i   inch.     The  shells  are  so  arranged  thdt  if 

Fig.  ]. 

■Minek"s  or  WatchjiaiS's 

1915-1916.]       HIESCH THE   HIRSCII    POIITAHLK   ELKCTBIC   LAMP.  177 

Hie  reflector  slioukl  be  t-rusliecl  oi  puiictiucd,  the  current  to  the 
lomj)  is  cut  off  by  tlie  shells  being-  short-circuited  between  tlie 
battery  and  the  lamp  before  the  lamp-bulb  can  be  broken.  The 
inner  shell  is  fastened  to  the  screw-shell  of  the  lamp-socket,  and 
the  intermediate  shell  is  fastened  under  the  central  contact  of 
the  lamp-socket.  A  brass  screw  passes  through  an  insulating- 
bushing  in  tlie  back  of  the  top  piece,  threads  through  a  square 
brass  nut,  then 
through  an  insulat- 
ing cylinder,  and 
into  a  brass  hexa- 
gonal nut  forming 
the  centre  contact  of 
the  lamp-socket.  A 
contact  spring, 
clamped  under  the 
square  nut.  but  insu- 
lated from  it  and 
making  contact  with 
the  top  piece,  pro- 
jects outward  and 
makes  contact  with 
the  outer  shell  of  the 
reflector.  The  outer 
end  of  the  reflector 
shell  is  provided  witli 
a  thread  to  receive  ;i 
ring  that  secures  a 
convex  crystal  ap- 
proximately g  inch 
thick  against  a  soft 
rubber  jacket. 

Lnmp-hulh. — The 
incandescent  lamp 
used  is  of  the  2-volt 
0-55-ampere  tungsten-filament  type,  with  a  miniature  lamp-base. 

Safety-glass. — The  safety-glass  consists  of  a  piece  of  window 
glass  2fV  inches  long,  1  inch  wide,  and  about  005  inch  thick, 
supported  across  the' reflector-shell  back  of  the  crystal. 

Fif!.  2.  -  Miner's  Cav-lami-. 

1  78     TRANSACTIONS THE  NORTH  Ol-  ENGLAND  INSTITUTE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

Sicitc/i. — The  switcli  on  the  watchman's  lantern  consists  of 
a  screw-switch  fastened  to  tlie  outer  case  of  the  reflector  and  a 
knurled-head  screw,  which  tlireads  through  tlie  outer  shell  and 
makes  contact  with  the  spring.  The  tension  of  the  spring 
is  sucli  that  it  presses  against  the  contact-spring  in  the  corner 
of  the  battery-case. 

(2)  3Iii2e/s  Lditip  (Fig.  2). — This  lamp  consists  of  a  storage- 
battery  placed  in  a  cast-aluminium  box  designed  for  mounting 
on  the  miner's  belt.  The  box  is  supplied  with  a  handle,  and 
contains  the  necessary  contact-springs  for  making  contact  with 
the  battery-terminals.  Through  the  npper  part  of  the  box 
the  armoured  cord  extends.  The  other  end  of  tlie  armoured 
cord  is  fastened  to  the  headpiece.  This  headpiece  is  similar  in 
construction  to  the  reflector  of  the  watchman's  lamp,  and 
consists  of  an  incandescent  lamp,  a  reflector,  safety-shells,  a 
safety-glass,  a  crystal,  and  a  switch. 

Battery. — The  battery  is  of  the  same  construction  as  that  of 
the  watchman's  lamp. 

Casing. — The  casing  for  the  battery  consists  of  a  cast^ 
aluminium  case  about  5  inch  thick,  made  with  a  detachable 
hinged  cover  to  lock  to  tlie  bottom  of  the  case.  The  top  is  pro- 
vided with  a  wire  handle,  and  on  the  back  is  an  opening 
through  which  the  miner's  belt  passes.  Two  copper  springs 
insulated  and  fastened  to  the  top  of  the  case  make  contact  with 
the  negative  and  positive  terminals  of  the  battery. 

Headpiece. — The  reflector,  which  is  used  as  a  headpiece,  is  of 
the  same  construction  as  the  reflector  provided  for  the  watch- 
man's lamp,  except  that  the  central  contact  for  the  miniature 
receptacle  consists  of  a  hexagonally-headed  screw,  which  passes 
through  an  insulating  cylinder  and  threads  into  a  nut.  This 
nut  forms  the  central  contact  of  the  inner  insulated  wire  which 
is  on  the  inside  of  the  armoured  cord.  The  inner  wire  is 

Lam p-hulh . — The  incandescent  lamp  used  is  the  same  as  in  the 
watchman's  lamp. 

Armoured  Cord. — The  cord  consists  of  a  single  piece  of  flex- 
ible single-braid  rubber-covered  wire,  made  up  of  sixteen  strands 
of  No.  30  B-and-S-gauge  copper  wire.     The  outer  armour  con- 

1915-1916.]         IIIKSCH THE   HIRSCH   PORTABLE   ELECTBIC   LAMP.         179 

sists  of  a  single  strip  of  formed  brass,  which  overlaps  and  locks 
itself  beWeen  succeeding-  turns  of  the  strip,  and  is  known  as 
a  flexible  brass  tubing. 

The  weight  of  the  lamp  complete  is  3i  pounds,  and  of  the 
battery  only  1|  pounds. 

Advantages. — The  following  claims  are  made  for  both  the 
lamps : — 

(a)  The  storage-batteries  are  easily  and  quickly  handled  in 
charging,  easy  to  take  apart  and  repair  when  necessary,  and  all 
parts  are  quickly  accessible. 

(h)  The  sediment  that  tends  to  loosen  from  the  positive  or 
bottom  plate  still  remains  part  of  the  plate. 

(c)  The  jarring  or  upsetting  of  the  battery  will  not  affect  the 
plates  as  in  the  batteries  having  thin  vertical  plates.  Short- 
circuit  of  the  battery  will  not  injure  the  plates. 

(d)  The  battery  will  not  upon  short-circuit  arc  sufficiently  to 
ignite  gas,  black  powder,  guncotton,  cartridge  powder,  alcohol, 
or  other  vapours.  Immediately  on  short-circuit  the  voltage 
drops  to  zero,  on  account  of  the  peculiar  characteristics  of  the 
battery  plates. 

The  above  statements  are  made  as  the  result  of  tests  carried 
out  at  the  Frankford  Ai-senal  and  at  the  Drexel  Institute,  Phila- 

The  solidified  electrolyte  always  remains  in  contact  with  the 
plates,  no  matter  how  it  is  handled,  whether  upside  down  or 
not,  and  when  in  any  position  will  not  ruin  a  man's  clothes 
by  the  spilling  of  electrolyte. 

The  batteries  will  give  an  average  light  of  5  candle-power 
for  12  hours  or  more  on  each  charge. 

If  the  crystal  and  safety-glass  should  get  broken  in  an  explo- 
sive atmosphere,  the  lamp  is  extinguished  by  the  safety-glass 
opening  the  circuit  at  the  switch  and  thereby  eliminating  the 
risk  of  igniting  anything  explosive  on  account  of  breakage  of 
the  lamp-bulb.  The  lamp  becomes  extinguished  before  the 
bulb    breaks. 

The  arrangement  of  the  three  shells  in  the  reflector  or  head- 
piece will  prevent  any  danger  from  the  bulb  igniting  anything 
explosive  if  the  shells  should  be  crushed  or  punctured,  as  the 
shells  short-circuit  the  lamp  and  the  light  is  extinguished  before 
the  bulb  is  broken. 

VOL.  LXVI.— I9I5.1916.  1"^  E 


Conclusions. — Tlie  tests  made  at  the  laboratories  of  the  Drexel 
Institute  and  at  the  Frankford  Arsenal  (Appendices  II.  and 
III.)  prove  that  these  lamps  are  properly  designed  and  sub- 
stantially constructed,  and  that  they  are  suitable  for  the  use 
intended ;  also  that  the  arcing-  which  it  is  possible  to  obtain 
from  the  battery  under  conditions  of  service  will  not  ignite 
explosive  gases  or  materials. 

Tests  show  that  the  heat  from  a  man's  body  would  not  be  suffi- 
cient to  liquefy  the  solidified  electrolyte  and  allow  the  solution 
to  drip  out  of  the  battery  to  the  ruin  of  clothing,  or  of  possible 
personal  injury. 

These  lamps  provide  a  source  of  light  which  maj"  be  used  in 
the  presence  of  explosive  vapours,  gases,  or  other  materials  with 
a  high  degree  of  safety,  even  under  extreme  conditions  of  rough 

The  breaking  of  the  safety-g"lass,  or  the  denting  of  the  outer 
case  of  the  reflector,  will,  in  everj^  case,  extinguish  the  incandes- 
cent bulb.  It  should  be  understood  that  the  breaking  of  an 
incandescent  bulb,  even  of  small  candle-power,  may,  under 
favourable  conditions,  cause  an  explosion  of  a  surrounding  gas 
that  has  a  low  temperature  of  ignition. 

Appendix  I. — Insthtjctions  fob  Charging  and  Care  of  Hirsch  Electric 
Mine-lamp  Batteries. 

General  Instructions  when  Beceived. — When  a  new  lot  of  batteries  is 
received,  put  about  a  teaspoonful  of  distilled  water  in  each,  and  put  on  charge 
as  per  No.  1  charging  rate. 

The  small  round  terminal  on  top  of  the  battery  is  the  negative  terminal; 
the  flat  copper  clip  on  the  side  of  the  battery  is  the  positive  terminal. 

Charging  Current. — Use  only  direct  current  (in  no  circumstances  alter- 
nating current),  and  make  sure  that  the  resistance  is  sufiicient,  using  either 
lamps  or  rheostats  in  series  with  the  batteries. 

Charging  J?afe.— Remove  the  hard  rubber  vent-plugs  before  placing  on 
charge.  Before  charging,  if  the  solidified  electrolyte  is  too  dry,  add  half-a- 
teaspoonful  of  distilled  water  in  each.  Start  the  charge  at  IJ  amperes  for  2 
hours,  then  reduce  it  to  1  ampere  for  4  hours.  If  the  batteries  then  read  3 
or  3*1  volts,  reduce  the  charge  to  f  ampere,  and  continue  to  charge  for  about 
2  hours  until  the  batteries  again  read  3  or  3"1  volts. 

After  Charging. — The  solidified  electrolyte  should  always  cover  the  plates 
to  a  depth  of  about  ^  inch,  and  must  be  moist  and  jelly-like. 

After  charging,  allow  the  batteries  to  rest  for  three-quarters  of  an  hour 
to  solidify,  after  which  pour  off  all  excessive  liquid.  Then  insert  the  vent- 



Cleaning. — After  eacli  charge,  wash  the  outside  of  the  batteries  iu  a 
solution  of  a  tablespoonfnl  of  washing-soda  and  2  gallons  of  water.  Do  not 
remove  the  vent- plugs.  Wipe  the  batt^eries  dry  before  placing  them  in  the 
aluminium  cases.  Grease  both  the  positive  and  the  negative  terminals  of  the 
batteries  with  vaseline  immediat-ely  after  washing;  the  terminals  in  the  cases 
should  also  be  kept  clean  and  grea.sed. 

Place  the  batteries  in 
the  aluminium  cases  before 
handing  the  lamp  to  the 
user;  also  see  that  the  con- 
tacts are  firm  and  clean. 

Add  a  teaspoouful  of  No. 
1,200  electrolyte  in  each  cell 
every  two  weeks. 

Benewing  the  Electro- 
lyte and  Solidified  Solution. 
— If  at  any  time  it  is  neces- 
sary to  renew  the  electrolyte, 
remove  the  sealing  compound 
with  a  heated  screw-driver, 
then  pull  up  by  both  terminal 
leads  at  one  time  both  plates 
with  the  cover.  Wash  the 
plates  under  a  stream  of 
distilled  water;  replace  the 
plates  in  a  jar,  covering 
them  with  No.  1,200  acid; 
reseal  with  sealing  com- 
pound, and  place  on  charge 
at  the  same  charging  rate  as 
No.  1  at  IJ  amperes  at  first 
until  29  volts  are  recorded 
across  the  terminals;  then 
remove  from  the  charging- 
rack,  and  drain  off  all  1,200- 
specific-gravity  acid. 

Immediately  take  No. 
1,300  electrolyte,  into  which 
first  dissolve  an  average  tea- 
spoonful  of  ammonium  sul- 
phate to  a  gallon  of  electro- 
lyte; shake  thoroughly,  then 
mix  six  parts  of  this  electrol3-te 
with  one  part  of  solidified 
solution  of  a  specific  gravity  of  No.  1,180.  Stir  quickly  and  thoroughly,  then 
immediately  jDOur  2  ounces  of  the  electrolyte  into  each  battery,  covering  the 
plates  about  5  inch.  Let  the  battery  rest  for  1  hour,  and  then  again  place 
it  on  charge  as  per  No.  1  charging  rate. 

Caution. — Never  bring  an  open  flame  into  close  proximity  with  the 
batteries  during  the  time  when  the  batteries  are  charging  or  the  solidified 
material  is  settling.    ' 

Batteries  not  in  use  should  be  recharged  every  60  daj's,  so  as  to  keep 
them  in  good  condition. 



1  82     THAXSACTIOXS  — THE  NORTH  OF  ENGLAND  INSTITUTE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 



Fig.  4.  -Lamp-rack. 

Fig.  5. — Storage-battery  Charging-rack. 

All  connexions  on  the  bat- 
tery and  in  the  battery-cases 
should  be  kept  bright,  clean, 
and  greased. 

Short-circuits. —  A.  short- 
circuit  is  indicated  by  the 
battery  registering  in  charge 
circuit  between  the  ter- 
minals 2  volts  or  less  for  a 
continued  period.  Carefully 
remove  the  sealing  com- 
pound, and  slowly  remove 
the  plates  from  the  jar.  A 
careful  examination  will 
reveal  the  trouble,  which 
may  lie  in  the  fi-eezing  of 
the  active  material  between 
the  positive  and  negative 
grids  in  consequence  of 
broken  leads,  or  in  the  car- 
bonization of  the  wooden 
separators  (should  they 
exist).  This  trouble  is  due 
to  abuse  or  lack  of  care  in 
charging,  either  an  over- 
charge in  amperage,  or  an 
excessive  long-continued 

charge  at  too  low  an  amper- 
age, or  failure  to  examine 
the  batteries  at  stated 
jjeriods  for  the  proper 
amount  of  moisture,  the 
battery  being  too  dry. 

A  special  charging-rack 
(Fig.  3)  is  made,  consisting 
of  a  series  of  formed  flat 
brass  springs  mounted  on  a 
board.  When  a  battery  is 
inserted  in  the  proper  way, 
the  springs  make  contact 
with  the  battery  terminals, 
and  when  the  battery  is 
withdrawn  the  springs  auto- 
matically form  a  closed 

Figs.  4  and  5  are  views 
of  the  racks  used  for  the 
lamps  and  storage-batteries 

1915-1916.]  HIHSCH — THE   HIRSCII   PORTABLE   ELECTRIC   LAMP.        188 

App'endix  II. — Explosion  Test  of  a  Hiesch  Electric  Cap-lamp. 

Drexel  Institute,  Philadelphia, 

Februartj  24t/i,  1914. 
Test  No.  1. 

Alcohol,  Ether,  Air, 

1  volume.  2  volumes.  20  volumes. 

We  tried  to  explode  this  mixture  with  a  bunsen  flame.     No  result. 

Test  No.  2. 

Alcohol,  Ether,  Oxygen, 

1  volume.  2  volumes.  20  volumes. 

We  tried  to  explode  this  mixture  with  a  bun.sen  burner.  Result — a  violent 

Test  No.  3. 

Alcohol,  Ether,  Oxygen, 

1  volume.  2  volumes.  20  volumes. 

We  tried  to  explode  this  mixture  with  the  spark  produced  by  the  Hirsch 
cap-lamp  in  series  with  the  Hirsch  storage-battery.     Result — no  explosion. 

Test  No.  4. 

Alcohol,  Ether,  Oxygen, 

1  volume.  2  volumes.  20  volumes. 

Same  as  Test  No.  3,  except  that  a  spark  was  produced  in  this  case  by 
opening  a  dead  short  circuit  on  the  Hirsch  storage-battery  alone.  Result — no 

The  mixtures  of  Tests  Nos.  3  and  4  were  carried  to  a  bunsen  flame  after 
a  spark  test,  and  a  violent  explosion  took  place.  The  volumes  in  each  case 
were  not  very  accurately  measured — the  total  volumes  being  250  cubic 

J.  L.  Beaver,  Instructor  in  Electrical  Engineering. 
Leon  D.  Stratton,  Instructor  in  Chemistry. 

Appendix  III. — Report  on  Hirsch  Electric  Mine-lamp. 

Frankford    Arsenal,    Philadelphia, 

February  28th,  1914. 

It  gives  me  pleasure  to  make  the  following  report  on  the  Hirsch  electric 

The  current  of  the  battery  gives  2  volts  and  about  half  an  ampere.  The 
object  of  the  test  was  to  ascertain  if,  on  breaking  the  circuit,  the  spark 
had  sufficient  intensity  or  heat  to  ignite  the  service  explosives  or  the  inflam- 
mable vapours  or  gasses  that  might  be  present  in  the  magazines  or  store- 

The  circuit  was  repeatedly  broken  while  the  ends  of  the  conducting  wires 
were  embedded  in — 

(1)  Nitrocellulose  service  small  arms  '30  Cal.  powder  (rifle). 

(2)  Small  arms  '38  Cal.  (revolver)  powder.  A  very  fine-grained  powder 
containing  60  per  cent,  of  nitrocellulose  and  40  per  cent,  of  nitroglycerine. 

(3)  Short-fibre  (fine)  nitrocellulose  (plain  guncotton)  containing  12  per 
cent,  of  nitrogen   (approximately). 


In  no  case  wore  any  of  these  ignited  or  inflamed,  though  the  circuit  was 
repeatedly  made  and  broken,  us  was  demonstrated  by  the  extinguishment 
and  re-ignition  of  the  lamp,  which  was  included  in  the  circuit. 

To  test  whether  the  spark  would  ignite  the  volatile  vapours  of 
alcohol  and  ether,  sometimes  found  in  magazines  or  powder  stores,  a  copper 
vessel  with  glass  front  was  evacuated  by  an  air  pump,  and  filled  with  the 
vapour  of  ether,  volatilized  from  liquid  ether  contained  in  the  copper  vessel. 
Again  the  circuit  was  broken  (as  shown  by  the  extinguishment  and  re-illumina- 
tion of  the  lamp),  but  the  ether  vapour  was  not  ignited  by  the  spark. 

These  experiments  demonstrate  that  the  Hirsch  electric  lamp  will  be 
safe  in  any  powder-magazine,  casemate,  or  storage-house,  if  the  circuit  should 
be  broken  by  some  unforeseen  accident  and  the  circuit  should  fail  to  be 
short-circuited  by  the  means  jjrovided  in  the  lamp  for  this  purpose. 

W.  J.  Williams,  F.I.C. 

Appendix  IV. — Extract  from  Technical  Paper  No  75.* 

Tests  of  the  Hirsch  Lamp. 

The  Hirsch  lamp  is  designed  for  cap  service,  and  was  the  second  approved 
by  the  Bureau  as  jjermissible  for  use  in  gaseous  mines.  The  safety  devices 
with  which  this  lamp  is  equipped  are  mounted  in  the  headpiece  and  consist 
of  an  open-circuiting  device  that  protects  the  lamji  against  blows  from  the 
front,  and  a  short-circuiting  device  that  protects  the  lamp  against  blows  from 
the  side,  llie  open-circuiting  device  is  operated  by  the  breaking  of  a  slip  of 
window-glass,  that  is  mounted  directly  across  the  inner  surface  of  the  bull's- 
eye  glass,  with  which  the  lamp  is  provided.  The  breaking  of  this  slip  of  glass 
releases  a  spring  that  interrupts  the  electric  circuit  of  the  lamp.  The  short- 
circuiting  of  the  lamp  is  accomplished  as  follows: — The  headpiece  is  made  up 
of  three  concentric  shells,  separated  by  narrow  spaces.  Tlie  outer  and  inner 
shells  are  connected  to  the  positive  pole  of  the  battery,  and  the  intermediate 
shell  is  attached  to  the  negative  pole.  These  shells,  of  course,  completely 
surround  the  lamp  bulb,  and  the  theory  of  the  safety  device  is  that  the  bulb 
can  not  be  broken  without  so  jamming  these  shells  together  that  they  will 
short-circuit  the  battery  and  thus  extinguish  the  filament  before  it  can  ignite 

Forty-five  tests  were  made  upon  this  headpiece  by  striking  it  with  the 
following  tools: — A  hammer,  a  wooden  mallet,  a  tool  sha]3ed  like  a  miner's 
pick,  a  piece  of  iron  pipe,  and  a  wooden  club.  Some  of  these  tests  were  made 
while  the  headpiece  was  rigidly  supported  in  various  ways,  and  others  were 
made  while  the  headpiece  was  swinging  from  the  end  of  its  cord.  The  blows 
were  struck  with  sufficient  force  to  crush  the  headpieces,  to  shatter  the  glass  in 
almost  every  trial,  and  to  punch  holes  completely  through  the  shells,  but 
every  time  that  the  lamp  bulb  was  broken  the  safety  devices  extinguished  the 
filament.  In  some  of  the  tests  the  lamp  was  protected  by  the  circuit  breaker 
and  in  others  by  the  short-circuiting  device. 

These  tests  y\eve  not  made  in  gas.  The  extinction  of  the  filament  was 
taken  as  the  measure  of  safety,  since  the  filament,  if  extinguished  at  all,  is 
extinguished  before  the  lamp  bulb  is  broken,  because  the  blow  that  breaks 

*  "  Permissible    Electric   Lamps   for  Miners,"   by  H.   H.   Clark,   Technical 
Paper  No.  75,  Bureau  of  Minei,  Pittsburgh,  U.S.A. 

1915-1916.]       HIESCH THE   HIRSCH   PORTABLE   ELECTRIC   LAMP.  185 

the  bulb  must  first  destroy  the  slip  of  glass  or  jam  the  shells.  As  a  matter  of 
fact,  the  bulb  was  broken  in  only  7  of  the  45  tests  made,  although  one  or  the 
other  of  the  safety  devices  acted  in  each  test. 

In  order  to  find  out  whether  or  not  the  safety  devices  would  extinguish  the 
lamp  unnecessarily,  the  headpiece  and  its  cord  were  dropped  10  times  upon 
a  concrete  floor  from  a  point  6  feet  above  the  floor.  The  safety  devices  acted 
in  only  one  test,  and  the  action  was  considered  to  be  necessary,  as  the  blow 
that  tripped  the  circuit  breaker  also  shattered  the  outer  glass  of  the  head- 
piece. These  tests  therefore  seemed  to  prove  that  the  safety  devices  are 
so  designed  that  they  will  not  cause  the  lamp  to  become  extinguished  unless 
it  is  desirable  that  it  shall  be  extinguished. 

Mr.  SiMox  Tate  proposed  and  Mr  E.  Seymour  AVood  .seconded 
a  1161111:3'  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  Hirsch  for  his  paper,  which  was 
•cordially  carried. 

Mr.  JoHX  Gibson's  paper  on  "  The  Logic  of  Trams  "'  was  taken 
as  read,  as  follows  :  — 




Introd'uctioii. — A  glance  at  the  Transactions  of  the  Insti- 
tution and  mining'  journals  will  show  that  while  appliances 
for  winding-,  pumping',  hauling,  ventilation,  and  other  purposes 
have  been  exhaustively  treated,  the  tram  or  tub  has  been  much 
neglected.  It  is  the  "  Cinderella  "  of  mining  appliances  and 
'*  the  maid  of  all  work." 

Collieries  may  exist  without  pumps,  mechanical  haulage, 
or  winding-engines,  but  all  possess  one  article  in  common — 
the  tram.  It  is  the  appliance  with  which  the  workmen  are 
brought  most  closely  into  contact.  Perhaps  on  account  of  this 
it  enjoys  the  most  varied  nomenclature,  "wagon,"  "box," 
"tram."  "tub,"  "hutch,"  "  whirley,"  "  corve,"  and  "car" 
being  some  of  the  many  names  given  to  it.  No  scheme  has 
been  applied  to  the  planning  of  it ;  and  no  co-ordinated  thought 
has  been  devoted  to  its  construction.  In  one  colliery  a  2-ton 
tram  may  be  used,  while  under  not  dissimilar  conditions  a 
4-cwt.  tram  may  be  employed  in  another.  In  one  colliery  a 
14-inch  gauge  may  be  used,  and  in  another  a  42-inch  gauge. 
Neither  in  the  size  of  the  tram  nor  in  the  width  of  the  gauge 
can  such  differences  be  reconciled  with  reason.  The  differences 
are  the  result  of  haphazard  design  and  want  of  thought. 

The  writer  hopes  to  prove  that  the  economical  tram  is  of 
even  greater  importance  than,  say,  the  economical  engine,  and 
as  no  difficult  and  involved  calculations  are  required,  and  all 
the  governing  facts  are  simple  and  well  known,  the  former  is 
more  easily  attainable  than  the  latter. 

Perhaps  thousands  of  different  types  of  trams  and  many 
widths  of  gauges  are  in  use  in  this  country.  The  waste  and 
expense  of  such  a  want  of  system  is  appalling.  Can  it  be  said 
that  the  conditions  are  so  diversified  that  all  these  types  are 
necessary?  Is  it  not  easily  practicable  to  reduce  the  number 
of  these  types  to  scores  or  even  tens,  and  to  standardize  their 

1915-1916.]  GIBSOX — THE  LOGIC  OF  TRAMS.  187 

manufacture   so  tliat  tliey  can   be   turned   out   in   thousands  at 
a  minimum  cost  ? 

In  the  tirst  section  of  this  paper  the  factors  that  determine 
the  size  and  the  construction  of  the  tram  are  examined ;  whilst 
in  the  second  section  the  road  on  which  it  runs  is  dealt  with. 
The  author  earnestly  begs  that  "it  be  noted  that  these  parts  are 
not  dependent  the  one  on  the  other.  The  recommendations 
advocated  in  Section  (2)  may  be  partly  or  wholly  adopted, 
althoug-h  those  in  Section  (1)  are  rejected,   or  vice  versa. 

(i)  What  Governs  the  Size  of  the  Tram  ? — If  a  man  were 
set  to  move  coal  a  distance  of  10  feet,  the  easiest  and  cheapest 
way  would  be  to  shovel  it.  If  the  distance  were  10  yards,  a 
wheel-barrow  would  be  the  most  convenient  article  to  employ, 
because  it  is  easily  tipped.  If  the  distance  were  100  yards, 
a  side  or  end-tipping-  wagon  holding  20  or  -30  cwts.  would 
perhaps  be  best.  It  follows  then  (other  considerations  apart) 
that  the  greater  the  distance  is  the  larger  the  wagon  should  be. 
This  rule  is  subject  to  important  exceptions,  however.  If  the 
gradient  is  more  than  1  in  40,  a  man  working  single-handed 
would  have  great  difficulty  in  pushing  or  controlling  a  wagon 
holding  20  or  30  cwts.  It  is  therefore  clear  that  inclination  is 
an  important  factor,  because  in  every  colliery  every  tram  is 
more  or  less  man-handled.  When  the  tram  is  underground, 
another  important  factor  mu^st  be  considered — the  dimensions  of 
the  road. 

The  ordinary  haulage-roads  are  usually  big  enough  to  take 
very  large  trams,  but  not  so  the  gate-roads.  In  thin  seams  a 
predetermined  minimum  height  and  width  of  gate-road  is  set 
up  by  the  size  of  the  tram.  If  this  be  too  large,  either  repairs 
of  the  road  are  excessive  or  new  crossgates  are  frequent.  In 
both  cases  the  size  of  the  tram  governs  the  dimensions  of  the 
road,  and  is  responsible  for  all  unnecessary  expense. 

A  man  has  no  great  difficulty  in  travelling  in  a  road  having 
a  minimum  height  of  3  feet  above  the  rails  and  a  width  of  3  feet 
between  the  narrowest  timbers,  and  the  writer  suggests  that 
the  minimum  or  smallest  sized  tram  should  be  2\  feet  high 
and  2|  feet  wide. 

AVhere  the  gate-road  branches  off  the  crossgate,  the  tram 
must  often  be  turned  at  right-angles,  and  this  is  frequently 
and    conveniently    done    on    a    turuplate.      The    width    of    the 


road  at  this  point  deteriiuii'e.s  tlie  length  of  the  tram,  and  one 
2|  feet  wide  by  4|  feet  in  leng-th  overall  can  be  turned  on  a  road 
6  feet  wide  and  still  allow  of  some  little  freedom  of  movement 
to  the  workman  between  the  tram  and  the  timbers.  Such  a 
tram,  then,  4i  feet  long  by  2|  feet  in  width  by  2A  feet  in  lieii^ht 
may  be  termed  the  No.  1  or  minimum  size.  Wheels,  etc.,  will  be 
considered  later,  but  if  a  weight  of  8  cwts.  be  assumed  in 
the  meantime,  it  might  now  be  considered  what  can  be  done 
with  this  tram. 

In  gate-roads  it  is  (and  more  especially  if  the  roof  is  tender) 
cheaper  to  draw  by  hand  to  the  limit  of  inclination,  rather 
than  resort  to  self-acting  inclines  of  any  kind,  because  these 
require  greater  width ;  as  a  consequence,  the  handling  of  extra 
debris,  heavier  timber,  etc.,  of  course  entails  greater  expense. 

For  short  distances  a  well-developed  young  man  can  exert 
a  force  of  120  pounds.  The  writer  has  found  that  a  force  of 
60  pounds  can  be  usually  given  through  a  distance  of  110 
yards  in  2f  minutes  without  great  exhaustion.  This  is  equal 
to  O'2-l  horsepower.  A  lad  of  14  to  IT  can  exert  two-thirds  of 
this  force,  that  is,  0'16  horsepower.  Assuming  the  co-efficient 
of  friction  to  be  a  sixtieth,  the  man  can  push  an  empty  tram 
weighing  3  cwts.  up  a  road  rising  1  in  6  for  a  distance  of  110 
yards  in  2^  minutes.     A  lad  can  tackle  a  gradient  of  1  in  9i. 

It  is  worthy  of  notice  that  under  unfavourable  conditions, 
with  the  tare  of  the  trams  high  comj)ared  with  the  gross  load 
and  a  high  co-efficient  of  friction,  a  self-acting  incline  would 
work  on  this  road. 

Consider  now  the  relative  importance  of  weight  and  fric- 
tion. If  the  weight  were  increased  from  3  to  4  cwts.,  the  limit 
of  inclination  in  the  road  mentioned  would  be  1  in  85  instead 
of  1  in  6.  With  a  3-cwt.  tram,  if  the  friction  were  doubled, 
the  limit  of  inclination  would  be  1  in  (i'9  instead  of  1  in  6. 
It  is  clear,  then,  especially  in  roads  rising  towards  the  faces, 
that  to  keep  the  weight  low  is  of  far  greater  importance  than  to 
keep  the  co-efficient  of  friction  low.  Where  the  roads  dip 
towards  the  faces,  the  case  is  slightly  different.  With  a  loaded 
tram  weighing  10  cwts.,  the  gradients  are  as  follows:  — 

With  one  man  behind  the  tram. 

Weight.  Friction.  Limit  of  Inclination. 

10  cwts.  ttV  1  ill  49  approximately. 

10     „  A  1   »27 




With  two  mkn  behind  thk  tram. 

Weight.  Friction.  Limit  of  Inclination. 

10  cwts.  tjV  1  ill  13 '5  approximately. 

10     ,,  «V  1    „  11 

Roads  (lipping-  to  the  face  are  the  exception  rather  than 
the  rule.  It  is  therefore  clear  that,  especially  in  small  trams, 
the  weight  must  be  kept  down  as  low  as  sound  construction 
permits,  even  if  it  involves  a  certain  amount  of  increased 
friction.  With  larger  trams  the  greater  height  of  road  permits 
of  the  use  of  ponies. 

The  writer  is  assuming  that,  where  the  trams  are  mechani- 
cally hauled  on  main  roads,  whether  100  or  150  horsepower  is 
expended  is  of  little  consequence  if  the  advantages  gained  close 
to  the  face  where  the  trams  are  man-handled  are  sufficiently 
great.  It  is  also  clear  that,  as  the  weight  and  the  carrying 
capacity  of  the  tram  increase,  the  importance  of  friction 
becomes  greater. 

It  follows  that  wlieels  of  small  diameter  and  simple  bear- 
ings are  suitable  for  small  trams,  and  that  large  wheels  should 
be  fitted  to  large  trams.  When  a  diameter  of  14  or  16  inches 
is  reached,  friction  may  be  most  suitably  reduced  by  ball  or 
roller-bearings  and  high-class  lubricating  arrangements.  In 
the  case  of  the  small  tram  referred  to,  perhaps  an  8-inch  wheel 
would  be  most  suitable. 

Proposed  Scale 

OF  Standard 


Overall  measurements. 


Inside  measurements. 


of  wheels. 



Brea<Uh.       Height. 

Length.    !   Breadth. 





Ins.'  Ft.       Ins. 

Ft.      Ins. 


Ins.i  Ft.       Ins. 

Ft.       Ins. 





6     2         9 

2         6 


10     2        7 

1         6 





9     2       11      2         S 


1  i  2        9 

1        7i 





0     3        1 

2       10 


4     2       11 

1        9" 





3     3        3 

3        0 


7      3         1 

1        9 





6     3        5 

3         2 


9     3        3 

1       10 





9     3        7 

3         4 


11      3        5 

1       11 





0     3        9 

3         6 


2     3        7 

2        0 






4         0 

3         8 


(i     3       10 

2        2 






4         3 

3       10 


0     4         1 

2        4 



*  In  sizes  over  6  feet  overall,  the  length,  breadth,  and  height  would  increase 
by  6  inches,  3  inches,  and  2  inches  respectively. 

Note. — The  inside  measurements  and  capacities   are   approximations   onlj-, 
and  would  vary  according  to  the  material  used  and  the  method  of  construction. 

The  above  capacities  are  water  measure. 


The  writer  has  no  desire  to  lay  down  axioms  as  to  what 
sizes  ot  standard  trams  should  be  adopted,  but  he  puts  forward 
the  precedino"  proposition  as  a  basis  for  discussion.  Starting  with 
a  tram  4|  feet  long  by  21  feet  wide  by  2h  feet  high,  in  each 
succeeding  size  up  to  6  feet  overall  the  length,  breadth,  and 
height  would  be  increased  by  3  inches,  2  inches,  and  2  inches 

It  would,  of  course,  be  easy,  in  the  event  of  standards  being 
adopted,  to  increase  or  decrease  the  depth  of  a  tram  so  as  to  suit 
particular  conditions.  Thus  one  colliery  finds  that  No.  9  is  quite 
suitable  except  for  the  height,  which  is  too  great;  or  another 
colliery  requires  No.  3,  but  could  take  greater  height.  It  is 
possible  that  standard  trams  would  be  somewhat  unsuitable  in 
some  particular  cases  ;  but,  even  then,  the  advantages  would  be 
exceedingly  great.  A  short  examination  of  the  present  condi- 
tions will  prove  that  statement. 

When  a  colliery  is  about  to  be  started,  the  owner  may  possess 
from  one  of  his  other  collieries  wheels,  pedestals,  under-frames, 
etc.,  and  may  determine  to  use  the  same  or  a  similar  type  of  tram 
in  order  to  utilize  the  material  and  prevent  repair  and  spare-part 
complications.  The  tram  is  almost  certain  not  to  be  suitable  for 
both  the  old  and  the  new  collieries.  If  the  owner  sets  up  a  new 
type  of  tram,  two  classes  of  spare  parts  have  to  be  stocked,  and 
repairing  generally  becomes  more  expensive.  Not  only  so, 
but,  if  No.  1  colliery  urgently  requires  for  a  period  extra 
trams.  No.  2  colliery  cannot  render  help,  because  the  types  are 
different.  Or,  again,  a  colliery  is  sunk  to  win  a  7-foot  seam  and 
a  2-foot  seam.  The  same  tram  cannot  suit  both.  A  compromise 
arrangement  may  suit  neither,  and  the  cost  of  changing  is  pro- 
hibitive. When  a  colliery  is  working,  trams  have  to  be  bought 
at  first  cost;  but  when  the  colliery  is  exhausted,  they  are  of  little 
use  to  anyone,  and  are  sold  at  scrap  prices.  It  is  not  uncommon, 
therefore,  to  find  that  in  collieries  nearing-  exhaustion  the  trams 
are  allowed  to  get  into  a  state  of  low  efiiciency.  With  a  stand- 
ard tram  the  value  at  any  period  of  its  life  would  be  well  known. 
If,  therefore,  it  were  found  that  a  particular  tram  was  un- 
suitable for  a, certain  colliery,  another  type  would  be  obtained  in 
exchange  at  a  very  small  cost.  Indeed,  if  the  change  were  from 
a  larger  to  a  smaller  type,  the  coal-owner  might  receive  hard 
cash  in  addition  to  new  trams.  A  different  type  might  be  used 
in  every  seam  in  the  same  colliery. 

1915-1916.]  GIBSON — THE  LOGIC  OF  TEAMS.  191 

In  a  paper  read  before  the  Mining  Institute  of  Scotland*  the 
author  stated  that — 

"  A  very  common  practice  in  Scotland  is  to  pay  the  miner  a  hewing  rate 
which  includes  drawing  to  a  lye  perhaps  500  yards  out-bye.  It  will  usually 
be  found  that  two  men  are  engaged  in  each  place,  one  of  whom  hews  the  coal, 
throws  it  to  the  roadhead,  stows  the  debris,  and  sets  the  timber.  The  other 
man  fills  the  coal  and  draws  it  to  the  lye.  Then  if  the  tonnage  rate  is  3s., 
and  5  tons  are  produced  daily,  the  wage  rate  is  7s.  6d.  If  Is.  per  ton 
be  taken  as  fair  remuneration  for  the  actual  filling  of  the  coal  into  the  tubs, 
then  the  3s.  is  apportioned  as  under  :  — 

s.    d. 

Hewing,   etc.  ...     1     6 

.   Filling 1     0 

Drawing  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...     0     6 

Total  3    0 

"If  the  road  is  220  yards  long,  the  rate  per  ton-mile  is  equal  to  4s." 

Three  points  may  be  noted  :  — (1)  If  the  tram  is  krge,  a  man 
of  full  physical  strength  is  required,  even  on  easy  gradients,  to 
provide  for  derailments ;  (2)  while  a  lad  has  two-thirds  the 
strength  of  a  man,  he  is  usually  paid  only  half  the  wages; 
and  (3)  a  drawer  is  but  partly  occupied,  as  waiting  takes  up 
more  or  less  of  his  time.  It  follows,  then,  that  if  a  third  of  a 
drawer's  time  is  lost,  the  loss  due  to  a  man  at  7s.  6d.  per  day  is 
2s.  6d.,  while  that  due  to  a  lad  at  3s.  9d.  is  Is.  3d. 

In  the  foregoing  case,  if  trams  suitable  for  a  lad  were 
adopted,  the  output  for  a  man  and  a  lad  would  be  five-sixths  of 
5  tons,  or,  say,  83  cwts.  The  cost  would  be  lis.  3d.,  or  approxi- 
mately 2s.  9d.  per  ton — a  saving  of  3d.  per  ton,  or  Is.  3d.  for  5 
tons,  being  the  difference  quoted  above  as  due  to  difference  in 
pay  between  a  man  and  a  lad. 

Taking  another  case,  in  which  the  general  gradient  of  the 
seam  decreases  from  1  in  8  to  1  in  12,  with  trams  10  per  cent. 
larger  the  output  would  increase  nearly  2^  per  cent,  for  the 
same  energy  expended. 

Again,  it  may  be  found  that  with  a  given  size  of  tram  road- 
repairs  amount  to  3d.  per  ton.  It  may  be  possible  to  reduce  the 
drawing  by  Id.  per  ton  with  larger  trams  by  increasing  the  road- 
repair  figure  to  3Jd.,  or,  by  adopting  smaller  trams,  road-repairs 
may  be  reduced  to  2d.,  and  drawing  costs  increased  by  ^d.     In 

*"  Mining  Economics:  Some  Notes  and  a  Suggestion,"  by  John  Gibson 
Trans.  Inst.  M.  E.,  1914,  vol.  xlvii.,  page  258. 

192    TRANSACTIONS — -THE    NORTH   OF    ENtiLAXD    JXSTITUTK.     [Vol.lxvi. 

either  case  the  saving-  of  ^d.  per  ton  is  effected.  In  addition,  if 
the  roof  becomes  tender  this  may  make  the  temporary  adoption  of 
smaller  trams  economical.  If  the  roof  becomes  stronger  this  may 
have  the  opposite  effect. 

Output  and  Length  of  Road. — The  tram  having  now  been 
considered  from  the  points  of  view  of  gradient,  friction,  size, 
etc.,  the  question  of  outpnt  and  length  of  road  may  be  briefly 

Example  No.  1. — In  a  collierj-  equipped  with  endless-rope 
haulage,  where  the  distance  from  the  shaft  to  the  face  is  25  miles, 
let  it  be  assumed  that,  the  seams  being  thin,  a  5-cwt.  tram  is 
used  and  the  output  is  1,000  tons.  Each  tub  will  make  2^ 
trips  per  shift,  and  will  therefore  carry  12^  cwts.  of  output. 
At  least  1,G00  trams  must  be  used.  With  2-ton  trams  at  least 
200  would  be  required.  The  difference  in  capital  cost  would 
be  roughly  £2,000  against  the  small  trams ;  maintenance  would 
also  be  higher  with  these;  but  witli  an  output  of  1,000  tons 
these  would  be  small  matters. 

Exam^ple  No.  2. — A  road  1  mile  long  is  equipped  with  main- 
and-tail-rope  haulage  for  an  output  of  450  tons  in  7J  hours.  With 
a  speed  of  6  miles  per  hour  only  15  trips  per  shift  could  be  drawn, 
or  30  tons  per  trip.  Allowing  5  feet  for  the  length  of  each  tram 
(with  a  capacity  of  5  cwts.)  and  the  coupling,  with  120  trams  in 
the  set  it  would  take  lyes  200  yards  long  at  each  end  of  the  road 
to  marshal  the  sets — that  is,  nearly  a  quarter  of  the  total  length 
of  the  road.  By  doubling  the  speed  and  halving  the  time  for 
changing,  this  would,  of  course,  reduce  the  figures  by  half.  It  is 
clear  that  large  outputs  on  long-  roads  by  small  trams  are  imprac- 
ticable with  main-and-tail-rope  haulage.  If  small  trams  must  be 
used  at  the  faces,  and  the  road  does  not  permit  of  the  installa- 
tion of  endless-rope  or  such  like  haulage,  it  follows  that  the 
best  policy  would  be  to  use  small  trams  near  the  faces  and 
very  large  trams  out-bye. 

The  writer  hopes  that  he  has  put  forward  not  unfairly  the 
case  for  standardization. 

No  mention  has  been  made  as  to  the  material,  whether  iron, 
wood,  or  composite,  of  which  the  box  and  under-frame  should  be 
made.  This  is  unnecessary,  because  once  standardization  has 
been  adopted,  trams  could  be  made  and  stocked  in  all  materials. 

1910-1916,]     -  GIBSON--  THE  LOGIC  OF  TRAMS.  19S 

Of  course,  the  further  tlie  purchaser  travelled  from  ordinary 
material,  the  g'reater  would  be  his  risk  of  obtaining'  a  favourable 
sale  or,  unless  his  particular  material  or  combination 
was  successful. 

With  reg-ard  io  construction,  it  must  remain  simple, 
especially  for  the  smaller  sizes.  Spring-s  such  as  are  used  for 
railway-wagons  and  protuberances  such  as  grease-boxes  and 
brakes  are  inadmissible,  for  these  are  unlikelj-  to  stand  the  rough 

(2)  The  Track. — Terminological  difficulties  in  plenty  crop  up 
at  every  turn  when  the  question  of  the  rails  on  which  the  tram 
runs  is  considered,  and  particularly  when  the  trams  are  man- 
handled. While  Scottish  idiom  is  usually  rich  and  expressive, 
yet  the  terms  used  underground  are  often  singularly  inept. 
Thus,  a  "  drawer  "  is  a  person  chiefly  employed,  not  in  drawing, 
but  in  pushing.  "  Frog  "  and  "  heart ''  mean  the  same  thing, 
unlikely  as  that  may  seem,  and  "  wings''  have  not  the  slightest 
resemblance  to  anything  used  in  flight.  It  is  a  great  pity  that 
terms  for  ordinary  things  differ  so  much  in  each  coalfield 
throughout  the  country.  The  same  word  has  frequently  different 
meanings.  Thus,  in  some  districts,  the  person  employed  "  draw- 
ing* ""  is  called  a  "  putter,''  which  name  elsewhere  denotes  a 
person  who  assists  the  "  drawer  "  at  steep  parts  of  the  road. 
Again,  "  road  "  may  mean  the  whole  of  the  tunnel,  gallery,  or 
excavation  leading  from  one  point  to  another,  as,  for  example, 
"  gate-road,"  but  may  also  mean  the  rails.  Eoad,  in  short,  is 
both  a  general  and  a  particular  term,  and  leads  to  such  confusing- 
information  as  "  there  are  three  sets  of  timber  broken  on  the 
road,"  and  the  "  trams  are  off  the  road."  It  therefore  happens 
continually  that  the  manager  receives  from  his  subordinates  a 
requisition  expressed  in  pit  vernacular  which  he  translates  into 
the  trade  name  before  passing  it  through  to  the  order  clerk. 
Mistakes  and  delay  must  of  necessity  frequently  arise.  Prob- 
ably with  standardization  adopted,  and  the  name  of  each  article 
stamped  or  cast  thereon,  this  confusion  of  terms  Mould  abate 
or  disappear,  and  terms  common  to  the  United  Kingdom  would 
be  used  throughout. 

It  is  significant  that  for  coal-cutter  parts,  electrical  plant, 
and  such  like  new  appliances,  the  common  trade  names  or  scien- 
tific terms  are  used. 


The  Americitu  "  track  "  is  a  distinctive  term  which  the  writer 
will  use.  A  "  slioii  crossing  "  will  be  taken  as  the  name  of  cross- 
ings of  small  radius,  such  as  are  used  to  lead  from  crossgates  to 
gate-roods,  and"  long  crossings  "  will  be  applied  to  tliose  of  long 
radius  used  on  haulage-roads,  avixiliary  or  main.  The  ideal 
track  may  be  defined  as  composed  of  two  parallel  rigid  conduc- 
tors of  suitable  g-auge,  form,  and  material,  lying  in  the  same 
horizontal  plane.  If  this  could  be  attained  in  practice,  derail- 
ments would  be  infrequent,  and  these  are  responsible  for  much 
of  the  cost  of  transit.  Derailments  on  main  haulage-roads  need 
not  be  considered,  because  these  tracks  can  be  well  constructed 
and  maintained.  Neither  need  the  difficulties  arising  from  soft 
floors  be  considered,  these  being  particular  difficulties  and  not 
common  to  all  seams.  Taking  the  case  of  derailment  under 
ordinary  circumstances  for  200  yards  out-bye  from  the  face,  it 
will  be  found  that  these  are  due  to  (1)  faulty  gauging  and  nail- 
ing, and  (2)  to  defective  sleepers.  Even  this  inefficiency  is 
expensive,  because  sleepers  are  used  for  timbering  purposes,  and 
nails  are  mislaid  and  buried  in  dehi-is;  indeed,  not  infrequently 
they  reappear  in  the  hoofs  of  the  horses.  The  writer  sees  no  way 
out  of  these  difficulties,  except  by  adopting  some  form  of  steel 
sleeper.  Scarcity  of  timber  and  the  great  rise  in  price  of  wooden 
sleepers  may  bring  this'  change  about  in  the  near  future. 

The  length  of  the  rails  is  a  subject  that  receives  little  atten- 
tion, and  muddle  often  results  as  a  consequence.  For  example: 
{!)  the  rails  in  a  track  are  reputed  to  be  18  feet  in  length,  and 
after  a  derailment  one  is  f^een  to  be  defective  and  requires  to  be 
at  once  replaced.  Then  it  is  discovered  that  the  new  rail  will 
not  go  in.  Measurements  show  that  while  the  defective  rail  is 
IT  feet  11  inches  long,  the  new  one  is  18  feet  1  inch.  (2)  A 
replacement  similar  to  the  above  cannot  be  done,  because  the 
rails  are  not  uniform  in  type,  and  cannot  take  the  same  fish- 
plate, or  because  perhaps  the  fishplate  bolt-holes  are  not  at 
equal  distances  from  the  ends  of  the  rails  in  both  rails.  (3)  A 
long  crossing  has  to  be  laid,  and  a  length,  say,  of  24  feet  of 
the  track  has  to  be  lifted  to  do  so.  The  points  are  each,  say, 
2  feet  5  inches  long,  then  12  feet  or  more  of  rails  are  laid,  after 
which  the  crossing  2  feet  11  inches  long  is  laid.  To  "  square  " 
or  bring  even  the  crossing  two  pieces  of  rail  each  2  feet  11  inches 
long  must  be  used.     It  is  then  found  that  in  order  to  join  up  the 

1915-1916]  '  i;iBSOX--THE  LOGIC  OF  TRAMS.  195 

original  gap  of  24  feet,  two  rails  each  6  feet  8  inches  Jong  have  to 
be  used  (Fig.  1,  Plate  III.).  (4)  A  short  crossing  has  to  be 
laid  into  a  narrow  gate-road.  The  rails  on  the  crossgate  are  too 
far  in.  If  one  length  of  rails  be  taken  out,  the  rails  are  then 
too  far  out,  and  patchwork  of  short  pieces  of  rail,  or  indeed  wood, 
has  to  be  resorted  to.  If  the  rails  are  too  far  in,  the  side  of  the 
gate-road  has  to  be  hewn,  and  the  rails  there  form  an  awkward 
twist,  as  shown  in  Figs.  3  and  4  (Plate  III.). 

It  is  fairly  evident  that  forethought  and  system  can  obviate 
all  these  drawbacks.  By  the  adoption  of  a  rail  unit  length  and 
by  making  everything  to  suit  that,  economy  and  efficiency  can 
be  secured.  Supposing  that  4  feet  is  adopted  as  this  unit,  be- 
cause it  is  an  even  number  of  feet,  and  because  it  is  the  longest 
rail  that  can  be  put  into  the  minimum  size  of  tram,  and  so  taken 
safely  and  conveniently  (which  means  cheaply)  through  the 
lowest  road  to  the  face  :  then  light  rails  would  be  supplied  in 
one-unit  (4  feet)  and  one-and-a-half-unit  lengths,  in  eciual  quan- 
tities of  each ;  medium  rails  for  auxiliary  haulage  in  three-unit 
lengths  (12  feet):  heavy  rails  for  main  roads  in  three-,  four-,  or 
five-unit  lengths,  as  was  found  most  convenient ;  and  gate-roads 
would  be  measiired  off  by  the  rail-unit  length,  and  not  by  feet 
or  yards.  Thus,  if  the  practice  were  to  set  off  gate-roads  every 
15  yards,  that  would  be  reduced  to  11-unit  lengths  (44  feet)  or 
increased  to  lli-unit  lengths  (46  feet).  All  castings  for  cross- 
ings, turnplates,  etc.,  would  be  made  to  suit.  Thus,  turuplates 
4  feet  square  would  be  cast  in  halves,  each  4  by  2  feet ;  short 
crossings  8  feet  long  would  be  cast  or  made  in  4-foot  lengths; 
and  for  long  crossings,  where  rails  are  interposed  between  points 
and  crossings,  castings  4  feet  long  would  be  suitable  (Fig.  2, 
Plate  III.). 

The  simple  principle  underlying  the  proposed  arrangement 
is  that  of  having  every  rail  and  fitting  of  a  known  and  predeter- 
mined length,  and  each  long  piece  a  multiple  of  the  unit  length. 
If  the  laying  of  the  track  is  made  simple  and  easy,  rail-cutting 
and  wood-patching  is  avoided.  The  actual  work  will  be  quicker, 
cheaper,  and  more  efficient. 

If  the  tram  cannot  be  standardized  in  the  near  future,  an 
effort  should  be  made  with  the  rail-gauge.  Even  in  these  times 
of  national  stress  the  passing  of  a  one-^^'lause  Mines  Amending 

VOL.  LXVI.— ;915-l:i]G.  I'i  ^ 


Act  as  under,  setting'  up  a  standard  gauge,  should  be  no  difficult 

matter,  if  once  general  agreement  were  attained  :  — 

'*  In  the  case  of  every  mine  or  seam  newlj'  opened  after  the  commencement  of 
his  Act,  no  rail-gauge  other  than  one  approved  by  the  Secretary  of  State  shall  be 
adopted  or  used  for  the  transit  of  minerals. " 

If  only  one  of  the  great  coal-owners'  associations,  or  even 
if  a  few  of  the  large  combines  were  to  agree  on  the  necessity 
and  suitability  of  a  standard  gauge,  the  reform  would  gradually 
and  aiitomatically  come  about. 

The  possibilities  for  cheapness,  convenience,  and  efficiency 
are  tremendous.  Standard  wooden  sleepers  would  result;  im- 
proved universal  steel  sleepers  would  follow,  and  at  least 
economize  nails  ;  standard  crossings,  turnplates,  pointer-plates, 
fishplates,  etc.,  would  all  come  in  turn. 

If  and  when  the  next  step,  the  introduction  of  standard 
trams,  was  reached,  the  possibilities  would  be  almost  boundless. 
Standard  oilers,  controllers,  and  tipplers  would  result.  Stan- 
dard hydraulic  decking  arrangements  would  be  easy.  Then, 
why  not  standard  cages,  leading  on  to  headgears?  The  idea 
is  not  Utopian,  but  perfectly  practical.  If,  before  sinking  was 
commenced,  the  coal-owner  could  say:  "  I  shall  use  No.  3  up 
to  No.  7  trams,  and  purpose  using  a  three-decked  cage  holding 
six  trams,"  it  would  be  simply  a  matter  of  replying  :  "  You 
require  a  shaft  so  many  feet  in  diameter  to  take  the  standard 
cage,  and  the  distance  from  pulley  to  pulley  of  the  standard 
headgear  for  these  cages  is  so  many  feet."  There  would  be  no 
fear  of  stereotyping  and  stagnation,  because  the  cages,  etc., 
though  standardized  in  build  and  size,  would  permit  of  special 
fittings  to  suit  newer  ideas,  and  these,  if  satisfactory,  would  be 
incorporated  on  standard  types. 

The  saving  of  clerical  work  would  in  itself  be  considerable, 
and  liability  to  error  in  ordering  would  be  much  reduced. 
The  manager  would  be  saved  from  many  petty  worries,  while 
the  draughtsman  would  get  useful  work  to  do. 

To  revert  to  the  standard  gauge  alone,  each  colliery  must 
at  present  have  all  crossings,  etc.,  specially  made  to  suit  the 
gauge.  Here  is  an  example  of  the  waste  involved.  Some  time 
ago  a  new  form  of  crossing  for  a  special  purpose  was  suggested 
to  the  writer.  He  sketched  it,  and  the  work  then  passed  through 
the  hands  of  the  draughtsman,  the  patternmaker,  and  the  iron- 

1915-1916.]  GIBSOX       THE  LOGIC  OF  TRAilS.  197 

founder.  Then  the  fitter  adjusted  it  as  far  as  possible,  and  the 
job  was  satisfactory,  but  capable  of  improvement  in  detail.  If 
this  appliance  is  of  any  value  to  anyone,  it  ought  to  be  available, 
but  except  for  those  with  the  same  g'auge  it  is  not,  and  in  order 
to  be  adopted  for  another  gauge  the  routine  of  tlie  draughtsman, 
patternmaker,  etc.,  is  required  all  over  again. 

Controversy  may  not  arise  on  the  general  but  on  the  particu- 
lar proposition,  and  as  the  writer  is  anxious  that  this  should  not 
occur,  he  approaches  the  question  of  discussing  what  the  gauge 
should  be  with  much  diffidence.  If  it  be  assumed  that  5  cwts. 
and  40  cwts.  are  the  minimum  and  maximum  capacities  likely  to 
be  required,  a  basis  for  reasoning  is  available.  He  has  mentioned 
14  and  42  inches  as  about  the  minimum  and  maximum  gauges  at 
present  in  use,  and  the  question  which  of  these  or  what  inter- 
mediate size  should  be  adopted  now  arises.  Taking  the  14-incb 
gauge  first,  it  is  too  narrow  for  use  with  horses  and  mechani- 
cal haulage,  and  it  is  quite  unsuitable  for  a  large  tram.  As 
for  the  42-inch  gauge,  it  is  unsuitable  for  a  small  tram,  and 
in  narrow  gate-roads  with  a  fireclay  or  soft  shale  roof  (or  sides) 
the  rails  are  normally  obstructed  by  small  debris.  The  stand- 
ard gauge  must  be  something  between  these.  On  light  railways 
it  is  quite  good  practice  to  run  wagons  of  more  than  5  tons 
capacity  over  a  36-inch  gauge,  and  on  ordinary  railways  32-ton 
wagons  work  on  a  gauge  of  56 J  inches.  It  is  reasonable,  then, 
to  suggest  that  a  2-ton  tram  on  a  24-inch  gauge  is  a  practical 
proposal,  and  that  is  the  gauge  which  the  writer  respectfully 

Reference  might  now  be  made  to  the  length  of  wheel-base. 
It  is  \\ell  known  that  large  trams  rec^uire  a  longer  wheel-base 
than  small  trams,  and  steep  workings  a  longer  wheel-base  than 
flat  workings.  It  is  also  well  known  that  a  tram  with  a  long 
wheel-base  requires  a  curve  of  rails  of  longer  radius  than  does 
one  with  a  short  base,  and  this  suggests  a  difficulty  in  stan- 
dardizing crossings,  etc.,  because,  while  a  short-based  tram 
would  pass  round  any  of  the  standard  crossings,  the  long-based 
tram  would  not.  This  difficulty  would  be  easily  overcome  either 
by  making  all  curves  such  as  would  pass  any  tram,  or  by  using 
standard  crossings  of,  say,  four  classes  to  pass  trams  with  wheel- 
bases  of  2,  2i,  3,  and.3i  feet.  All  except  the  longest  based  tram 
would  go  round  at  least  two  classes  of  curves. 


Much  is  heard  nowadays  of  natioual  efficiency  and  of  the 
organizing  ability  of  the  Germans.  Here,  in  the  subject  of 
tliis  jiapor,  is  just  such  a  fiehl  as  wouhl  suit  tliom.  If  stan- 
dardization would  reduce  the  cost  of  production,  the  Briton, 
if  he  adopted  it,  would  be  armed  for  the  better  conduct  of  the 
economic  war  which  will  probably  ensue,  and  would  enjoy  the 
added  satisfaction  of  having  beaten  the  enemy  at  his  own  game. 

Mr.  William  M.  Kilpatrick  (Larkhall)  wrote  that  Mr. 
Gibson's  paper  bristled  with  ideas  and  suggestions.  Doubtless 
the  author  had  made  a  strong  effort  to  set  forth  the  advantages 
that  might  accrue  on  the  standardization  of  trams ;  but,  in  his 
(Mr.  Ivilpatrick's)  opinion,  the  commendable  feature  of 
the  paper  lay  in  the  author's  insistence  that  considerable 
economy  might  be  effected  if  the  various  more  essential  fittings 
used  in  the  construction  of  trams  could  be  more  uniformly 
standardized  so  that  under  seemingly  varied  conditions  these 
might  be  more  easily  reduplicated.  He  feared,  however,  that,  like 
many  otherwise  capable  advocates,  in  his  endeavour  to  pursue 
this  point,  the  author  had  travelled  just  a  little  too  far  and 
a  little  too  fast.  Mr.  Gibson  seemed  to  leave  so  little  room  for 
natural  and  individual  predeliction,  in  a  field,  too,  in  which, 
according  to  the  very  nature  of  things,  variety  must  ever  pre- 
dominate, that  some  of  his  more  praiseworthy  ideas  and  sugges- 
tions ran  a  danger  of  being  overlooked  in  the  irritation  that 
might  result  from  their  apparent  impracticability.  For  example  : 
he  (Mr.  Kilpatrick)  would  never  allow  the  size  of  the  tram  to 
govern  the  size  of  the  side  road,  even  if  by  accident  that  did  seem 
to  happeii  once  in  a  while ;  and,  if  he  were  asked  to  give  standard 
dimensions  for  a  tram,  he  would  never,  no  matter  what  its 
capacity  was  intended  to  be,  construct  it  so  that  it  would  stand 
more  than  40  inche  ;  above  the  rail.  The  principle  that  would 
guide  him  in  this  matter  would  be  economy  of  the  energy  required 
to  load  the  tram.  From  this  point  of  view  alone  he  would  endea- 
vour to  keep  the  tram  as  low  as,  under  the  particular  conditions, 
would  be  practicable,  so  that  he  might  even  make  the  minimum 
height  less  than  2  feet  above  the  rail.  Moreover,  if  he  were  set  to 
win  two  seams,  one  7  feet  and  the  other  2  feet  thick,  through  the 
same  shaft,  and  presumably  from  the  same  bottom  level,  he 
would  not  introduce  two  different  standard  trams.     The  compli- 

7)ie  InstiM/iion.,  ofiiinii:;/  Engineers 


7b  iHzLS&rUe  M^Ja?z7i  Gibson Js  Paper  on  7he  Logic  ofTrarrfs  " 

Fig.   1.— Showing   how  when    Points  and   Crossings  of  Various 
Lengths  are   used.    Rails  of  Various  other   Lengths 

HAVE   to   be   cut   AND   USED   FOR   "SQUARING"   AND 


-ia'  n'if  --  6'  8'  --  V, 


Fig.   2.— Showing     how     by     using     Points     and    Crossings    of 
Standard  Unit  Lengths,  no  Rail-cutting  is  necessary. 

Fig.   3.- Showing  the    Rail-joints  on    Crossgate  too  far   Out- 
bye.   AND    Patchwork   of  short   Rails   or   Wood   used. 


Fig.    4.- Showing   the    Rail-joints    on    Crossgate    too    far    In- 

BYE,      which      necessitates      HEWING     THE      SIDE      OF     THE 

Gate-road,   and   an   Awkward  Twist    on   the    Rails  of 
THE   Gate-road. 


Hortk  of  Erujlij^d  TnstUuU  of  Ki^ur,.;/  &  Ke^>h/znu>aZ  ^rioine'e^s 
Traiisa/:tLons.  1915  If)J6. 

Ar.dT'ReidiCoinpTL'f  Newcastle  upon Tyne 


1915-1916.]  DlSCrSSIOX TIIK   LO(tIC   OF   TRAMS.  19'J 

cation  tliat  tlii.s  would  involve,  both  at  the  pit-l)ottoni  autl  on  the- 
surface-tracks,  to  say  nothing  of  cages,  tipjilers,  etc.,  would,  to 
him,  be  a  sufficient  deterrent. 

The  amount  of  work,  too,  which  Mr.  Gibson  assumed  he 
might  legitimately  anticipate  as  being  available  from  a  healthy 
man,  namely,  024  horsepower,  seemed  somewhat  high — 
especially  when  it  was  remembered  that  a  Clydesdale  horse  was 
credited  with  being  capable  of  performing  only  about  two-thirds 
of  the  standard  lioiseixiwer.  He  did  not  think  that  it  would  be 
wise  to  expect  three  men  to  be  equal,  even  under  the  best  of  con- 
ditions, to  a  Clydesdale  horse  in  the  matter  of  "  sheer  haulage." 

He  (Mr.  Kilpatrick)  was  not  much  in  favour  of  "  Govern- 
ment regulations  "  directing  what  track  he  should  lay,  or  how  he 
should  lay  it.  There  was  one  point,  however,  in  connexion  with 
the  laying  of  these  tracks  that  seemed  too  often  to  escape 
notice.  He  referred  to  the  tilting-up  of  curves,  e^specially  on 
horse-haulage  roads.  It  was  sometimes  painful  to  notice  how 
persistently  the  outside  of  a  curve  was  tilted  up,  no  consideration 
having  lieen  given  to  the  point  whether  the  tram  had  got  to  be 
hauled  round  that  j)articular  curve  or  passed  round  by  gravity. 
Hence  it  frequently  hapj)ened  that  no  effort  was  made  to  keep  the 
resultant  of  what  might  l)e  two  almost  opposing  forces,  under 
which  the  tram  was  being  conducted,  leading  between  the  rails, 
with  the  troubles  and  losses  consequent  on  many  unnecessary 
derailments.  To  suggest  to  many  mining  officials  that  under 
certain  conditions  the  inside  of  a  curve  should  be  tilted  up  was — 
strange  though  :t  might  seem — to  invite  their  ridicule. 

Mr.  W.  H.  EouTi.EDGE  (Abergavenny)  wrote  that  several 
papers  had  been  written  on  this  matter  and  published  in  Mon- 
mouthshire and  South  Wales,  one  by  Mr.  J.  Fox  Tallis  being- 
of  special  value.* 

He  (Mr.  Routledge)  submitted  that  the  views  expressed  by 
Mr.  Gibson  did  not  quite  coincide  with  the  modern  practice  of 
mining  engineers  in  the  United  Kingdom.  It  had  been  for 
many  years  the  universal  custom  at  all  large  pits  or  groups  of 
pits  to  instal  a  certain  t^-pe  of  tram  or  tub  and  a  certain  width  of 
gauge  of  tramway  to  suit  the  most  economic  requirements 
of  the  particular  mine,  and  to  extend  as  far  as  possible 
with     minor     improvements     what     had     been     decided     upon 

*"  Colliery  Trams,"  by  J.  Fox  Tallis,  Proceedivgn  oj  the  South  Wales 
Institute  of  Eii'j/iieers,  1900,  vol.  xxii.,  page  37- 



as  experience  showed.  The  installation  and  maintenance  of  the 
type  of  tram  and  gauge  of  tram-road  was  duplicated  as  much 
as  could  be  made  convenient  in  tlie  making-up  of  a  tram  or 
tub  and  the  tramway  upon  which  they  travelled. 

When  it  was  considered  that  the  use  of  trams  or  tubs  and 
iron  rails  dated  from  the  year  1767  at  Coalbrookdale,  and  ex- 
tended to  other  parts  of  the  country  shortly  afterwards,  he  could 
not  ag-ree  with  the  assertion  that  "  perhaps  thousands  of  different 
type  of  trams  and  widths  of  g-auges  are  in  use  in  this  country." 
Many  types  of  trams  or  tubs,  it  must  be  acknowledged,  were  in 
use,  and  followed  the  results  of  improvements,  which  had  their 
particular  intrinsic  value,  as  in  all  other  mechanical  appliances. 
This  was  obviously  the  result  of  each  engineer's  own  observa- 
tion, which  he  converted  into  practice. 

There  were,  however,  two  notable  features  in  regard  to  the 
use  and  type  of  tram  or  tub — that  since  the  advent  of  the  coal- 
face mechanical  conveyor,  which  enabled  the  management  to 
dispense  with  many  roadways,  the  introduction  of  a  larger  tram 
had  been  of  advantage  in  the  cost  of  working.  A  new  condition 
also  arose  in  designing  a  tram  or  tub  to  comply  with  the  new 
Mines  Act,  which  made  it  compulsory  that  the  tram  or  tub 
should  be  reasonably  dust-proof. 

Mr.  Gibson  evidently  had  not  suffered  by  recent  legislation 
when  he  suggested  that  the  Mines  Act  should  be  amended  to  set 
up  a  standard  for  underground  tramways.  The  settlement  of 
the  gauge,  if  it  were  ever  seriously  entertained,  would  be  prob- 
ably more  difficult  than  the  celebrated  "  battle  of  the  gauges," 
which  raged  for  some  years  in  the  early  history  of  railways, 
between  the  well-known  civil  engineers.  Stephenson  and  Brunei. 
The  members  of  the  Institute  were  ever  ready  to  receive 
suggestions  for  the  improvement  of  mining,  and  the  practical 
remarks  made  by  Mr.  Gibson  deserved  their  consideration. 

Mr.  John  Watson  (Kilmarnock)  wrote  that  the  importance 
of  standardization  of  methods  of  manufacture  of  all  kinds  of 
material  which  were  required  in  large  quantities  was  too  well 
tnown  to  require  further  emphasis ;  and  it  seemed  strange 
that  so  late  in  the  day  it  should  be  open  for  anyone  to  point  out 
to  mining  engineers  that  there  was  still  a  field  among  such 
well-known  objects  as  colliery  trams  for  simplification  of  manu- 
facture and  for  standardization  of  types  and  sizes.      It  might. 

1915-1916.]  DlSCrSSIOX — THE  LOGIC  OF  TEAMS.  201 

of  course,  be  argued  that  it  was  more  convenient  for  each  colliery 
to  make  its  own  trams  and  to  develop  its  own  type,  because  the 
conditions  under  which  the  trams  were  to  be  used  were  known 
to  the  managers  and  to  them  alone,  and  that  consequently  the 
article  best  suited  for  the  purpose  in  view  would  be  produced. 
To  extend  this  assumption,  it  would  follow  that  each  colliery 
should  design  and  produce  the  rails  and  crossings  best  suited  to 
its  purpose,  but  that  would  be  readily  admitted  without  discus- 
sion to  be  impracticable. 

On  careful  examination  collier^'-owners  would  no  doubt  find 
that  it  was  quite  practicable  and  decidedly  advantageous  that 
they  should  purchase  rather  than  make  their  trams.  It  appeared 
to  be  possible  to  fix  on  a  moderate  number  of  standard  types  to 
cover  the  requirements  associated  with  the  coal-seams  in  the  dif- 
ferent districts.  When  this  had  been  done,  a  specialist  in  the 
manufacture  of  trams  would  be  able  to  produce  both  better  and 
cheaper  trams  than  could  be  made  readily  at  a  colliery.  Of 
course,  the  work  of  repair  would  still  have  to  be  carried  out  at 
the  colliery;  but  even  that  might  be  simplified,  as  the  specialist 
would  be  able  to  supply  every  piece,  either  of  metal  or  of  timber, 
of  the  correct  size  and  ready  for  application  to  the  damaged  tram. 
There  had  undoubtedly  been  great  economies  eifected  by  the 
standardization  of  other  material,  and  there  was  no  reason,  so  far 
as  he  could  see,  to  apprehend  tliat  similar  economies  would  not 
be  effected  in  the  standardization  of  trams. 

On  the  question  of  nomenclature,  it  ajipeared  advisable  to 
have  standard  names  as  well  as  standard  articles.  There  was  no 
<loubt  that  much  confusion  arose,  especially  in  buying,  from  the 
great  variety  of  names  used  to  describe  the  same  thing.  A  work- 
man or  his  foreman  requisitioned  material  from  the  office  by  a 
word  well  known  and  understood,  and  could  not  appreciate  that 
the  use  of  this  word  which  he  understood  so  well  should  present 
any  difficulties  to  a  supplier  in  a  distant  part  of  the  country, 
where  a  totally  different  word  was  cherished  as  being  properly 
descriptive  of  the  thing  in  question.  Confusion  often  resulted, 
and  it  was  much  to  be  desired  that,  if  standard  sizes  and  types 
should  be  arrived  at,  then  standard  names  for  the  parts  and 
the  objects  themselves  should  also  be  associated  with  them. 
Much  could  be  done  in  this  way  by  stamping  on  each  part  its 
proper  name,  so  that  when  replace  parts  were  required  no  con- 
fusion need  arise. 


In  tile  fourso  of  ilic  work  on  a  catalog'ue  at  present  in  course 
of  ])reparation,  the  writer  had  experienced  considerable  difficulty 
in  avoiding  the  use  of  a  variety  of  words  known  to  him  and 
descriptive  of  machinery  in  use  in  coal-mining,  many  of  wliich 
would  convey  nothing  to  readers  in  distant  parts.  The  difficulty 
of  arriving  at  words  that  would  be  universally  understood  had 
been  a  very  real  one. 

Mr.  AViLLiAM  Smith  (Dalmellington)  wrote  that  the  subject 
dealt  with  by  Mr.  Gibson  had  not  received  attention  commen- 
surate with  its  importance.  Often  a  certain  size  of  tub  was 
adopted  at  a  new  colliery,  not  because  the  nature  of  the  roof, 
height,  and  inclination  of  the  seam  had  been  considered,  but 
because  a  neighbouring  pit  or  seam  was  nearly  exhausted,  and  a 
supply  of  tubs  would  be  available.  Mr.  Samuel  Dean*  had  attri- 
buted the  high  production  per  man  in  America  to  the  use  of  cars 
of  large  capacity.  Other  American  mining  engineers  had  put  it 
down  to  increased  use  of  coal-cutting  machines.  Possibly  both 
played  an  equally  important  part.  That  the  size  of  the  tub 
used  had  a  certain  bearing  on  output  and  wages  cost  was  un- 
doubted, even  in  the  faulty  and  troubled  areas  worked  in  Scot- 
land. For  instance,  in  many  cases  a  miner  determined  his  day's 
work  by  the  number  of 'tubs  filled.  Assuming  that  he  filled  daily 
six  tubs  weighing  12  cwts.  each,  and  earned  10s.  per  day,  he 
required  a  rate  of  2s.  9hd.  per  ton.  If  a  tub  holding  10  cwts. 
were  used,  or  if  the  roof  were  allowed  to  come  down  so  that  a 
tub  holding  12  cwts.  only  held  10  cwts.  ^ater-measure,  then 
the  tonnage-rate  must  be  increased  to  3s.  4d.  per  ton  so  as  to 
enable  the  miner  to  make  the  same  wage.  Thus  the  tonnage-rate 
had  to  be  increased  3id.  for  each  cwt.  less  that  the  tub  carried. 
In  a  case  known  to  the  writer  a  tub  holding  8  cwts.  was  grad- 
ually replaced  by  one  carrying  10  cwts. ;  the  men  continued 
to  fill  the  same  number,  the  output  rose  25  per  cent,  and  wage 
disputes  were  considerably  reduced.  Managers  who  had  been 
able  to  adopt  underground  conveyors  had  the  importance  of 
the  subject  strongly  impressed  on  them.  Tubs  which  formerly 
seemed  adequate  were  found,  with  a  conveyor  at  work, 
altogether  inadequate,  proving  that,  where  hand-drawing  was 
reduced  to  a  minimum,  one  of  the  principal  factors  against 
increasing  the  size  of  the  tub  was  removed. 

*  "  Modern  American  Coal-mining  Methods,   with   Some   Comparisons,"  by 
Mr.  Samuel  Dean,  Trans.  Inst.  M.  E.,  1915,  vol.  1.,  pages  179  and  388. 

1915-1916.]  DISCUSSIOX THE  LOGIC  OF  TRAMS.  203 

With  reference  to  the  "  track,"  it  was  certainly  an  advantage 
to  hare  the  rails  in  exchangeable  lengths,  say  18,  9,  and  4^  feet ; 
but  he  considered  that  the  manager  had  already  more  than  suffi- 
cient statutory  responsibility  to  desire  to  run  the  risk  of  a  pro- 
secution for  using  a  track  over  or  under  the  statutory  gauge,  as 
might  happen  under  the  "  Amending  Act  "  suggested  by  Mr. 

Mr.  SiMOX  Tate  proposed  and  Mr.  Tonx  H.  Merivale  second- 
ed a  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  Gibson  for  his  interesting  paper, 
which  was  cordially  adopted. 

Mr.  John  Gibson  (Kilmarnock)  wrote  that  he  was  grateful  to 
the  members  for  the  kindly  reception  given  to  his  paper, 

Xo  serious  reasoned  objection  had  been  made  to  the  proposi- 
tion that  the  gauge  of  the  track  should  be  standardized.  Excep- 
tion had  been  taken  by  Messrs.  E-outledge,  Kilpatrick,  and 
Smith  to  the  iu^stitution  of  a  .standard  gauge  by  means  of  an  Act 
of  Parliament.  In  the  first  place,  there  was  an  alternative 
method  advanced  in  the  paper,  namely,  by  voluntary  agreement 
and  arrangement.  Even  if  legal  enforcement  was  necessary,  it 
would  follow  and  not  precede  agreement.  Secondly,  the  standard 
gauge  of  56^^  inches  was  legally  enforced,  and  no  one  could  sug- 
gest that  this  had  been  found  irksome.  The  strictures  passed  on 
the  recent  mining  legislation  under  which  collieries  were  work- 
ing should  be  made,  not  on  its  general  wisdom,  but  on  its 
application  in  all  circumstances. 

The  regulations  with  regard  to  safety-lamps  applied  equally  to 
the  deep  fiery  mines  of  Glamorgan  and  to  the  shallow  mines  of 
Ayrshire,  where  firedamp  was  very  infrequently  found.  This 
was  undoubtedly  an  evil ;  but  he  awaited  with  interest  an  ex- 
planation of  the  reasons  why  tlie  same  gauge  would  be  unsuit- 
able for  both  counties. 

Mr.  Routledge  bad  stated  that  he  could  not  agree  with  the 
assertion  concerning  the  existence  of  thousands  of  different 
types  of  trams.  He  (Mr.  Gibson)  wished,  by  two  different 
ways,  to  show  him  that  there  was  no  exaggeration. 

(1)  It  was  admitted  that  at  present  everyone  was  at  liberty 
(of  which  full  advantage  was  taken)  to  design  his  own  tram  and 
gauge.  Every  tram  had  at  least  three  dimensions,  and  it  might 
be  made  of  metal  or  wood,  or  both  combined.  The  underframe, 
drawbar,  pedestals,  axles,  wheels,  rails,  gauges,  etc.,  might  be 


(and  were)  made  in  many  varieties.  There  were  thousands  of 
pits  in  Great  Britain,  and  until  his  endeavour  to  co-ordinate  the 
known  facts  and  lay  down  simple  general  principles,  there  was 
little  or  no  guidance  for  owners  and  managers  in  choosing 
amongst  this  great  variety  of  method  and  material.  He  had 
stated,  therefore,  that  there  were  thousands  of  types  of  trams. 
This  was  a  ])erfectly  accurate  statement,  and  to  deny  it  was  to  go 
against  all  liuman  experience  :  because,  as  there  were  many  com- 
binations of  material  and  many  heads  to  consider  them,  the  types 
increased  by  geometrical  progression.  This  could  not  be  other- 

(2)  To  take  a  concrete  case  :  a  colliery  group  consisting  of 
eight  winding  shafts  had  five  different  trams,  yet  there  were  only 
three  different  gauges,  two  different  pedestals,  four  underframes, 
etc.  Mr.  Routledgc  might  hold  that  there  was  only  one  type, 
because  the  method  of  construction  was  somewhat  similar,  or  he 
might  say  in  view  of  the  pedestals  that  there  were  only  two 
types,  or  perhaps  three  if  judged  by  the  gauge.  He  (Mr. 
Gibson)  submitted  that  interchangeability  was  the  only  true 
test,  and  that  the  types  were  five. 

He  hoped  on  a  future  occasion  to  reply  to  the  other  points 
raised,  as,  for  instance,  jthat  raised  by  Mr.  Kilpatrick  concern- 
ing the  amount  of  work  which  a  man  was  capable  of  doing.  Mr. 
Kilpatrick  had  stated  that  he  (Mr.  Gibson)  had  taken  too  high 
a  figure  when  putting  024  horsepower  as  the  work  which  a 
fairly  well-developed  man  could  perform  through  a  period  of  2h 
minutes.  The  figures  were,  however,  founded  on  many  years' 
observation.  Text-books  asserted  that  a  man  was  capable  of 
4,300  foot-pounds  per  minute,  if  suitably  applied  for  a  period 
of  480  minutes.  His  own  finding  was  that  a  drawer  could 
under  suitable  conditions  give  7,920  foot-pounds  per  minute 
for  2i  minutes.  AVas  that  at  all  incredible  ?  It  seemed  as  if 
Mr.  Kilpatrick  had  forgotten  the  time  factor. 

A  ''  AViddas  "  patent  incline  chock  was  exhibited,  described, 
and  demonstrated  by  Mr.  Percy  AA^iddas. 

A   safety  mine-cage  arrester  was  exhibited,   described,   and 
demonstrated  bv  Mr.  Thomas  Pearson. 

1915-1916.]      TRANSACTIONS THE   NORTH   OF    ENGLAND   INSTITUTE.  205 



Held  in  the  Wood  Memorial  Hall,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

April  8th,  1916. 

Mr    T.  Y.  GKEENER,  President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  Secretary  read  tlie  minutes  of  the  last  General  Meeting, 
and  reported  the  proceedings  of  the  Council  at  their  meetings  on 
March  25th  and  that  day. 

The  following  gentlemen  were  elected,  having  been  previously 
Jiominated  :  — 

Members — 
Mr.  Ernest   Edward   Noble,   Mechanical   Engineer,    30,    Ashleigh   Grove, 

Fulwell,  Sunderland. 
Mr.  William   Fenwick  Reed,  Mechanical  Engineer,    16,   Princes  Gardens, 

Monkseaton,  Whitley  Bay,  Northumberland. 
Mr.  David  Wilson  Robertson,  Colliery  Manager,  c/o  Messrs.  A.  Goninan  & 

Company,  Limited,  Wickham,  Newcastle,  New  South  Wales,  Australia. 
Mr.  John   James    Tdhnbull,    Jun.,    Junior   Inspector   of    Mines    in    India, 

Asansol,  E.I.R.,  Burdwan,  Bengal,  India. 

Associate  Member — 
Mr.  John  Harry  Ramsey,  17,  Victoria  Road,  Darlington, 

Associates — 
Mr.  Geor(;e  Donald  Gould,  Overman,  c/o  Mrs.  John  Gould,  58,  Ebers  Road, 

Mr.  Henry  Charles  Hubert  Hanlon,  Underground  Surveyor,  7,  Mark  Lane, 

Mr.  William  Oliver,  Overman,   4,   Quality  Row,   Harton  Colliery,   South 


VOL.  LXTI— 7915-1916.  15  E 

206      TRANSACTIONS THE   XOUTII    OK    KXGLAXl)    I XSTI TITK.    [Vol.  Ixvi. 


Mr.  Samuel  Dean  {Delagua,  Colorado,  U.S.A.)  wrote  that^ 
after  readino-  Mr.  Hare's  remarks,  he  was  inclined  to  believe 
that  men  who  were  successfully  employing  bord-and-pillar  or 
shoiiwall  machines  in  mines  with  difficult  pitches  and  bad  roofs, 
wonld  not  place  the  blame  for  the  failure  mentioned  at  Mr. 
Hare's  mine  upon  the  American  operator,  but  upon  the  shoulders 
of  the  mine  manager.  As  Mr.  Hare's  remarks  appeared  to  evince 
a  lack  of  knowledge  of  machine-mining,  and  a  bitter  feelings 
towards  American  machine-runners,  it  would  be  interesting  to 
have  a  frank  statement  from  this  particular  operator  as  to  the 
reasons  for  the  failure. 

Mr!  Hare  had  stated  that  English  longwall  machines  were 
as  good  as  American  machines,  and  upon  this  statement  the 
writer  did  not  intend  to  comment.  He  held  no  brief  for  any 
particular  machine,  but  what  many  people  considered  the  best 
shortwall  machine  in  America  was  not  advertised  in  Great 
Britain,  and  possibly  the  machine  had  never  been  used  in  any 
mine  in  that  country. 

When  Mr.  Hare  asserted  that  in  bord-and-pillar  working  it 
was  absolutely  necessary  to  use  naked  wires  in  order  to  move  the 
machines  quickly  from  place  to  place,  he  (Mr.  Dean)  was  com- 
pelled to  say  that  Mr.  Hare  apparently  did  not  fully  understand 
the  problem.  All  the  wires  could  be  insulated  :  the  power  which 
enabled  the  machine  to  travel  from  place  to  place  was  received 
■  through  the  trailing-cable,  and  the  cable  was  automatically 
wound  up  on  the  reel,  or  let  out,  as  the  machine  went  back- 
wards or  forwards. 

The  use  of  70-pound  rails  at  or  near  the  face  was  quite  un- 
necessary ;  20-pound  rails  were  heavy  enough  for  a  shortwall 
machine  when  the  speed  at  which  it  travelled  was  taken  into 
consideration ;  and  TO-pound  rails  were  for  use  on  main  haulage- 
roads  along  which  heavy  locomotives  and  long  trains  of  cars 
travelled  at  top  speed. 

If  Mr.  Hare  had  given  a  plan  of  the  district  of  his  mine  where 
the  American  machine  was  a  failure,  showing  the  width  of  all 

*  Trans.  Inst.  M.  E.,  1915,  vol.  1.,  pages  179  and  388  ;  and  1916,  vol.  li.,. 
page  35. 


the  places — say,  every  30  feet — the  position  of  the  props  and 
other  roof  supports,  the  position  and  gauge  of  the  track,  the 
section  and  pitch  of  the  seam,  and  other  data,  one  might  then 
have  been  able  to  adduce  some  reasons  for  the  failure.  If  both 
the  bords  and  walls  were  narrow,  and  the  mine  worked  three 
shifts  a  day,  the  machineman  would  be  frequently  "  held  up  " 
by  the  ponies,  or  hand-putters,  and  little  tubs,  as  the  roadways 
would  then  be  congested  with  traffic. 

Mr.  Hare  thought  that  no  comparison  could  be  made  between 
the  working  conditions  in  the  two  countries,  and  he  (Mr.  Dean) 
would  add  that  this  statement  was  perfectly  true  where  10-cwt. 
tubs  were  used  in  British  mines.  No  matter  what  results  were 
obtained  with  machines,  the  output  per  man  would  never  ap- 
proach the  American  figure  so  long  as  10-cwt.  tubs  were 

It  would  be  of  some  interest  to  learn  what  was  the  capacity 
of  the  tubs  in  use  in  the  workings  of  the  new  20-foot  seam  near 
Coventry,  and  what  the  output  per  man  was  expected  to  be. 
These  frequent  remarks  about  more  difficult  conditions  in  Great 
Britain  were  not  always  justified.  In  the  case  of  Bentley 
Colliery,  it  was  seldom  necessary  for  a  man  6  feet  high  to  stoop 
when  walking  from  the  shaft  to  the  coal-face;  the  pitch  was 
"  just  right  "  to  facilitate  haulage;  the  roof  permitted  of  double 
tracks  in  the  gateways;  the  seam  was  5  feet  4  inches  to  6  feet 
thick,  and  was  perhaps  the  easiest  seam  to  work  that  the  writer 
ever  saw,  as  the  coal  fell  over  in  large  slabs  when  the  miner  in- 
serted a  long  iron  bar  behind  the  facings.  The  output  per  man 
at  the  face  was  about  5  tons,  and  14-cwt.  tubs  were  used.  The 
output  per  man  in  a  similar  seam  in  America  would  be  10  tons, 
and  about  half  the  number  of  men  would  be  employed  to  move 
the  coal  from  the  face  to  the  shaft-bottom.  The  gauge  of  the 
track  at  Bentley  was  26  inches,  the  rails  weighed  28  pounds  on 
main  roads  and  18  pounds  at  the  face,  and  props  at  the  face 
were  set  5  feet  apart. 

To  enable  Mr.  Hare  to  realize  the  situation,  he  might  take, 
say,  the  Hutton  Seam  in  the  County  of  Durham,  where  it  was 
approximately  6  feet  thick  and  easy  to  hew  by  the  scalloping 
process,  and  compare  the  output  per  man  for  all  men  employed 
in  the  workings  of  that  seam  with  the  output  per  man  in 
American    seams    6    feet    thick.     The    figures    would    probably 

S08     TRANSACTIONS THE   NOllTH   OF    EN(;LAXD   IXSTITLTE.    [V^ol.lxvi. 

startle  him,  and  he  wouhl  not  he  ahle  to  console  himself  with 
the  statement  that  the  Eiic^lish  conditions  were  unfavourahle. 

To  return  to  the  machine  proposition :  it  M'as  futile  to 
expect  an  immediate  success  hy  placinj^  all  the  responsibility 
upon  the  machine-runner,  and  that  man  a  stranger  in  a  land  of 
old  customs  and  prejudices.  Did  Mr.  Hare's  officials  assist  the 
operator?  AVere  they  able  to  assist?  Or  did  they  sit  at  the 
"  kist  "  and  say:  "Now,  let's  see  what  the  Yankee  can  do?" 
If  they  did  that,  or  anything  like  it,  his  failure  was  already 

The  cause  of  success  or  non-success  with  machines  rested  with 
the  manager  of  the  mine.  The  manner  in  which  he  planned 
the  lay-out  of  his  workings,  his  organization,  and  the  way  in 
which  he  watched  daily  operations  were  the  factors  that 
governed  the  results.  When  a  new  American  coal-cutting 
machine  arrived  at  a  colliery,  the  mechanics  should  immediately 
take  it  to  pieces  and  build  it  up  again,  and  should  thoroughly 
satisfy  themselves  that  they  understood  its  mechanism.  In  the 
evenings  the  manager,  under-manager,  and  overmen  should 
attend  at  the  workshops,  a  mechanic  should  put  the  machine 
into  operation  there,  and  afterwards  take  it  to  pieces,  and  the 
different  underground  officials  should  build  it  up  again.  This 
work  should  be  continued  every  evening  until  each  man  under- 
.stood  how  the  machine  worked,  and  how  to  remedy  defects  in  it. 
That  was  the  way  in  which  German  mine  officials  were  taught 
their  business  at  Boclium.  When  the  writer  visited  the  C.E.A.G. 
electric  lamp-works  at  Dortmund,  he  saw  all  the  American  cap- 
lamps  lying  on  a  table  dissected,  and  efforts  being  made  to  im- 
prove upon  them.  The  object  then  was  to  produce  a  German 
electric  cap-lamp  to  be  placed  upon  the  American  market. 

When  the  official  understood  the  mechanism  of  the  machine, 
he  took  a  deeper  interest  in  its  operation  at  the  coal-face.  If 
the  machine  "  would  not  work,"  he  ought,  after  an  examination, 
to  be  able  to  state  the  reason  why.  If  he  could  not,  of  what 
value  was  he  in  a  mine  where  the  coal  was  undercut  by 
machines?  When  a  machine  was  first  introduced,  the  welfare 
of  the  paachirie  and  operator  should  be  the  first  consideration. 
In  the  event  of  a  breakdown,  mechanics  should  be  sent  to  the 
coal-face  without  delay  to  effect  the  necessary  repairs,  or  to 
bring  the  machine  to  the  shop. 



As  a  rule,  machine-runners  knew  little  or  nothing"  with  regard 
to  laying  out  the  workings  of  a  mine  so  as  to  facilitate  machine 
operation,  and  this  was  where  the  mining  engineer  should  come 
in.  American  shortwall  machines  might  be  more  successful  in 
a  mine  laid  out  on  the  South  Wales  single-stall  method  than 
on  the  Durham  bord-and-pillar  method. 

Mr.  Hare  had  stated  that  the  illustrations  to  his  (Mr.  Dean's) 
paper  showed  "  vast  spaces,"  with  hardly  a  stick  of  timber,  and 
immediately  seized  that  peg  on  which  to  hang  another  excuse. 
It  so  happened  that  some  of  these  photographs  were  taken  in 

Fig.  1. — An  Entry  in  an  American  Mine,  Showing  the  Entrance  to  a  Room 

AT  THE  Left. 

mines  where  the  roof  was  good,  and  he  would  admit  that  a  large 
number  of  mines  in  America  possessed  good  roofs.  But,  in 
order  to  show  that  machines  and  large  cars  were  used  in  mines 
with  bad  roofs,  he  (Mr.  Dean)  immediately  after  reading  Mr. 
Hare's  remarks  had  some  photographs  taken  in  a  mine  with  a 
bad  roof,  situated  within  a  mile  or  two  of  his  residence  (Figs. 
1,  2,  and  3). 

Mr.  Hare  had  said  that  it  was  practically  impossible  to  use 
the  American  bord-and-pillar  machines  in  an  ordinary  English 
pit,  and  he  (Mr.  Dean)  did  not  propose  to  allow  that  statement 

210     TRANSACTIONS — THE   NORTH   OF    KNtiLAXD    IXSTITLTK.    [Vol.  Ixvi. 

to  go  unchallenged,  or  to  fail  to  deny  it.  Surely,  the  English 
Government  Kegulations  did  not  prevent  the  use  of  electricity 
altogether!"^  The  United  States  Bureau  of  Mines  had  already 
placed  certain  electric  shortwall  machines  on  the  permissible 
list  for  use  in  gaseous  mines,  and  tiie  liureau  would  never  have 
done  this  if  naked  wires  were  necessary. 

AVith  regard  to  timbering  close  up  to  the  face,  Mr.  Hare 
must  have  seen  props  set  6  feet  off  the  face  and  the  intervening 
roof  supported  by  collars  resting  on  props  at  one  end  and 
"  needled  "'  into  the  coal-head  at  the  other.  A  passage-way  6 
feet  wide  was  ample  for  the  latest  shortwall  machines. 

Fig.  2. — An  Electric  Shortwall  Machine  Travelling  In-bye  in  a  Rooji. 

Fig.  1  showed  an  entry  in  a  mine  where  the  coal  was  5  feet 
thick ;  on  the  left  the  track  was  shown  leading  into  a  room- 
neck  ;  the  duplex  trailiug-cable  of  a  shortwall  machine  would 
be  seen  on  the  floor  on  the  left-hand  side,  and  the  car  seen  in  the 
entry  had  a  carrying  capacity  of  2  tons. 

Fig.  2  showed  the  shortwall  machine  travelling  in-bye  in 
the  room.  The  reel  and  the  insulated  trailing-cable  were 
plainly  in  view,  and  it  would  be  seen  that  there  were  no  naked 
wires,  and  that  the  roof  had  to  be  supported.  The  loose  props 
on  the  left  were  for  the  use  of  fillers  at  the  face. 



Fig.  3  .showed  the  shortwall  machine  cutting  across  the  face 
of  a  "  crosscut  "  oif  the  room.  A  crosscut  was  a  place  driven 
through  the  pillar  to  connect  between  rooms,  and  in  the  County 
of  Durham  would  be  called  a  "  wall."  In  the  same  county  a 
room  would  be  called  a  "  bord."  This  particular  crosscut  was 
12  feet  wide,  and  the  rooms  were  20  feet  wide. 

One  foot  of  draw-slate  generally  came  down  with  the  coal, 
■and  the  roof  above  was  full  of  slips  and  pot-holes.  The  maxi- 
mum distance  allowed  between  props  under  ra]i-pieces  was  5  feet. 

Fig.  3. — A  Shortwall  Machine  Cutting  Across  the  Face  of  a  Crosscut,  or 

Narrow  Place. 

The  roof  over  the  track  had  to  be  supported  with  cross-bars  and 

^o  .special  arrangements  were  made  when  the  photographs 
for  Figs.  1,  2,  and  3  were  taken.  He  (Mr.  Dean)  entered  the 
mine  with  the  photographer,  and  the  pictures  were  taken  just 
where  the  machine  happened  to  be.  There  were  many  places  in 
the  mine  far  more  closely  timbered  than  those  shown.  This 
particular  machine  cut  to  a  depth  of  7  feet,  and  averaged  about 
100  lineal  feet  of  face  per  day.  It  gave  so  little  trouble  that  the 
management  hardly  knew  that  there  was  a  machine  in  the  mine. 
It  had  been  in  18  months,   and  previous  to  that  time  the 

212       TRANSACTIONS — THE    NORTH    OF    KXCiLAXJ)    IXSTITLTK.   [Vol.  Ixvi. 

opinion  was  that  tli'e  roof  was  not  suitable  for  macliiues.  When 
it  was  introduced,  the  "  old  timers"  predicted  failure.  It  was 
(luite  possible  that  75  per  cent,  of  the  coal  produced  from  this 
mine  would  eventually  be  cut  by  machines. 

He  would  not  close  his  remarks  without  congratulating  Mr. 
Simon  Tate  upon  the  excellence  of  his  criticism  of  the  paper. 
If  Mr.  Tate's  statements  failed  to  convince  the  majority  that 
drastic  changes  were  necessary,  then  one  could  not  look  hope- 
fully to  the  future.  It  was  unfortunate  that  what  Mr.  Tate 
had  written  had  not  received  greater  publicity.  He  (Mr.  Dean) 
did  not  agree  with  his  statement  respecting  the  size  of  tubs  in 
new  pits.  If  he  (Mr.  Dean)  were  to  start  a  new  mine,  he  would 
aim  at  having  tubs  of  a  capacity  of  35  cwt.  or  2  tons,  instead 
of  15  cwt.  or  1  ton.  When  once  the  workman  learned  how  to 
re-rail  quickly  a  2-ton  car,  it  gave  him  very  little  trouble,  and 
brakes  enabled  a  man  to  handle  the  car  on  varying  gradients 
without  difficulty.  It  was  more  than  a  question  of  getting  a 
hewer's  work  out :  to  keep  him  supplied  with  an  unlimited 
number  of  10-cwt.  tubs  involved  the  services  of  an  excessive 
number  of  haulage  hands ;  and  in  a  large  mine,  where  all  the  coal 
was  undercut  by  machines  it  would  be,  to  use  Mr.  Hare's  words, 
"  practically  impossible  "  to  supply  the  filler  with  an  unlimited 
number  of  10-cwt  tubs.  When  face-conveyors  were  used,  10-cwt. 
tubs  were  out  of  the  question. 

Mr.  Samuel  Hare  (Bishop  Auckland)  said  that  he  was  sur- 
prised to  read  the  following  in  Mr.  Dean's  reply  to  his  (Mr. 
Hare's)  remarks  :  — 

"  He  was  inclined  to  believe  that  men  who  were  successfully  employing- 
bord-and-pillar  or  shortwall  machines  in  mines  with  difficult  pitches  and  bad 
roofs  would  not  place  the  blame  for  the  failure  mentioned  at  Mr.  Hare's  mine 
upon  the  American  operator." 

He  (Mr.  Hare)  thought  that  everyone  who  had  read  his  re- 
marks would  agree  that  he  had  no  intention  of  placing  the  blame 
on  the  operator,  but  that  he  quoted  the  case  in  question  in  order 
to  prove  that  the  conditions  of  English  mining  were  so  different 
from  those  prevailing  in  America  that  one  of  the  best  American 
operators  was  'unable  to  obtain  satisfactory  results  when  using 
one  of  the  latest  types  of  American  heading  machines.  Mr.  Dean 
then  stated  that  "  what  many  people  considered  the  best  short- 
wall  machine  in  America  was  not  advertised  in  Great  Britain, 


and  possibly  the  macliine  had  never  heen  used  iu  any  mme  in 
that  country."'  in  reply  to  which  he  (Mr.  Hare)  would  mention 
that  the  machine  used  was  made  by  what  he  was  informed  was 
the  largest  company  in  America  eng-aged  in  this  work,  and  he 
could  not  speak  too  highly  of  it.  He  would  also  mention  that  he 
had  several  long-wall  machines  in  use  made  by  the  same  firm, 
and  the  results  obtained  from  them  were  most  satisfactory. 

Mr.  Dean  also  referred  to  a  statement  which  he  (Mr.  Hare)  had 
made,  that  in  bord-and-pillar  working  it  was  ahsolutcJy  necessary 
to  use  naked  wires  in  order  to  move  the  machines  quickly  from 
place  to  place,  and  had  concluded  his  sentence  by  stating  that 
"Mr.  Hare  apparently  did  not  fully  understand  the  problem." 
If  this  were  correct,  then  he  could  onlj-  say  that  apparently  one, 
at  least,  of  the  best  American  operators  was  equally  ignorant, 
seeing  that  he  had  given  it  as  one  of  the  principal  reasons  for  his 
want  of  success  that  he  was  not  provided  with  naked  wires  for  the 
purpose  of  "flitting"  his  machine.  Mr.  Dean  had  then  ex- 
plained how  it  could  be  done  by  means  of  an  insulated  cable,  a 
method  which  every  novice  in  mining  fully  understood,  but  Mr. 
Dean  did  not  say  that  the  flitting  by  this  method  could  be  car- 
ried out  quickly. 

Although  (speaking  from  memory)  Mr.  Dean  had  not  given 
much  information  in  the  paper  as  to  whether  naked  wires  or 
insulated  cable  were  used  in  connexion  with  the  machine  de- 
scribed by  him,  he  (Mr.  Hare)  had  arrived  at  the  conclusion 
(assisted  by  the  illustrations)  that  bare  wires  were  being  used. 
If,  however,  Mr.  Dean,  with  a  better  knowledge  of  American 
mining  methods  than  he  (the  speaker)  could  claim  to  possess, 
stated  that  heading  machines  could  be  flitted  quite  satisfactorily 
by  insulated  cable,  then  he  was  bound  to  accept  that  statement, 
and  must  come  to  the  conclusion  that  the  different  conditions  at 
the  face  were  entirely  responsible  for  the  failure  of  this  particu- 
lar machine. 

Mr.  Dean  had  called  attention  to  the  Hutton  Seam  in  the 
County  of  Durham.  As  at  one  time  he  (Mr.  Hare)  had  been 
manager  of  the  largest  pit  in  the  county  working  the  Hutton 
Seam  extensively,  it  might  interest  Mr.  Dean  to  know  that  at 
this  particular  colliery,  and  at  most  of  the  others  with  which  he 
was  acquainted  where  the  Hutton  Seam  was  being  worked, 
neither  naked  nor  insulated  wires  of  any  description  would  be 

214     TRANSACTIONS- — THE   XORTII   OV    KXGLAXl)    INSTITUTE.    [Vol.  Ixvi. 

tolerated  in  any  part  of  the  mine.  How  then  could  any  compari- 
son be  made  between  the  output  per  man  from  the  Hutton  Seam 
■ — lying-  very  often  at  <ireat  depths,  witli  great  roof  pressures, 
and  also  witli  firedamp  present  in  larcje  qiiantities — and  machine- 
mining'  in  comi)aratively  shallow  mines  of  good  section,  where 
electricity  could  be  used  with  impunity  ? 

He  thought  that  he  might  fairly  dismiss  witliout  comment 
Mr.  Dean's  sug-gestion  that  the  operator  might  not  have  received 
sufficient  assistance  from  the  officials.  Needless  to  say,  every 
suggestion  made  by  the  operator  was  most  promptly  and  willingly 
acted  upon. 

Mr.  Dean  had  referred  to  his  (Mr.  Hare's)  allusion  to  the 
*'  vast  spaces  ''  containing  hardly  a  stick  of  timber,  but  Mr.  Dean 
himself  was  surely  responsible  for  any  one  arriving  at  that  con- 
clusion. A  glance  at  Figs.  27  to  32,  36,  38,  and  40  to  46,  would 
demonstrate  that  the  conditions  shown  in  these  illustrations 
could  not  possibly  be  found  in  any  English  colliery. 

Mr.  Dean  had  now  presented  three  additional  illustrations,  in 
an  attempt  to  prove  that  there  was  not  much  difference  between 
the  face  conditions  prevailing  in  England  and  in  America.  It  was 
not  necessary,  howcA^er,  to  examine  these  new  illustrations  very 
closely  to  find  that  Figs.l  and  2  were  not  views  of  face  workings 
such  as  those  shown  in  the  paper,  but  were  evidently  roadways, 
which  one  might  naturally  expect  to  be  timbered. 

As  to  Fig.  3,  it  was  the  only  illustration  out  of  seventeen  that 
showed  any  timber  at  all  at  the  working-face,  and  he  thought 
that  it  might  be  fairly  assumed  from  this  that  in  this  particular 
place  there  was  some  abnormality  present^ — possibly  a  fault  or 
hitch  which  had  affected  the  roof. 

In  comparing  American  and  English  mining  practices,  there 
were  several  other  points  that  Mr.  Dean  ought  to  have  taken  into 
consideration  before  making  such  sweeping  allegations — for 
instance,  the  gradients  met  with  in  both  countries.  He  (Mr. 
Hare)  had  always  understood  (and  here  again  the  illustrations 
would  bear  him  out)  that  the  American  Coal-Measures  were 
almost  horizontal,  whereas  in  Great  Britain  in  several  of  the 
coalfields  they  were  highly  inclined.  In  some  of  the  pits  under 
his  charge  the  gradients  varied  from  12  to  24  inches  per  yard, 
and  under  these  conditions  machine-mining  with  bad  roofs 
became  almost  an  impossibility-. 


In  couclusioii.  lie  could  only  repeat  what  Le  had  already  stated 
ill  coiiiiexion  with  Ameriean  mining-  practice  he  recognized  and 
adiuiieil  the  skill  shown  by  American  mining  engineers  in  the 
design  and  application  of  machinery  to  mining,  but,  at  the  same 
time,  he  claimed  that  Mr.  Dean  had  failed  absolutely  to  prove 
that  it  was  possible  to  obtain  anything  like  the  same  result-s  in 
Great  liritain.  even  bj'  applying  the  best  mining  machines,  and 
to  the  same  extent,  as  in  America. 

The  Pkesidext  (Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener)  said  that  it  must  be 
obA'ious  to  everybody  who  had  considered  the  matter  that  the  chief 
reason  why  the  output  per  man  in  the  American  coalfields  was  so 
much  larger  than  that  in  Eng-land  was  not  due  to  want  of  skill  on 
the  part  of  English  milling'  engineers,  but  to  the  dift'erent  condi- 
tions prevailing  in  the  two  countries.  America  was  now  in  very 
much  the  same  position  as  Britain  was  40  or  50  yearsS  ago.  The 
Americans  were  now  working  their  best  and  thickest  seams,  and, 
apart  from  that,  they  had  all  the  advantages  of  the  appliances 
that  had  been  discovered  during  the  last  30  years ;  they  had  also 
the  advantages  arising  from  the  use  of  electricity  and  other 
power;  and  these  were  sufficient  to  account  for  the  difference  in 
the  output  of  the  two  countries. 

He  gathered  that  there  was  a  very  general  idea  in  America 
that  the  use  of  large  tubs  was  the  solution  of  the  difficulties  with 
which  the}*  in  England  had  to  contend.  He  wondered  what  Mr. 
Dean  or  anj'one  else  would  say  to  the  use  of  large  tubs  of,  say,  2 
tons  capacity  in  the  thin  seams  which  were  being  worked  in 
various  parts  of  the  country  to-daj'.  Those  seams  varied  from  20 
to  22  inches  in  height,  and  he  thought  no  one  would  suggest  the 
use  of  trams  containing  2  tons  under  such  conditions.  To  begin 
with,  the  cost  of  making  the  roads  would  be  absolutely  prohibi- 
tive, even  assuming  that  it  was  only  necessary  to  make  roads 
every  100  yards.  The  idea  that  if  large  tubs  were  adopted  in 
Great  Britain  the  output  would  immediately  approach  that  of 
the  United  States  seemed  to  him  absurd  and  impracticable. 

He  did  not  know  why  reference  had  been  made  bj-  Mr.  Dean 
to  Bentley  Colliery,  because  it  was  perfectly  well  known  that  at 
Bentley  nothing  in  the  shape  of  electrical  machinery  was  admis- 
sible underground,  owing  to  the  quantity  of  gas  present.  He 
thought  that  this  went  to  show  the  impossibility  of  comparing 
the    results    obtained    in    one    country    with    those    obtained    in 

VOL    LXVI.— iril3-191«.  16  E 


another,  unless  it  was  ])()ssible  to  reproduce  the  same  conditions 
in   each  country. 

They  Avere  very  much  indebted  to  Mr.  Dean  for  l)riii<Ting  the 
paper  before  them;  it  was  certainly  a  paper  that  would  spur 
them  on  to  do  whatever  they  could  to  approach  more  nearly  to  the 
output  of  American  mines;  but  there  was  nothing  in  Mr.  Dean's 
paper  which  went  to  show  that  English  mininf?  eno-ineers  were 
lagging  behind,  either  in  the  adoption  of  labour-saving  plant  or 
in  other  scientific  appliances. 


Mr.  Percy  L.  AVood  (Clifton)  wrote  tliat,  in  his  opinion,  the 
lamp  battery  was  too  small ;  it  might  give  no  trouble  for 
a  short  period,  but  he  was  confident  that,  with  the  ordinary 
knocking  about  that  lamps  received  in  the  colliery,  it  would  not 
give  satisfaction  for  long.  His  experience  of  electric  lamps  was 
that  as  new  lamps  were  required  the  makers,  instead  of  supply- 
ing a  lighter  lamp,  recommended  an  increase  in  the  size  of  the 
battery.  This,  he  thought,  was  the  only  way  to  secure  a  reliable 


Mr.  Arnold  Lupton  (London)  wrote  that  doubtless  many 
advantages  would  result  from  the  standardization  of  pit-trams, 
but  there  were  many  difficulties  in  the  way.  As  the  conditions 
of  collieries  changed  every  day,  it  was  important  that  the  trams 
should  suit  the  special  circumstances  of  each  pit. 

The  exterior  dimensions  of  the  tram  were  governed,  amongst 
other  circumstances,  by  the  diameter  of  tlie  shaft,  the  most 
economical  width  of  the  roads,  the  height  of  the  working-place 
and  the  most  economical  height  of  the  roads,  the  gradient,  the 
habits  of  the  miners,  the  method  of  haulage,  and  tlie  most  con- 

*  Trans.  Inst.  M,  E.,  1916,  vol.  li.,  page  61. 
t  Ihid. ,  page  72. 

I'Jlo  I'JIG.]  DlSCrSSIOX THE    LOGIC   OF    TRAHS.  217 

veuient  wei^lit  of  the  loaded  and  empty  tram.  It  would  not  be 
economical  to  alter  the  dimensions,  as  fixed  by  the  foregoing- 
considerations,  for  the  sake  of  any  reduction  in  first  cost  of  the 
tram  or  of  repairs. 

In  mines  where  the  loaded  tram  moved  downhill,  the  cost  of 
haulage  was,  to  a  g-reat  extent,  measured  by  the  cost  of  g-etting- 
the  empty  tram  to  the  place  where  it  was  filled.  For  that 
reason  it  was  economical  to  make  a  tram  as  light  as  possible,  in 
proportion  to  tlie  weight  of  coal  that  it  contained.  It  was  also 
advisable  to  make  the  weight  of  coal  contained  in  a  tram  as  great 
as  possible,  having-  regard  to  the  external  dimensions,  because 
upon  these  external  dimensions  depended  the  space  occupied  by 
the  trams  in  the' mine  and  in  the  cage  for  any  g-iveu  output  of 

It  was  frequently  the  case  that  the  dimensions,  shape, 
material,  and  form  of  construction  of  a  tram  were  designed 
chiefly  to  save  first  cost  and  the  cost  of  repairs  of  a  given  number 
of  trams  ;  whereas  it  could  easily  be  shown  that,  where  sufficient 
capital  was  available,  the  first  cost  of  a  tram  and  the  cost  of  tram 
repairs  were  matters  of  much  less  importance  (having  regard  to 
the  total  costs  of  the  mine)  than  the  possession  of  a  tram  of  the 
best  possible  design  and  construction  (having  regard  to  the  cost 
of  haulage,  road  repairs,  and  outpnt).  A,  tram  which  held  10 
per  cent,  more  coal  for  a  given  weight  and  external  dimensions 
would  enable  the  manager  to  obtain  a  10-per-cent.  greater  output 
from  a  pit  in  which  the  colliers  were  able  to  fill  all  the  trams  that 
were  brouglit  to  them. 

A  tram  should  be  so  designed,  both  in  regard  to  construction 
and  lubrication  of  the  wheels  and  axles,  as  to  work  with  a  mini- 
mum amount  of  friction.  It  should  have  spring  buffers  (which 
he,  Mr.  Lupton,  had  designed  and  used),  and  the  body  of  the  tram 
should  be  carried  on  springs  if  it  were  found  possible  to  design 
suitable  springs  without  adding  unduly  to  the  weight  and  ex- 
ternal dimensions  of  the  tram.  Springs  reduced  the  breakage 
of  coal  in  transit  and  the  damage  to  the  trams  in  a  collision. 

An  ordinary  colliery  manager  was  reluctant  to  design  and 
order  the  best  possible  tram  for  fear  that  he  would  be  criticized 
for  the  expense  in  first  cost  and  repairs.  These  expenses  would 
be  obvious,  but  ecouimies  would  not ;  and  he  would  therefore 
prefer  the  experiment  to  be  made  by  someone  else. 

218     THANSACTIONS THE  .NOKTll  (tK  KX(;i,.VMJ  INSTITUTE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

Mr.  W.  It.  Peck  (Hi^'  Stone  (j:\]),  \"\v'/\uu\,  T'.S.A.)  wrote 
that  it  appeared  to  liiin  thai  the  author  had  "  i)ut  the  cart  before 
the  liorse,"  for,  iu  sufi'f^estmg  the  standardization  of  mine-trams 
and  track,  he  liad  placed  the  tram  first,  and  liad  o-iven  very  good 
reasons  for  so  doing:  hut,  in  order  to  rvacli  this  standard,  tlie 
track-gauge  sliouhl  first  of  all  he  considered,  and  it  onght  to  a 
greater  or  less  extent  govern  the  size  of  the  tram.  The  height, 
width,  and  length  of  the  tram  could  he  varied  and  still  maintain 
a  (dose  approximation  to  the  standard  ;  hut,  owing  to  the  modern- 
ization of  haulage,  locomotives,  and  mining  machinery,  and  to 
the  near  approach  of  the  time  when  steel  ties  would  replace  those 
made  of  wood,  and  steel  would  replace  wood  in  timbering,  it 
seemed  conclusive  that  a  track-gauge  standard  should  come  first. 
In  considering  this  point,  one  must  not  only  think  of  the  coal 
that  would  come  over  the  track,  but  also  of  every  piece  of  machin- 
eiy  that  could  be  used  to  advantage  in  the  recovery  of  the  coal. 
The  day  had  now  arrived  in  the  Ignited  States  when  the  mining 
company  that  neglected  its  underground  transportation  lost  divi- 
dends for  its  stockholders. 

The  secret  of  successful  mining  was  primarily  successful 
transportation  ;  this  statement  was  true  in  almost  all  industries  : 
it  was  easy  enough  to  grow  grain,  but  if  it  could  not  be  taken 
to  the  market  cheaply  and  readily,  all  the  profits  would  be  lost. 
The  coal  in  the  ground  cost  but  little  :  for  a  snmll  price  it  could 
be  dug  and  loaded  on  to  the  tram,  and  for  a  certain  price 
the  railroad  or  steamship  lines  would  haul  it  away;  but  was  it 
easy  to  get  this  coal  from  the  working-face  to  the  railroad-car  ^ 
The  complexities  of  underground  transportation  in  a  mine  of  the 
present  day  were  such  that  they  would  baffle  the  ingenuity  of 
many  a  railway  traffic  superintendent  if  he  were  called  upon 
suddenly  to  tackle  the  problem  in  a  mine. 

It  was  necessary,  therefore,  to  establish  not  only  a  standard 
gauge  for  the  track,  but  one  that  would  and  could  be  satisfac- 
torily used  throughout,  both  underground  and  at  the  surface. 
One  could  not  hope  to  meet  all  conditions,  but  the  endeavour,  in 
the  selection  of  the  standard  track-gauge,  should  be  to  approach 
as  near  the  ideal  as  possible. 

Mr.  Gibson  had  recommended  a  'gauge  of  24  inches ;  but  such 
a  gauge  was  too  narrow.  This  particular  gauge  had  been  de- 
cided upon  for  two  reasons — the  man  power,  and  the  width  of  the 

1915-1016.]  DISCUSSIOX — THE    LOGIC  OF    TRAMS.  219 

gate-road.  Given  a  car  or  tram  of  the  same  weight,  a  man  could 
push  it  a.s  easily  on  a  gauge  of  42  inches  as  on  a  24-inch  gauge; 
and  if  proper  pack-walls  and  cribs  were  built  in  longwall  mining, 
and  proper  timbering  were  used  in  the  room-and-pillar  work,  a 
track-gauge  of  42  inches  could  be  maintained  as  well  as  one  of 
24.  Perhaps  the  cost  of  the  pack-walls  and  the  timbering  would 
be  greater  with  the  witle  than  with  the  narrow  gauge;  but  the 
saving-  in  transportation  and  capital  invested  would  more  than 
ottset  this  extra  expense.  It  was  true  that  a  tram  for  the  wide 
gauge  would  have  a  greater  dead  weight  than  the  tram  for  the 
narrow  gauge,  but  it  had  been  proved  in  America  that  the  ad- 
vantage was  with  the  wider  gauge.  In  the  selection  of  this 
standard  track-gauge  and  tram,  one  must  not  lose  sight  of  the 
fact  that  the  day  of  man  power,  and,  to  a  large  extent,  horse- 
power, for  haulage  was  gone.  Electric  and  gasolene  power  was 
employed  in  America,  not  only  on  the  main  haulage-roads,  but 
at  the  very  working-face.  This  fact  demanded  larger  trams  :  if 
the  coal-bed  was  thin,  a  wide,  long,  but  low  tram  was  used;  if 
thick,  not  only  a  wide  and  long,  but  high  tram  was  employed. 
The  miner  would  not  have  to  handle  it,  as  it  would  be  placed  for 
him  by  mechanical  power. 

The  general  idea  of  Mr.  Gibson's  paper  was  good  :  standard- 
ization was  the  keynote  of  the  times,  and  this  had  resulted  in 
large  savings  being  effected  in  many  other  industries,  as  it  would 
in  mining  if  properly  applied.  A  broad  standard  gauge  should 
be  established — not  to  safeguard  the  mine-tram  as  it  existed  to- 
day, but  for  the  standard  tram  of  the  near  future.  This  standard 
tram  should  be  such  that,  even  in  the  thin  seams,  its  capacity 
would  not  be  less  than  1,000  pounds,  and  his  (Mr.  Peck's)  prefer- 
ence was  for  one  of  at  least  twice  that  capacity.  Trams  of  a 
capacity  ranging  from  2,000  to  2,500  pounds  were  being  used  in 
mines  in  America  in  >seams  from  24  to  30  inches  thick.  The 
trams  were  very  low.  but  long  and  wide,  witli  small  wheels. 

The  suggestion  that  mine-rails  should  be  manufactured  in 
multiple  units  was  very  good,  and,  if  adopted,  would  result  in 
the  saving  of  much  time  and  money  in  the  laying  and  mainten- 
ance of  the  track. 

He  gathered  from  Mr.  Gibson's  paper  that  it  was  thought 
that  American  mine-operators  paid  more  attention  to  the  track 
than  was  the  case  in  Great  Britain.  This  might  be  on  account 
of  the  entirely  diiferent  mining  conditions,  but  very  likely  it  was 

220     TH.VXSACTIONS THE  NORTH  OK  K.N(il,AM)  LVSTITITE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

due  more  lu  the  f'lict  that  in  America  a  larger  tram  aud  more 
mining-  macliinery  were  used.  For  tliis  reason  American  mining 
engineers  liad  adhered  to  the  wide-track  gauge,  and  had  en- 
deavoured to  make  tlieir  mine-tracks  compare  favourably  with 
the  railway-tracks.  Mr.  (jihson  liad  spoken  of  the  desirability 
of  small  trams,  on  account  of  the  rio-ht-angled  turns  and  short- 
<'rassings  that  were  encountered.  A  great  many  of  the  American 
mines  turned  their  rooms  at  right-angles,  but  switches  were  put 
in,  the  same  standard  switch  being  used  throughout  the  mine, 
so  that  the  small  gathering  motors  had  no  trouble  in  taking  these 
.switches.  Man  power  for  haulage  had  disappeai'ed  in  America  ; 
it  was  cheaper  to  use  mechanical  haulage  even  at  the  working- 
face,  and  therefore  American  mines  had  introduced  a  wide  gauge 
and  a  large  car  or  tram,  with  the  result  that  the  miner  as  well 
as  the  operator  realized  the  benetit.  American  mines  had  not 
iis  yet  standardized  their  tracks  or  their  cars,  but  such  stan- 
dardization would  come  in  the  near  future. 

His  criticism  of  Mr.  Gibson's  paper  was  based  entirely  on 
mining  conditions  as  they  existed  in  America,  and  probably 
would  not  fit  the  present  conditions  of  English  mines.  One 
must  remember,  however,  that  the  standard  track  and  tram 
ought  not  be  made  to  suit  the  mine  conditions  of  yesterday, 
or  even  of  to-day,  but,  rather,  the  mistakes  discovered  in  the 
past  and  present  should  be  taken  into  account,  and  tracks  and 
trams  designed  that  would  be  suitable  for  the  mines  of  the 

Mr.  Samuel  Dean  (Deh^gua,  Colorado,  U.S.A.)  wrote  that 
the  paper  should  only  be  the  first  of  a  series  dealing  with  the 
mine-tram,  because  it  would  take  considerable  time  to  arrive  at 
anything  definite  in  regard  to  standardization. 

There  were  no  standard  mine-cars  in  America.  He 
had  agitated  for  them  for  the  last  18  months ;  but  the  American 
mining  engineer  had  the  consolation  of  knowing  that  his  cars 
or  trams  were  generally  large  enough  for  his  purpose.  The 
British  mining  engineer,  on  the  other  hand,  was  in  a  dilemma  ; 
lie  had  "  cut  "  his  pit  according  to  his  car,  and,  as  his  car  was 
usually  ridiculously  small,  his  output  per  man  was  in  the  same 

Mr.  Gibson  had  stated  that  at  one  British  colliery  a  2-ton 
tram  might  be  used,  while  at  another,  under  not  dissimilar  con- 

1915-1916.]  DISCUSSIOX       THE    LOGIC  OF   TRAMS.  221 

<litioiis,  ;i  tram  to  carry  only  4  cwts.  niig'bt  be  employed.  By 
"  stepping-  u]),"  a  similar  comparison  could  be  drawn  in  America. 
A  -'iO-cwt.  car  could  be  seen  in  one  mine,  and  a  4-ton  ear  in 
anotlier,  yet  the  thickness  and  pitch  of  the  seam,  and  the  nature 
of  the  roof  and  floor,  would  be  similar  in  both  mines.  The  more 
one  considered  the  mine-tram  problem,  the  more  one  realized 
that  some  mining  engineers  or  "  practical  mining  men "  had 
overlooked  something  of  vital  importance  in  this  connexion. 

Mr.  Gibson  had  asserted  that  if  coal  had  to  be  moved  10 
feet,  or  10  yards,  or  100  yards,  the  best  methods  to  employ 
would  be  shovelling,  wheel-barrowing,  and  tramming  respective- 
ly:  but  it  all  depended  upon  the  quantity  of  coal  to  be  moved. 
A  large  quantity  of  coal,  or  of  earth  on  the  surface  after 
ploughing,  could  be  moved  more  quickly  and  cheaply  by 
"scraping"  than  by  shovelling  or  wheeling.  By  "scraping" 
he  (Mr.  Dean)  meant  the  use  of  a  scraper,  holding  about  a 
ton,  drawn  by  a  team  of  mules.  As  the  quantity  of  material 
and  the  distance  increased,  the  use  of  steam-shovels,  loco- 
motives, and  side  or  end-tipping  wagons  became  justified. 

He  would  ask  Mr.  Gibson  to  explain  why  it  was  necessary 
to  turn  gate-roads  off  crossgates  at  right-angles?  The  turn- 
plate  and  the  flat-sheet  were,  in  his  opinion,  old-fashioned, 
and  should  not  be  employed  in  modern  mines.  When  a  tram 
left  the  rails  on  one  side  of  a  flat-sheet,  the  man  who  pushed 
it  was  often  delayed  some  little  time  in  his  eft'ort  to  find  the 
rails  on  the  other  side,  and  these  short  delays  mounted  up 
considerably  at  the  end  of  a  day,  a  week,  or  a  year.  These 
sharp  right-angled  turns  also  prevented  the  use  of  a  long  tram. 
This  was  an  important  point,  when  it  was  remembered  that 
what  was  wanted  was  length  and  width,   not  height. 

\It.  Gibson  had  also  stated  that  "  in  gate-roads  it  is  .  .  . 
cheaper  to  draw  by  hand  to  the  limit  of  inclination,  rather 
than  resort  to  self-acting  inclines  of  any  kind."  This,  how- 
ever, was  a  matter  needing  much  concentrated  thought.  Was 
there  no  other  way  of  conveying  the  coal  to  the  levels?  Could 
gateway  conveyors  not  be  used,  and  the  drawers  sent  to  do 
other  and  more  useful  work?  Mr.  Gibson  spoke  of  drawing 
to  a  "  lye  "  500  yards  out-bye.  This  meant  (if  10-cwt.  trams 
were  used)  that  a  drawer  would  have  to  travel  a  distance  of 
1,000  vards  for  half  a  ton   of  coal,   or  2,000  yards  for  a   ton. 

222     TRAiVSACTIOXS THE    NORTH    OF    K.V(;LA\I)    IXSriirTK.      [Vol    Ixvi. 

Such  ;ui  ariaiiyeiufiit  appeared  to  be  an  amazing'  waste  of  time 
and  energ-y,  and  it  was  therefore  not  at  all  surprising-  that 
tJie  national  output  per  man  was  low. 

The  g-eneral  lay-out  of  the  mine  working's  appeared  to  be 
groverned  by  the  size  of  the  tram.  If  a  nutnager  in  America 
•were  about  to  open  a  seam  3  feet  thicdc,  pitching  10  degrees^ 
he  Avould  reason  somewhat  like  this:  "I  shall  have  to  work 
the  seam  in  a  certain  way,  because  I  shall  have  to  use  the 
2-tou  cars  sent  here  from  an  abandoned  mine."  His  cars 
would  thus  govern  his  method  of  working  underground,  and 
it  was  a  foregone  conclusion  that  the  cars  would  not  be  pushed 
between  the  "lye"  and  the  working-face,  whilst  his  output  per 
mail  would  be  higher  from  this  seam  than  the  average  pro- 
duction from  a  seam  of  the  same  thickness  in  any  other 

This  brought  one  to  a  consideration  of  the  following  plain 
question  : — If  the  seam  were  -3  feet  thick,  and  it  was  proposed  to 
use  trams  of  a  capacity  of  2  tons,  how  must  the  workings  be  laid 
out  in  pitches  of  -i,  (J,  9,  12,  or  24  degrees  to  allow  of  the  trams 
being  moved  with  the  minimum  amount  of  physical  power 
and  the  maximum  conservation  of  time?  That  was  a  question 
which  only  a  man  with  very  wide  experience  could  answer,, 
unless  he  were  given  time  to  find  out  how-  seams  3  feet  thick 
on  these  different  pitches  were  being  worked  in  modern  mines 
in  all  parts  of  the  country.  When  it  was  remembered  how 
difticult  it  was  for  one  to  obtain  information  (sometimes  one  was 
not  permitted  even  to  look  at  the  surface  arrangements  of 
a  colliery),  the  value  of  friendly  co-operation  between  different 
countries  would  be  realized.  Many  men,  who  could  throw 
light  on  this  problem,  would  read  the  present  discussion,  but,, 
from  a  false  sense  of  their  duty,  or  on  account  of  their  lethargy, 
would  remain  silent.  These  were  the  men  who  received,  but 
seldom  gave. 

Where  main  gates  dipped  to  the  face,  small  hoists  at  the 
top  would  handle  very  satisfactorily  single  cars  of  a  capacity 
of  2  tons;  and  if  the  "level"  gateways  dipped  slightly  to  the 
face,  the  lad  {it  the  end  of  the  rope  could  easily  push  the  empty 
to  the  face  by  pulling  in  the  light  flexible  rope  that  passed 
round  the  centre  pulley  at  the  switch.  When  the  tram  reached 
the  face,  it  was  switched  on  to  a  movable -side-track  and  the 
rope    hooked    on    to    the   loaded    tram,    which    was    then    pulled 

1915-1916.  J  DISCUSSIOX — ^THE   LOGIC   OF   TEAMS.  22ii 

out.  The  extra  width  of  gateway  wa.s  only  required  for  a 
short  distance  back  from  the  face.  As  the  switch  or  crossing- 
was  moved  forward,  the  space  behind  could  be  gobbed  with 
debris.  This,  of  course,  meant  extra  width  of  brushing,  and 
might  be  objectionable  in  some  mines.  The  alternative,  then, 
was  to  have  short  gateways  and  to  have  the  rope  to  pull  the  trams 
and  deliver  them  to  the  mouth  of  each  gateway,  the  trams  being 
jjushed  by  hand  over  the  short  distance  between  the  dip-road  and 
the  face.  The  amount  of  time  consumed  in  pushing  or  draw- 
ing was  not  serious,  because  with  2-ton  cars  it  was  only  neces- 
sary to  travel  between  the  dip-road  and  the  face  of  each  place 
a  few  times  a  day,  the  track  being  laid  just  slightly  in  favour 
of  the  loads  on  the  levels. 

In  America  drawers  or  putters  were  not  employed,  and 
in  20-foot  rooms  that  were  worked  double  (two  men)  the  driver 
often  left  the  empty  tub  at  the  room-neck  and  the  two  men 
pushed  it  to  the  face.  On  his  next  journey  the  driver  left  his 
empty  at  the  same  place,  took  his  mule  to  the  face,  and  pulled 
out  the  loaded  car;  or,  if  the  place  were  driven  in  favour  of 
the  load,  and  was  too  low  for  the  mule,  one  of  the  miners 
"  dropped  "'  the  loaded  car  down  to  the  switch,  riding  behind 
on  the  bumpers,  and  gently  applied  the  brakes  when  required: 
he  also  used  the  brakes  to  stop  the  car.  Frequently  the  driver 
took  two  empties  from  the  flat  or  parting,  left  them  at  adjoin- 
ing room-necks,  and  returned  with  two  loaded  cars.  If  the 
cars  were  not  too  heavy,  and  he  had  a  strong  mule,  he  could 
handle  three  or  four  cars  at  a  time. 

Mr.  Gibson  had  stated  that  "  brakes  were  inadmissible," 
but  in  this  instance  he  had  made  a  serious  mistake.  In  the  case 
of  80-cwt.  or  2-ton  cars,  brakes  were  indispensable,  and  no  man 
who  had  used  them  would  willingly  go  back  to  the  "  mediaeval  "' 
method  of  using  "  sprags  "   or  "  lockers.'' 

He  (Mr.  Dean)  would  warn  anyone  who  contemplated  using 
large  cars  not  to  strive  unduly  after  lightness.  Some  of  the 
most  serviceable  cars  of  2  tons  capacity  weighed  about  a  ton, 
although  by  using  the  very  best  material  in  the  wheels  and 
axles  this  weight  might  possibly  be  reduced  a  little. 

He  prefeired  the  term  "switch"  to  "short-crossing,"  and 
there  was  no  necessity  to  use  two  words  when  one  sufficed.  He 
pieferred     "frog"     to     "heart,"     and     "latches"     instead     of 

224     TUAXSACTIONS — THE  NOIMII  OK  KN(;i.AND  INSTITUTE.      fVol.  Ixvi. 

■'  wings."'  At  looin-iietks  fast  i)()iiits  were  generally  laid,  and 
the  man  wlio  jjushed  the  car  a])i)lit'd  side  pressure  to  turn  it  to 
the  right  or  to  the  left.  He  was  glad  to  see  that  Mr.  Gibson  had 
adopted  the  word  "  track,''  but  for  heavy  tracks  nails  were  in- 
admissible, and  spikes  or  dog-s  must  be  used.  Steel  .sleepers  or 
"  ties  ''  were  preferable  to  those  made  of  wood  in  low  roadways. 
Such  sleepers  had  already  passed  the  experimental  stage,  and 
where  heavy  coal-cutters  were  used  they  tended  to  hold  the 
track  to  the  proper  gauge.  He  did  not  think  it  wise  to  adopt  a 
standard  rail-length  of  -i  feet  for  heavy  traffic.  He  disagreed 
with  the  suggestion  of  a  track-gauge  of  24  inches  for  trams  of 
2  tons  capacity,  and  considered  that  the  minimum  gauge  should 
be  36  inches. 

It  would  appear  that  there  was  room  for  much  improve- 
ment in  railway  equipment.  A  country  that  used  10  and  12- 
ton  railway-wagons  would  feel  the  effects  of  world  competition 
later  on.  In  1900  the  Pennsylvania  Eailway  scrapped  and 
burned  all  wagons  of  a  carrying  capacity  under  40  tons,  regard- 
less of  their  condition.  The  Xorfolk  &  Western  Eailway  now 
used  '"  hopper  '"  wagons  of  100  tons  capacity. 

Mr.  Gibson's  suggestion  that  cages,  headgears,  etc.,  should 
be  standardized  was  excellent,  provided  that  matters  were  so 
arranged  that  later  improvements  could  be  incorporated  in  the 
standard  design  :  but,  when  he  spoke  of  the  Germans  being  beaten 
at  their  own  game,  he  left  the  impression  that  some  stupendous 
revolution  would  be  necessary  to  bring  that  change  about. 

In  conclusion,  he  would  suggest  that  mining  engineers  in 
South  Wales  would  be  merely  doing  their  duty  if  they  described 
how  they  handled  their  large  trams  under  the  different  work- 
ing conditions  that  prevailed  in  that  coalfield. 

Mr.  Ealph  W.  Mayer  (Eoslyn,  Washington,  US. A..)  wrote 
that  the  better  an  American  mine  was  managed,  the  less  \Tas 
the  tramming  done  by  manual  power.  Animal  or  mechanical 
haulage  was  cheaper  and  quicker,  and  resulted  in  a  much  larger 
output  than  would  be  the  case  if  the  cars  were  moved  by 
manual  power  to  any  considerable  extent.  A  large  tonnage  of 
coal  could  thus  be  produced  on  a  smaller  initial  investment  for 
mine  development  and  equipment.  The  workings  would  be 
more  compact  and  more  easily  supervised.  The  expense  of  main- 
taining the  roads,  timbering,  etc..  was  less  for  the  smaller  area 

1915-1916.]  DISCUSSION" — THE    LOGIC  OF   TRAMS.  225 

than  it  would  he  if  a  huge  area  were  necessary  to  produce  the 
required  tonnagre,  on  account  of  an  inadequate  hauhige  system, 
«uch  as  tramming  by  man  power.  The  steamers  in  the  Orient 
were  coaled  by  men  and  women,  who  packed  the  coal  aboard 
the  boat  in  baskets,  for  which  labour  they  received  from  :i  to  12 
cents  a  day.  In  similar  circumstances,  and  with  cheap  wages, 
it  was  barely  possible  that  tiamniing  by  man  power  could  com- 
pete successfully  with  well-equipped  mechanical  haulage.  The 
coal-miners  of  the  United  States,  particularly  those  in  the  west, 
were  comparatively  well  paid,  yet  the  tonnage  cost  of  the  coal 
produced  there  compared  very  favourably  with  that  at  mines 
which  were  not  operated  with  the  latest  mechanical  equipment. 
It  was  unlawful  in  most  of  the  States  to  emploj'  underground 
bojs  less  than  16. years  of  age,  and  to  put  these  young  boys  at 
tramming"  cars — work  which  was  beyond  their  strength — was 
questionable,  both  from  the  economic  and  the  humanitarian 

In  American  mines,  when  the  seams  had  sufficient  pitch,  the 
coal  was  run  from  the  working-face  to  the  entry  down  shoots, 
sheet-iron  being  used  when  necessary  to  make  the  coal  slide  more 
easily,  and  it  was  then  loaded  from  the  shoots  into  the  cars  at 
the  entry.  In  seams  where  the  pitch  was  insufficient  to  enable 
the  coal  to  slide  down  the  shoots,  gravity  planes  nere  used.  As 
the  loaded  car  descended  from  the  working-face  to  the  entry,  it 
hauled  the  empty  car  from  the  entry  up  to  the  working-face. 
AVhen  the  roof  was  sufficiently  high,  animal  haulage  was  some- 
times  used  in  the   rooms. 

Locomotives  which  could  be  operated  in  very  low  seams 
were  now  manufactured.  The  gathering  locomotives  obtained 
their  power  from  compressed-air  storage-batteries,  or  from  a 
•cable  hooked  over  the  trolley-wire  ou  the  entry,  and  unreeled 
from  the  locomotive  as  it  entered  the  room.  Very  few  seams 
were  so  low  that  some  type  of  these  locomotives  could  not  be 
profitably  worked  ;  and,  even  if  some  of  the  roof  had  to  be  taken 
down  for  the  purpose,  this  method  was  considered  more  econo- 
mical than  tramming  by  man  power. 

Turntables  were  antiquated  and  out  of  date  in  any  well- 
managed  mine.  They  caused  the  loss  of  too  much  time  and  too 
much  hard  unnecessary  work.  Their  use  might  be  excused  in 
■driving  some  prospect  in  order  to  determine  the  value  of  a  seam, 

22(1     TR.A.XSACTIOXS — THE    NORTH    OF    KXGLAXD    INSTITUTE.     [Vol    Ixvi. 

but  not  in  a  workiup-  uiiiie.  Curves  and  swittlies  were  in  almost 
universal  use. 

Andrew  Carnegie  did  not  hesitate  to  scrap  machinery,  even 
if  it  had  never  beeu  used,  when  some  other  machine  which  would 
do  the  work  more  cheaply  and  better  was  invented,  and  he  made 
money  by  doing  so.  Many  mine-operators  would  do  well  to 
follow  his  example  and  scrap  their  old  cars,  which  had  worn 
bearings,  and  were  of  an  old  style,  instead  of  taking  them  for 
use  at  a  new  colliery.  The  use  of  the  old  cars  was  economical, 
in  that  it  saved  cars,  but  probably  very  extravagant  in  tonnage 
cost  of  haulage,  when  compared  with  more  modern  cars  having 
ball  or  roller-bearings  and  all  the  latest  improvements.  Car 
wheels,  of  large  diameter,  had  a  smaller  coefficient  of  friction, 
and  consequently  helped  to  reduce  haulage  costs.  When  ball- 
bearing cars,  with  modern  oiling  devices,  were  used,  the  addi- 
tional amount  of  coal  that  a  locomotive  could  pull  would  repay 
the  cost  of  the  cars  in  a  short  time,  and  make  the  scrapping  of 
the  old  cars  an  economy. 

Steel  rails,  the  bolt-holes  in  the  rails,  bolts,  fishplates,  etc.. 
were  all  standardized  in  America,  and  a  damaged  rail  could  be 
removed  and  immediately  leplaced  by  another  which  was  an 
exact  duplicate.  The  different  gauges  of  the  cars  were  to  a 
large  extent  standardized  by  the  manufacturers  also.  The  car- 
boxes  for  the  coal-mines  were  generally  made  of  wood.  They 
were  moie  easily  lepaired.  and  less  work  was  entailed  in  clearing 
up  a  wreck  than  when  the  boxes  were  made  from  any  other 
material.  Steel  boxes  bent,  and  if  they  broke  a  more  expensive 
repair  plant  was  necessary  than  in  the  case  of  wooden  boxes, 
although  steel  boxes  were  used  largely  in  metal-mines  and  also  in 
some  coal-mines.  Car-brakes  were  much  used  in  some  dis- 
tricts, and  if  simple  in  construction  and  well  made  would  stand 
very  rough  usage.  Possibly  they  were  not  often  necessary. 
Cars  having  short  wheel-bases  were  much  more  easily  replaced  on 
the  track  if  derailed  than  those  that  had  long  wheel-bases.  AVhen 
the  tracks  near  the  working-face  were  bad.  the  best  plan  was 
to  make  the  track-layers  do  better  work,  or  else  get  new  track- 
layers. .Steel  sleepers  were  good,  but  they  also  required  to  be 
carefully  laid.  It  was  inconceiAable  that  any  well-regulated  and 
managed  mine  would  lay  a  curve  having  an  awkward  twist  in  it 
such  as  that  illustrated  in  Fig.  4  (Plate  III.).     It  was  not  advis- 

1915-1916.]  DISCISSION- — THE    LOGIC  OF   TRAMS.  22/ 

able  to  patch  a  track  witii  slioit  piece.>  of  rail,  but  where  thi>.  was 
necessary  wood  shouhi  hot  be  used,  as  it  was  impossible  to  make 
a  good  track  for  the  haulage  of  heavy  loads  with  wooden  paich- 
work.  Short  pieces  of  steel  rails,  with  ties  laid  underneath  them, 
and  having  bolt-holes  drilled  in  each  end,  should  be  u.sed.  They 
should  be  fastened  to  the  longer  length  of  rails  by  means  of 
fishplates  and  bolts,  in  the  same  manner  as  any  other  rail-joint 
was  made. 

Mr.  James  Ashworth  (Vancouver.  British  Columbia)  wrote 
that  the  paper  lost  interest  because  Mr.  Gib.son  had  not  given 
detailed  plans  of  any  one  of  the  standard  sizes  of  trams  ad- 
vocated. He  (Mr.  Ashworth)  was  of  opinion  that  the  early 
introduction  of  standardized  dimensions  for  either  trams  or 
"  track  ""  was  most  unlikely.  In  the  tabulated  dimensions  given 
by  Mr.  Gibson,  the  largest  tram  had  a  depth  of  only  28  inches 
and  a  height  over  all  of  46  inches,  whereas  it  seemed  desirable 
to  fix  both  a  maximum  and  a  minimum  standard  height  in 
order  to  meet  his  views  with  respect  to  the  size  of  the  proposed 

Ill  Mr.  Gibson's  note  on  the  circumstances  that  governed 
the  size  of  the  tram,  he  did  not  appear  to  have  devoted  sufficient 
attention  to  the  question  of  ventilation,  the  depth  of  the  mine, 
and  the  character  of  the  roof  and  floor:  consequently,  he  erred 
when  stating  that  the  tram  governed  the  size  of  the  road.  Mr. 
Gibson's  plea  for  a  one-clause  Mines  Amending  Act  was  cer- 
tainly more  than  a  sui'prise,  and  most  mining  engineers  would 
be  of  opinion  that  the  Secretary  of  State  could  occupy  his  time 
much  more  usefi.ily  than  in  considering  the  question  of  the 
standardization  of  the  gauges  of  rails — a  matter  which  had  no 
material  influence  on  the  safety  of  the  mine  or  on  the  lives  of 
the  miners  working  therein.  It  did  appear  to  him  that  the 
standardization  propo.sed  by  Mr.  Gib.son  would  not  add  to 
"national  efficiency"  and  reduce  the  of  production,  or 
that  in  any  economic  war  which  was  likely  to  ensue  British 
mining  engineers  would  not  be  able  to  beat  the  enemy. 

Mr.  JoH.v  GiBSOX  (Kilmarnock)  wrote  that  Messrs.  Peck's. 
Dean's,  and  Mayer's  contributions  might  be  fairly  sumniarized 
in  the  words  of  31  r.  Price  Collier,  a  well-known  American 
observer,  that  ""  England  is  the  land,  not  of  logic,  but  of  com- 


promise. '"  This  (licluui  was  io  some  extent  borne  out  by  the  dis- 
eiussion,  for  wlieieas  tlie  American  critics  were  keen  supporters 
of  standardization,  or  of  anytliin<>'  else  likely  to  reduce  cost,  tliose 
in  Ihitaiu  were  cautious  and  doubtful  of  supporting-  anj'  far- 
reaching  departure  from   usual   practice. 

Englishmen  used  small  trams;  but  this  was  more  likely  to  be 
due  to  conservatism  than  to  lack  of  logical  sequence.  Ameri- 
cans used  large  trams;  but  this  indicated  a  dift'erence  from 
British  pra.ctice  wliich  was  not  necessarily  better  or  more  log'ical. 
Further.  American  practice  lacked  uniformity,  just  as  in  Great 
Britain.  On  the  one  hand,  the  trams  varied  from  large  to  very 
large,  and  on  the  other  from  large  to  very  small.  His  own  con- 
tention was  that,  for  every  particular  set  of  conditions,  a  tram  of  a 
certain  size  was  most  suitable,  that  by  standardization  the  train 
approximately  most  suitable  to  a  given  set  of  conditions  was 
easily  procurable,  and  that  change  was  easy  if  an  error  were  made 
or  if  the  conditions  altered. 

He  was  afraid  that  Messrs.  Dean  and  Mayer  had  not  safe- 
guarded themselves  ag-ainst  the  fallacy  of  supposing-  that  a  prin- 
ciple true  in  the  abstract  must  hold  good  in  all  sets  of  circum- 
stances. Mr.  Dean,  for  example,  had  stated  in  effect  that :  (1) 
not  only  did  larg'e  trams  suit  American  conditions  (with  which 
he  was  presumably  familiar),  but  also  Indian,  Chinese,  Aus- 
tralian, and  all  other  conditions.  (2)  That  in  extreme  cases  in 
Scotland  trams  were  hand-drawn  for  500  yards,  which  as  a 
g-eneral  practice  was  indefensible  ;  but  Mr.  Dean  had  also  asserted 
that  it  was  wrong"  in  any  case,  which  showed  quite  clearly  that 
he  had  not  considered  an  extreme  case.  (3)  Mr.  Dean,  with 
justifiable  pride,  had  stated  that  "a  country  that  used  10  and 
12-ton  railway-wag'ons  would  feel  the  effects  of  world  competition 
later  on.  In  1900  the  Pennsylvania  Railway  scrapped  and 
burned  all  wagons  of  a  carrying  capacity  under  40  tons."  In  a 
huge  country  such  a  course  was  good  business ;  but  would  Mr. 
Dean  urge  such  a  policy  for  Scotland,  Avhere  the  bulk  of  the 
coal  was  burned  or  shipped  not  50  miles  from  where  it  was  mined? 
In  the  same  way,  would  he  hold  that  because  a  40,000-ton  liner 
was  suitable  as  an  Atlantic  ferry  it  would  be  suitable  as  a  ferry- 
boat on  the  Tyne,  Clyde,  or  Mersey?  It  would  be  unkind  to 
press  further  this  aspect  of  American  criticism. 

Mining  ■engineers  in  Great  Britain  had  much  to  learn  from 

1915-1916]  DISCUSSION      THE   LOGIC  OF   TRAMS.  229 

their  American  friends,  and  possibly  the  best  way  to  obtain  help 
was  for  the  former  to  lay  before  tlie  latter  the  chief  features  of 
their  particular  difficulties.  The  extreme  case  for  the  small  tram 
would,  then,  of  course,  be  brought  into  relief,  as  under:  — 

(1)  Great  Britain  was  a  very  old  mining  country,  and  one 
result  of  this  was  that  nearly  all  the  easily-won  seams  were  ex- 
hausted. Let  them  take  as  an  example  an  old  colliery  with  six 
seams,  and  see  how  the  preceding  generations  had  worked  them. 
The  collieries  being  financial,  and  not  philanthropic  concerns, 
the  seam  or  seams  most  in  demand  and  cheapest  to  work  were  first 
attacked.  The  present-day  conditions  might  be  as  follows:  — 
Xo.  1  (the  top)  seam  was  of  poor  quality,  and  the  roof  was  much 
racked  througli  tlie  working  of  the  lower  seams.  The  good 
seams  (Xos.  2,  -j.  4,  and  5)  were  exhausted,  except  for  small  areas 
in  troubled  ground,  to  be  won  through  cross-cut  mines.  Xo.  6 
was  a  thin  seaiu  liable  to  inundations  from  waste  ground  over- 
head. Blackdamp  or  firedamp  and  water  were  plentiful.  In  one 
case  within  his  knowledge  a  preceding  generation  had  extracted 
TO  per  cent,  of  a  5-foot  seam,  and  had  then  abandoned  it.  The 
present  working  was  like  an  uncharted  archipelago  of  small 
islands  of  coal  surrounded  by  seas  of  dirt.  Even  the  dross  and 
dust  left  behind  by  the  old  miners  was  carefully  extracted, 
washed,  and  put  on  the  market. 

As  a  general  proposition,  it  would  be  admitted  that  to  make 
a  colliery  of  this  kind  pav  required  not  only  push  and  go,  but 
thrift,  carefulness,  and  caution.  Any  wild-cat  scheme  of  develop- 
ment or  equipment  would  surely  end  in  bankruptcy. 

With  regard  to  Mr.  Mayer's  sweeping  dictum  that  "  turn- 
tables were  antiquated  and  out  of  date  in  any  well-managed 
mine,"  he  (Mr.  Gibson)  might  mention  a  case  well  known  to  him 
of  a  seam  2  feet  thick  opened  up  by  the  longwall  method  of  work- 
ing. A  level  was  driven  a  distance  of  IGO  yards  in  22  weeks,  the 
rise  given  being  1  in  60.  Careful  levels  were  taken  from  time 
to  time,  and  it  was  found  at  the  end  of  six  months  that  the  floor 
from  the  starting-point  to  a  point  00  yards  from  the  face  was  4 
feet  above  the  ori^iinal  level,  although  o  feet  had  been  taken  off; 
in  other  words,  the  pavement  "  creep  "  was  7  feet.  There  was 
enormous  pressure  on  the  sides,  which  were  very  frequently  re- 
timbered,  and  although  the  road  had  a  general  gradient  of  1  in 
00.   ])Ools  of  water  (i  inches  deep  formed  on  it.     Turnplates  for 

230    TRAXSACTIONS — TIIK    NOK'i  II    OF    KXGLAXD    1XSTITU]K.      ("  Vol .  Ixvi. 

olivioiis  reasons  were  used,  and  liad  to  l)e  relaid  ciitiicly  every 
iHoiitli.  Strenuous  eitorts  were  made  to  maintain  the  road  •»  feet 
wide  by  •>  feet  in  lieijilit.  Of  what  use  would  large  trams  with 
roller-bearings,  locomotives,  and  well-laid  crossings  be  on  su(  h  a 
road  ? 

In  an  old  mining  country  local  customs,  practices,  and  pre- 
judices grew  up,  and  even  the  best  laid  schemes  which  interfered 
or  upset  these  had  to  be  very  carefully  introduced  and  handled. 
For  instance,  any  proposal  which  rendered  unnecessary  the  use 
of  lads  under  16  years  of  age  underground  would  have  to  provide 
otlit^r  equally  remunerative  employment  for  these  lads,  or  fierce 
resentment  and  opposition  to  the  scheme  would  surely  result. 

(2)  Great  Britain  was  not  only  an  old  mining-  country,  but  it 
had  a  single  Mines  Act,  which  applied  to  the  whole  country,  with 
all  its  varied  conditions.  Americans  could  imagine  for  them- 
selves wdiat  results  would  follow  if  the  whole  of  the  mines  from 
the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific  were  subject  to  the  same  regulations. 
For  example,  a  firedamp  explosion  in  Pennsylvania  might  cause 
the  prohibition  of  ■electric  locomotives  in  Virginia.  If  they  could 
further  imagine  a  very  law-abiding  nation,  where  punishment 
ssurely  foUoAved  breaches  of  the  Mines  Act,  they  would  begin  to 
see  that  a  manager's  first  duty  was  to  keep  within  th-e  law,  and 
that  initiative  and  originality  followed — a  short  or  a  long  distance 

(3)  In  this  country  both  a  Minimum  AVage  Act  and  an  Eight 
Hours'  Act  were  in  force.  Moreover,  it  was  a  fact  that  in  some 
parts  no  miner  until  recently  was  allowed  by  his  union  to  work 
more  than  5  days  per  week.  Tliis  was  now  altered  to  11  days  per 
fortnight  in  Scotland,  and  included,  of  course,  a  short  day  on 
Saturday.  American  mining  engineers  would  readily  under- 
stand that,  even  if  British  conditions  were  as  favourable  as  their 
own  and  the  practice  as  good,  labour  was  less  efficient,  and  (even 
at  lower  wage  rates)  was  dearer  than  in  America,  whilst  the  result 
was  a  lower  output  per  man.  All  these  facts  implied  that  a  keen 
eye  must  be  kept  on  cheap  forms  of  labour,  such  as  boys  and 
elderly  men,  as  these  could  handle  small  trams  on  drawing-roads 
and  haulage  termini,  but  would  be  less  useful  if  large  trams  were 
in  use. 

In  the  case  of  seams  from  18  to  -30  inches  in  thickness,  in 
addition  to  the  ever-present  problem  of  haulage  from  the  face,  the 
prime  necessity  was,  so  far  as  he  could  see,  to  advance  the  faces  as 

1915-1916.]  DISCUSSION THE   LOGIC  OF   TRAMS.  231 

rapidly  as  possible  aud  to  handle  a  minimum  amount  of  dirt. 
The  coal-cutter  and  conveyor  was  the  remedy  that  first  suggested 
itself,  but  the  sphere  of  usefulness  of  these  machines  was  limited. 
For  example,  electric  power  could  not  be  used  in  a  fiery  seam, 
and  the  employment  of  compressed-air  plant  in  so  small  a  work- 
ing- that  was  advancing  rapidly  was  a  matter  of  difficulty.  Again, 
tender  roofs,  soft  floors,  and  troubled  ground  frequently  re- 
quired tackling  by  manual  labour. 

If  the  seam  was  rising,  say,  1  in  6  or  1  in  9,  dip  stowage  for 
the  dirt  was  soon  filled,  and  rise  stowage  was  slow  and  expensive. 
Where  the  gate-roads  were  12  yards  apart,  the  amount  of  sur- 
plus dirt  was  increased,  while  if  18  yards  apart  the  output  per 
lineal  yard  of  face  was  decreased ;  consequently,  the  rate  of 
advance  also  was  decreased,  much  trouble  was  caused  in  a  weak 
roof,  and  the  percentage  of  small  coal  was  increased. 

The  sending  of  dirt  to  bank  during  the  day-shift  might 
interfere  with  the  handling  of  coal ;-  whilst  its  transport  by  night 
involved  the  provision  of  haulage  attendants,  bottomers,  banks- 
men, etc. — a  matter  of  no  great  difficulty  at  a  large  colliery,  but 
of  serious  importance  at  a  small  mine.  After  the  dirt  had  gone 
to  bank,  rent  must  be  paid  (perhaps  for  ever)  for  the  ground  that 
it  occupied ;  and,  as  the  tip-heap  extended,  mechanical  transport 
was  required,  with  attendants  to  handle  the  dirt. 

American  mining  engineers  might,  in  view  of  these  circum- 
stances, be  little  surprised  if  British  mining  engineers,  either 
by  a  process  of  logic  or  from  a  habit  of  compromise,  concluded 
that,  after  everything  had  been  taken  into  consideration,  as  little 
dirt  as  possible  should  be  handled,  and  that  the  trams  must  be 
of  such  a  size  as  this  consideration,  when  weighed  against  the 
haulage  factor,  might  determine. 

Mr.  H.  E.  BuLMAX  (Newcastle-upon-Tyne)  wrote  that  Mr. 
Gibson  was  to  be  congratulated  on  his  original  treatment  of  a 
subject  which  had  perhaps  hitherto  been  governed  too  much 
by  custom  and  rule  of  thumb. 

The  economic  advantages  arising  from  the  standardization 
of  the  coal-tub  and  the  track  could  hardly  be  denied,  and  there 
seemed  to  be  no  sufficient  reason  why  a  few  standard  sizes  should 
not  meet  all  the  requirements  of  the  coal-mines  of  this  country 
just  as  well  as  the  present   enormous   and   anomalous  variety. 

TOL.  LXVI.— lalo  1916.  17  E 


The  purpose  of  tlie  tub  and  track  was  to  convey  the  coal  from 
the  face  to  tlie  shaft  with  as  vsmall  an  outhay  on  labour  and 
materials  as  possible.  As  an  outstanding  fact,  it  was  evident 
that  the  smaller  the  dead  load  (due  to  the  weight  and  the  friction 
of  the  tub)  was  in  proportion  to  the  useful  load  of  coal  carried^ 
the  better  would  this  purpose  be  achieved.  In  this  respect  a 
big  tub  had  an  inherent  advantage  over  a  small  one.  But 
this  was  conditioned  by  the  necessity,  or  perhaps  it  would  be 
more  accurate  to  say,  the  general  custom,  of  man-handling  the 
tub  in  moving-  it  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  coal-face,  at  the 
shaft,  and  when  it  got  off  the  way. 

It  might  be  remarked  that  modern  progress  in  the  shape  of 
face-conveyors  and  auxiliary  haulage  had  reduced  (or  even  in 
some  cases  had  abolished)  the  necessity  of  hand-putting.  But, 
where  the  tub  was  moved  by  manual  labour,  economic  con- 
siderations pointed  to  limitation  of  its  weight  to  w^hat  could  be 
moved  by  a  strong  lad  employed  at  a  wage  of  3s.  9d.  a  shift — to 
take  Mr.  Gribson's  figures — rather  than  by  a  man  who  received 
double  that  wage.  The  advantage  of  the  small  tub  was  confined 
almost  entirely  to  its  transit  from  the  coal-face  to  the  engine- 
plane  landing  in-bye. 

Mr.  Gibson  stated  that  in  thin  seams  the  size  of  the  tram 
governed  the  size  of  the  road,  but  in  practice  there  were  many 
exceptions  to  this  rule.  Large  trams  were  used  in  thin  seamis,. 
and  the  size  of  the  tram  did  not  always,  or  perhaps  generally, 
correspond  to  the  size  of  the  road.  The  cost  of  making  and 
maintaining*  the  roads  from  the  face  to  the  engine-plane  land- 
ings was,  of  course,  a  main  factor  to  be  considered.  Against 
this  had  to  be  set  the  economical  advantage  of  the  large  tram 
in  first  cost  and  cost  of  maintenance,  in  reduction  of  dead  load, 
and  in  simplifying  tlie  winding  and  banking  arrang^ements. 
In  the  case  of  trams  containing  2  tons  of  coal,  a  single-deck 
cage  holding  two  trams  would  suffice  for  a  load  of  4  tons  each 
journey;  but  with  trams  containing*  only  10  cwts.,  a  double- 
decked  cag'e  would  be  required,  plus  additional  time  and  labour 
for  uncaging. 

Besides  the  Cost  of  making  roads,  there  must  also  be  taken 
into  consideration  the  first  cost  of  the  tubs  and  the  cost  of 
maintaining  them,  as  well  as  the  cost  of  moving  them  between 
the  coal-face  and  the  screens.  The  balance  of  advantage  had 
to  be  struck  between  these  three  sources  of  cost. 

1915-1916]  DISCUSSIOX — THE   LOGIC  OF   TRAMS.  233 

With  regard  to  tlie  gradient,  it  was  irregularity  rather  than 
steepness  of  gradient  that  afi'ected  the  question,  because  in 
seams  of  a  regukir  steep  gradient  the  system  of  working  could 
be  adapted  to  help  the  movement  of  the  tubs, 

Mr.  Gibson  had  suggested  nine  different  sizes  of  standard  tubs, 
"Was  it  necessary  to  have  so  many? 

Mr.  Myles  Brown  (Gateshead-upon-Tyne)  wrote  that  his  first 
impression  after  reading  the  paper  was  that  some  of  the  state- 
ments with  regard  to  the  present  practice  in  mines  were  a  little 
rash  and  overdrawn.  In  seeking  further  evidence  from  a  well- 
known  firm  in  Sheffield,  who  were  perhaps  the  largest  manu- 
facturers of  tram-wheels,  etc.,  the  information  given  fully  sup- 
ported Mr.  Gibson  in  his  contention,  and,  as  the  evidence  of  such 
a  firm  was  of  general  interest,  he  gave  their  statement  of  the  case, 
as  follows :  — 

"  We  cau  only  confirm  the  assertion  made  by  the  writer  of  the  paper  in 
regard  to  the  numerous  types  of  trams^  etc.,  in  use  throughout  Great  Britain. 
In  fact  this  is  for  us,  as  manufacturers,  one  of  the  greatest  difficulties  with 
which  we  have  to  contend.  No  attemjit  whatever  seems  to  have  been  made 
either  to  standardize  the  size  of  the  wheels,  the  cajjacity  of  the  trams,  or  the 
track-gauge ;  the  result  is  that  to-day  we  have  thousands  of  wheel  patterns, 
some  of  which  vary  only  5  inch  in  diameter  and  width  of  tread,  and  even  less 
than  this  in  the  depth  and  thickness  of  the  flange. 

"  There  are  scarcely  two  mines  in  the  country  using  the  same  wheel, 
and  similar  trouble  is  experienced  in  connexion  with  the  track-gauge  and 
the  pedestals,  with  the  result  that  it  is  absolutely  impossible  for  us  to  carry 
stocks  with  any  degree  of  certainty  that  we  shall  be  able  to  dispose  of  them. 
Consequently,  the  requirements  of  the  collieries  can  only  be  filled  on  definite 
orders,  and  from  time  to  time  our  friends  find  themselves  in  very  serious 
difiiculty,  due  to  the  forgetfulness  of  the  official  who  is  responsible  for  seeing 
that  their  stocks  are  maintained.  We  know  that,  so  far  as  old-established 
collieries  are  concerned,  it  may  be  a  difficult  matter  to  introduce  any  alteration 
to  the  trams  or  track ;  but  we  do  feel  that,  in  the  opeuing-out  of  new  collieries, 
something  more  might  be  done  in  the  direction  of  standai-dization,  with 
advantage  both  to  the  colliery-owners  and  to  the  manufacturers." 

Standardization  was  generally  accepted  to  stand  for  economic 
production.  Whilst  the  box  or  body  of  the  tram  did  not  itself 
provide  ground  for  a  great  saving  by  the  adoption  of  a  standard 
design  or  size,  yet  the  component  parts,  such  as  the  wheels,  axles, 
pedestals,  etc.,  provided  a  great  opportunity  for  standardization 
of  design  and  size. 

Before  any  attempt  was  made  to  systematize  and  standardize 
design  and  size,  complete  information  as  to  the  types  and  sizes  at 
present  in  service,  and  the   environment  and   conditions   under 

234      TRANSACTIONS THE   XOllTH    OF    EXGLAXD   IXSTITUTK.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

wliicli  each  particular  tuL  or  tram  worked,  should  be  collected 
and  put  in  handy  form  for  the  consideration  of  those  interested. 

The  present  time  was  not  opportune  for  carrying  through  any 
new  work  which  involved  extensive  investigations;  but,  in  case 
the  suggestion  might  in  the  future  be  of  service,  the  proposal  was 
put  forward  for  the  formation  of  a  strong  representative 
standardization  committee,  the  members  of  which  should  consist 
of  delegates  both  of  mining  and  mechanical  engineers  and  of 
manufacturers.  The  work  of  this  main  committee  would  be  to 
consider  the  tabulated  data,  giving  details  of  present-day 
practice,  and  then  to  direct  the  work  of  standardization. 
The  collection  of  the  tabulated  practical  data  could  be 
carried  through  by  a  contributory  committee,  consisting 
of  colliery  managers  and  engineers,  who,  no  doubt,  could  readily 
tabulate  much  useful  information  in  regard  to  the  size  and  design 
of  the  plant  which  was  under  their  supervision. 

The  work  of  these  committees  would  pave  the  way  for  improve- 
ments which  would  add  considerably  to  the  efficiency  of  the 
mining  industry,  and  aid  materially  in  pushing  forward  and 
defending  oiir  lines  in  the  great  industrial  and  commercial 
rivalry  which  would  doubtless  become  more  intense  immediately 
the  present  armed  conflict  ceased. 

Standardization  would  eventually  find  a  much  wider  field.  A 
subject  which  the  writer  had  for  many  years  put  forward  for 
standardization  and  better  classification  was  the  raw  material 
"  coal."  It  was  of  national  importance,   and  a  reasonable 

demand  from  the  standpoint  of  the  nation's  economics  that  all 
coal  should  be  consumed  or  applied  to  use  under  conditions  which 
produced  to  the  industry  concerned  and  to  the  nation  at  large 
the  utmost  value  obtainable  from  the  coal  in  question.  Coal 
should  be  standardized  according  to  its  suitability  (chemical  and 
physical)  for  any  particular  purpose  or  purposes. 

Mr.  Gibson's  paper  might  well  be  the  starting-point  of  investi- 
gations which  would  in  the  near  future  prove  a  boon  to  the  mining 

Mr.  A.  S.  Blatchford's  paper  on  "  The  Influence  of  Incom- 
bustible Substances  on  Coal-dust  Explosions  "  was  taken  as  read, 
as  follows :  — 



By  a.  S.  BLATCHFORD,  M.Sc. 

It  has  been  known  for  some  years  past  tliat,  by  mixing  in- 
combustible solid  matter  with  coal-dust,  the  inflammation  of 
the  dust  in  a  coal-dust-and-air  explosion  has  been  retarded.  The 
present  experimental  work,  which  is  a  development  of  Dr. 
Bedson's  previous  investigations,*  was  undertaken  to  observe  the 
quenching-  effect  of  different  substances,  to  find  the  most  efficient 
of  these  substances,  and  to  arrive  at  a  possible  explanation  of  their 
preventive  action. 

Apparatus. — The  explosions  were  carried  out  in  a  form  of 
explosions-vessel  previously  described, t  which  is  a  strong  spheri- 
cal glass  vessel  of  a  capacity  of  about  120  cubic  inches.  It  is  pro- 
vided with  three  tubulures ;  the  upper  one  carries  the  means  of . 
ignition,  the  second  serves  for  the  introduction  of  the  coal- 
dust,  whilst  to  the  third  can  be  attached  some  appliance  for 
ascertaining  the  impulse  produced  by  the  explosion.  The  means 
used  for  this  latter  purpose  was  a  device  described  by  Teclu,  and 
employed  by  him  in  his  investigation  of  the  purity  of  illumina- 

The  essential  part  of  the  apparatus  consists  of  a  pendulum 
suspended  from  a  brass  frame.  To  the  end  of  the  pendulum  is 
attached  a  small  aluminium  basin,  which  fits  lightly  but  well 
over  a  brass  tube,  1  inch  in  diameter,  attached  by  a  rubber  collar 
to  the  end  of  a  glass  tube,  15  to  16  inches  long  and  1^^  inches 
in  diameter,  attached  at  its  other  end  by  means  of  a  rubber  collar 
to  the  third  tubulure  of  the  explosions-vessel.     The  pendulum 

*  "  Experiments  Illustrative  of  the  Inflammability  of  Mixtures,  of  Coal-dust 
and  Air,"  by  Prof.  P.  Phillips  Bedson  and  Mr.  Henry  Widdas,  Tranx.  Inst,  M.  E., 
1906,  vol.  xxxii.,  page  529;  1907,  rol.  xxxiv.,  page  91;  and  "Experiments 
Illustrative  of  the  Inflammability  of  Mixtures  of  Coal-dust  and  Air,"  by  Prof. 
P.  Phillips  Bedson,  ibid.,  1910,  vol.  xxxix.,  page  719  ;  and  191 1,  vol.  xli. ,  page  235. 

t  Ibid.,  1906,  vol.  xxxii.,  page  529. 

236      TRANSACTIONS TlIK    NOKTll    OK    i:.\(M.A\n    I XSTITUTK.      [V(j1.  Ixvi. 

moves  over  a  graduated  arc,  and  to  it  is  attached  a  simple  arrange- 
ment fitted  into  a  ratchet  on  the  upper  part  of  the  graduated  arc, 
so  that  the  penduhtm  is  arrested  in  the  position  to  wliich  it  is 
forced  hy  tlie  impulse  acting  on  the  concave  side  of  the  basin. 
A  quenched  explosion  would  he  indicated  by  the  stationary 
position  of  the  pendulum. 

A  Nernst  filament,  giving  a  temi)erature  of  1,500°  to  2,000° 
Cent.,  was  used  as  a  means  of  ignition.  Tlie  filament  was  heated 
by  a  Bunsen  burner  to  a  temperature  sufficiently  high  for  it  to 
conduct  the  electric  current,  and  then  introduced  into  tlie  ex- 
plosions-vessel through  the  upper  tubulure. 

Exjjei'imental.-  -T\\Q  coal-dusts  experimented  with  were  such 
as  passed  through  a  100-mesh  sieve  (10,000  holes  to  the  square 
inch),  and  were  obtained  by  grinding  the  coals.  The  quenching 
substances  were  used  in  as  fine  a  state  of  division  as  possible.  A 
weighed  quantity  (1  gramme)  of  the  mixture  of  quenching  sub- 
stance and  coal-dust,  mixed  in  known  proportions,  is  placed  in 
the  tubulure  of  the  explosions-vessel,  which  is  closed  by  a  tightly- 
fitting  rubber  stopper  carrying-  a  tube  connected  with  a  com- 
pressed-air supply  (atniosph.  +  12"  to  14"  Hg).  The  filament  is 
then  placed  in  position,  th'e  coal  is  projected  by  the  blast  of  air 
over  the  glowing  filament,  and  the  impulse  communicated  by  the 
explosion  is  indicated  by  the  extent  to  which  the  pendulum  is 
deflected.  By  using  the  same  mixture  and  igniting  it  at  practi- 
cally the  same  temperature,  fairly  concordant  results  have  been 
obtained.  About  four  to  six  separate  explosions  were  necessary 
in  the  case  of  each  different  mixture.  The  explosions  were 
carried  out  in  groups  of  three,  the  filament  being  extinguished, 
the  apparatus  allowed  to  cool,  and  then  cleaned  out  between  each 
three.  The  ratio  of  the  quenching  substance  to  coal  was  varied, 
and  Table  I.  records  the  least  percentage  of  quenching  substance 
in  the  mixture  which  prevents  an  explosion;  Table  II.  records 
the  specific  heats  of  the  materials  used;  Table.  III.  gives  the 
thermochemical  data;  whilst  Table  IV.  contains  miscellaneous 
information  regarding  the  behaviour  of  the  quenching  materials 
at  high  temperatures. 

The  quenching  materials  used  were  gypsum,  dried  Chance 
mud,  quicklime,  magnesia,  magnesia  alba  (levis),  anhydrous 
sodium  carbonate,   sodium   bicarbonate,    soda-crystals,    Glauber 




salts,  ground  shale,  and  boiler-aslies.  The  anhydrous  sodium 
carbonate  -w  as  obtained  by  strongly  heating  the  bicarbonate.  The 
boiler-aslies  were  ground  from  the  ashes  of  a  boiler  fire  burning 
coke.  The  soda-crj-stals  and  Glauber  salts  were  used  with  as 
much  water  of  crystallization  as  was  consistent  with  a  fine  state 
of  division.  They  were  obtained  by  making  a  saturated  solution 
of  the  ordinary  variety  in  warm  water,  rapidly  cooling  the  solu- 
tion from  a  moderate  temperature,  drying  the  crystalline  product, 
and  grinding  it.  The  friction  produced  during  grinding  tended 
to  give  heat,  and  liberated  some  of  the  water  of  crystallization. 
A  specimen  of  the  salt  as  used  in  the  experimental  work  was 
afterwards  subjected  to  analysis,  in  order  to  determine  the  pro- 
portion of  water  of  crystallization  present  in  it. 

Table   I. — The   Least   Percentage   of    Quenching   Material    in    the 
Mixture  which  Prevents  an  Explosion. 


Boiler-ashes    ... 


Ground  sliale  ... 

Chance  mud    ... 



Magnesia  alba  (levis) 

Anhydrous  sodium  carbonate 

Soda-crystals  ... 

Sodium  bicarbonate  ... 

Glauber  salts  ... 

Quicklime  ...         

Chance  mud      



Magnesia  alba  (levis) 

Anliydrous   sodium   carbonate 

Soda-crystals  (5H„0) 

Sodium   bicarbonate 

Glauber  salts  (6H,0) 


































10  + 





9  + 








7  - 


JE   Materials 














Na.CO,,  5H,0 
Na^SO^,  6H.0 

Table  III. — Thermochemical  Data. 

Eequires  4252  K  for  gramme-molecule  decomposition. 
Requires    4-84    K    to    drive    off    2H,0    per   gramme-mole- 
Requires   12-364    K   to    become    anhydrous. 
Requires   11-52  K  to  become   anliydrous. 
Requires  SOTS  K  to  become  sodium  carbonate. 
K  =  1,000  calories. 

238      TRANSACTIONS — THE   NORTH   OF    ENGLAND   INSTITUTE.    [Vol.  Ixvi. 

Table  IV. — Miscellaneous  Information  Regarding  the  Behaviour  of 
Quenching  Materials  at  High  Temperatures. 

Gypsum Loses  2H.0  at  120°-130°  Cent.,  becoming  anhydrous. 

Ca(X)3      Commences  to  decomiDose  at  550°  Cent. 

MgO        Melts  at  2,250°  Cent,   (no  decomijosition). 

Lime        Melts  at  JL,900°  Cent,  (no  decomposition). 

Magnesia  alba  Converted    to    magnesium     carbonate     by     200°     Cent., 
(levis)  afterwards  decomposes,  giving  off  CO,. 

NaHCOj At  a  dull-red  heat  is  converted  to  Na2C03. 

Na.COj    Melts  at  1,098°  Cent,  (no  decomposition). 

NaXOj,  lOH.O...  Loses  5  molecules  at  12-5°  Cent. 

Loses  9  molecules  at  38°  Cent. 

Becomes  anhydrous  at  87°  Cent. 

Na^SO^   xHO     ...  Loses  all  its  water  of  crystallization  by  100°  Cent. 

N-a,S0/   ...         ...  Melts  at  863°  Cent. 

Influence  of  Carbon  Dioxide  derived  from  Decomposition  of  a 
Quench. — Both  calcium  and  magnesium  carbonates  are  de- 
composed by  heat  (under  the  experimental  temperature),  with 
liberation  of  carbon  dioxide,  yet  the  critical  percentages  of  these 
carbonates  are  greater  than  that  of  sodium  carbonate,  which  may 
fuse  but  is  not  decomposed  (except  to  a  negligible  extent  by  the 
carbonaceous  matter  present).  Although  the  Second  Report  of  the 
Royal  Commission  on  Explosions  in  Mines  suggests  that  carbon 
dioxide  may  be  a  determining  factor  in  the  quenching  of  an 
explosion,  it  is  suggested  from  this  experimental  work  that  the 
liberation  of  carbon  dioxide  from  a  quench  has  but  small 
influence  on  the  explosive  character  of  a  mixture.  Sodium  bicar- 
bonate gives  a  low  critical  percentage  and  is  decomposed  by 
heat,  yielding  the  carbonate  (2NaHC03  =  C03  +  Na2C03  +  H20), 
with  liberation  of  carbon  dioxide.  The  temperature  of  the  de- 
composition is  comparable  with  that  of  the  decomposition  of 
calcium  carbonate;  but  a  possible  explanation — ^other  than  the 
carbon-dioxide  hypothesis — of  the  much  greater  efficiency  of 
vsodium  bicarbonate  will  be  given  below.  A  comparison  of 
calcium  carbonate  and  gypsum  will  show  that,  so  far  as  decom- 
position with  liberation  of  an  incombustible  gas  is  concerned, 
water  (as  steam)  is  more  effective  than  carbon  dioxide  (44  per 
cent.  CO3  in  calcium  carbonate;  209  per  cent.  HoO  in  CaS04, 

Influence  of  a  Quenching  Material  from  Specific-heat  Con- 
siderations.— A  direct  comparison  of  the  action  of  quicklime  and 
magnesia  will  show  that  the  difference  between  the  behaviour 


of  these  compounds  is  explained  most  satisfactorily  on  the  hypo- 
thesis that  the  specific  heat  of  the  quenching  substance  is  the 
important  factor  in  its  efficiency.  A  comparison  of  the  action 
of  sodium  bicarbonate  (7  per  cent.)  and  that  of  anhydrous  sodium 
carbonate  (12  per  cent.)  also  supports  the  specific-heat  hypothesis 
— assuming  that  the  carbon-dioxide  production  has  little  effect. 
On  the  basis  of  efficiency  due  to  carbon-dioxide  liberation, 
calcium  carbonate  (yielding  44  per  cent,  of  its  weight  as  carbon 
dioxide)  would  be  almost  an  ideal  quenching  substance. 

Influence  of  Water  of  Crystallization. — The  hydrated  sodium 
carbonate  has  greater  specific  heat  than  the  anhydrous  variety ; 
but  the  greater  efficiency  of  the  soda-crystals  may  be  due  to  the 
water  liberated  by  dehydration  during  the  rise  of  temperature. 
In  experiments  with  one  coal,  mixtures  of  (a)  85  per  cent,  of  coal 
and  15  per  cent,  of  anhydrous  carbonate,  and  (b)  89  per  cent,  of 
coal  and  11  per  cent,  of  soda-crystals,  are  incombustible.  The 
11-per-cent.  soda-crystals  are  resolved  into  6  per  cent,  of  sodium 
carbonate  and  5  per  cent,  of  water-vapour.  These  soda-crystals 
contain  46  p?r  cent,  of  water  of  crystallization.  It  is  evident  that 
there  may  be  some  preventive  action  in  the  liberated  water- 

Increase  of  specific  heat  accompanies  increase  of  the  number 
of  molecules  of  water  of  crystallization,  so  that  it  is  necessary  to 
determine  which  is  the  essential  factor — the  ^specific  heat  or  the 
water.  The  experiments  with  sodium  bicarbonate  show  that  it  is 
as  efficient  as  Glauber  salts.  The  bicarbonate  remains  stable  up 
to  about  600°  Cent,  (specific  heat,  0-30),  whilst  the  Glauber  salt 
has  a  specific  heat  of  0-34,  which  falls  at  100°  Cent,  to  0-24. 
From  a  comparison  of  the  properties  of  these  two  compounds,  it 
is  suggested  that  specific  heat  is  the  factor  which  determines 
efficiency,  and  that  water  of  crystallization  is  to  be  considered 
mainly  in  that  it  gives  an  increase  in  specific  heat  to  hydrated 
compounds  above  the  anhydrous  compounds  from  which  they  are 
derived.  The  soda-crystals  contained  46  per  cent,  of  water  of 
crystallization;  the  Glauber  salts,  43  per  cent.;  yet  the  latter 
substance  is- slightly  more  efficient  than  the  former  (8  per  cent, 
and  10  per  cent,  respectively).  The  specific  heat  of  the  hydrated 
varieties  are  about  the  same  (0-35  and  0-34),  that  of  anhydrous 
sodium  sulphate  024,  and  that  of  anhydrous  sodium  carbonate 

240       TRANSACTIONS TJIK    NORTH    OF    KNGLAXD    IXSTITITE.    [Vol.  Ixvi. 

0-27.  The  specific-lieat  hypothesis  seems,  therefore,  to  break 
down ;  but  it  is  suggested  that  during  tlie  rise  of  temperature  to 
the  firing-point  the  sodium  sulphate  remains  hydrated  for  a 
longer  time  than  the  sodium  carbonate,  and  then  the  influence  of 
tlie  high  specific  heat  of  the  hydrated  Glauber  salts  is  noticed. 

Infiuencc  of  the  Htat  of  Riactiun. — In  reviewing  the  conclu- 
sions, it  is  of  interest  to  note  the  range  of  temperature  during 
which  the  Cjuenching  action  seems  to  take  place.  In  the  case  of 
one  coal  the  effect  of  28  per  cent,  of  magnesia  is  equal  to  the  effect 
of  8  per  cent,  of  Glauber  salts.  After  losing  water  of  crystal- 
lization by  100°  Cent.,  Glauber  salt  has  a  specific  heat  of 
0'24.  Neglecting  for  the  moment  the  heat  effect  during  the  rise 
to  dehydration  temperature  of  Glauber  salts  from  100°  to  800° 
Cent,  (about  the  firing  temperature  of  the  coal),  we  have  two 
mixtures  behaving  alike,  namely:  — 

(o)  28  parts  of  magnesia  of  specific  heat  0-23,  and  72  parts  of  coal  of  specific 

heat  0-24. 
(b)  4  parts  of  anhydrous  sodium  sulphate  of  specific  heat  0-24,  and  92  parts 

of  coal  of  specific  heat  0'24. 
The  specific  heat  of  coal  may  be  taken  as  about  0'24. 

The  suggestion  arises  t-liat  tlie  heat-absorption  from  0°  to  100° 
Cent,  (that  is,  during  the  dehydration  of  the  Glauber  salts)  is 
a  most  effective  factor  in  determining  the  low  percentage  of  this 
material  as  a  quenching  substance. 

The  heat  of  reaction  is  of  the  same  order  of  magnitude  as  the 
heat  absorbed  by  specific  heat  requirements:  — 

250  grammes  Na.^SO^,  6H^0  require  11'52  K  for  dehydration. 
100         ,,  Na.,S0„6H,0  require  4-61   K  for  dehydration. 

100         ,,  Na„SOj,  6H,0  require  35  K  for  a  rise  through  100°  Cent. 

100         ,,  Na.^S04  anhydrous  require  2-4  K  for  a  rise  through  100°  Cent. 

56         ,,  Na.^S04  anhydrous  require   14  K  for  a  rise  through  100°  Cent. 

The  specific-heat  hypothesis  now  modifies  itself  into  one  of 
'•  heat  absorption,"  in  which  both  (1)  heat  required  for  decom- 
position, and  (2)  heat  required  for  rise  in  temperature,  are  to  be 
taken  into  account. 

The  heat  required  thermochemically  by  the  soda-crystals  is 
also  notable  :  — 

100  grammes  Na.^COg,  5H.0  require  6'3  K  for  dehydration. 
100         ,,  Na^COj,  5H^0  require  3-55  K  for  a  rise  through  100°  Cent. 

53         ,,  Na.,C03  require  143  K  for  a  rise  through  100°  Cent. 




Tlie  efl'ect  of  a  quencli  is  probably  due  to  the  rate — as  implied 
in  the  couception  of  specific  heat — of  heat-absorption  over  a 
particular  range  of  temperature,  and  depends  not  merely  so  much 
upon  the  total  heat  effect. 

The  fact  of  there  being  an  explosion  of  a  dust — as  well  as  the 
force  produced  by  an  explosion — would  depend  partly  on  the 
velocity  of  the  rise  of  temperature ;  a  quenching  material  would 
be  most  efficient  wlien  it  prevents  a  rapid  rise  of  temperature  by 
large  heat-absorption  comparatively  early  in  the  rise  of  tempera- 
ture— say  in  the  rise 
from  0  to  100  degrees 
if  the  coal  fired  at 
800°  Cent. 

Chance  mud  re- 
quires heat  for  heat 
of  reaction,  but  not 
until  550°  Cent., 
which  is  too  near  the 
explosion  tempera- 
ture of  the  coal :  for, 
by  the  time  that  this 
point  has  been 
reached,  the  velocity 
of  the  rising  tempera- 
ture is  too  great  for 
the  thermo-chemical 
effect  of  the  decompo- 
ing  calcium  carbon- 
ate to  be  of  much 
value.  A  reaction 
involving  liberation 
in     quenching     the 












03.-  5h 











1SO4,  2 







— Vu 

10         20 

30        40        50 


Fig.  1. — Curve  showinc;  the  Relation  Between 
THE  Specific  Heats  and  the  Critical  Per- 
centages  FOR  ONE   OF  the   CoALS  TeSTED. 

of  carbon  dioxide  may  be  of  use 
explosive  character  of  a  dust  if  the 
carbon  dioxide  is  all  given  off  by  200°  Cent.  From  130°  Cent, 
upwards  anhydrous  calcium  sulphate  (specific  heat,  020)  is 
apparently  more  efficient  than  Chance  mud  (calcium  carbonate; 
specific  heat,  0'25),  thus  supporting  the  suggestion  of  the  action 
of  a  quench  taking  place  during  the  first  200  degrees  of  rise. 

It  may  be  suggested  that  the  action  of  solids  which  liberate 
a  large  percentage  of  water  of  crystallization  is  due  to  the  me- 
chanical eft'ect  of  tlie  free  gases  blowing  the  dust  awaj'  from  the 

242       TEANSACTIONS THE   NORTH   OF    EXGLANU    IXSTITLTK.    [Vol.  Ixvi. 

igniting  medium  and  keeping  the  coal  out  of  the  sphere  of  action. 
Reference  to  the  properties  of  sodium  bicarbonate  and  its  effi- 
ciency will  meet  this  objection;  moreover,  if  the  effect  were 
mechanical,  still  smaller  percentages  of  quenching  materials 
would  probably  be  required. 

No  experiments  were  carried  out  with  incombustible  or  com- 
bustible gases  in  the  apparatus ;  but,  presumably,  this  could  be 
accomplished  by  mixing  the  gases  to  be  applied  with  the  blast  of 
air  blowing  the  dust  over  the  igniting  medium.     Nothing  is  said 










NaQCOg,-  5H2O 




\  l^asCOs 


,«CaS04,  2H^O 


at  present  with  regard 
to  the  difference  be- 
tween the  coals. 

The  figures  given 
in  the  paper  are  only 
approximate,  and 
must  not  be  taken  as 

The  curve  (Fig.  1) 
shows  the  relation  be- 
tween the  specific 
heat  and  the  critical 
percentages  for  one 
of  the  coals.  The 
hydrated  quenches 
all  lie  on  the  same 
side  of  the  curve,  but 
off  it  in  such  a  way 
that  their  critical 
percentages  would  be 
much  smaller  if  these 
bodies  retained  their 
original  compositions  and  specific  heats  over  a  long  range  of  tem- 
perature. No  correction  is  here  introduced  in  the  curve  for 
thermochemical  heat-absorption;  and  this  may  explain  the 
anomalous  position  of  the  hydrated  quenches,  or  their  anomalous 
position  may  be  due  to  an  overestimate  of  the  specific-heat  effect 
of  added  water. 

Supplement  (Fig.  2).— Lime  was  found  to  be  one  of  the  least 
effective  of  the  quenching  substances,  and.  the  supplementary 
table  shows  the  values  calculated  (in  lime  as  a  unit)  for  the  rela- 


0-2       0-4       0-6       0-8       1-0 
Fig.  2.— Curve  showing  the  Relation,  fob  one 
OF  THE  Coals  tested,  Between  the  Specific 
Heats  and  the  Critical  Percentages  rased 
on  Lime  as  a  Unit. 

1915-1916.  ]                  DISCUSSIOIN- — COAL-DUST 



tive  weights  of  materials  requi 

red,  the  lime  unit  being, 

of  course, 

different  for  tlie  different  coal 

s: — ■ 
















Ground  shale  ... 





Chance  mud    ... 















-Magnesia  alba  (levis) 





Anhydrous  sodium  carbonate 







0  091 



Sodium  bicarbonate  ... 





Glauber  salts  ... 


0  087 



Proportion  of  coal     ... 





Mr.  A.  S.  Blatchford  (Armstrong  College,  Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne)  said  that  he  would  like  to  preface  his  paper  with  two 
observations — first,  that  the  paper  was  mostly  of  theoretical 
interest,  and  it  was  now  left  to  the  practical  engineers  to  co- 
operate with  the  Universities  in  applying  the  underlying  principle 
as  explained  in  the  paper ;  secondly,  three-fourths  of  the  work  had 
been  done  before  the  war  commenced,  but,  owing  to  the  great 
difficulty  of  completion,  it  had  not  been  possible  to  put  the 
results  before  the  Institute  earlier.  The  original  idea  emanated 
from  some  remarks  made  by  Prof.  Louis,  to  whom  he  was 
indebted,  and  also  to  Prof.  Bedson  for  his  valuable  help. 

Prof.  P.  Phiillips  Bedsox  (Armstrong*  College,  Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne)  wrote  that  he  was  much  interested  in  Mr.  Blatch- 
ford's  careful  examination  of  the  conditions  which  determined 
the  action  of  different  substances  that  could  be  employed  as  pre- 
ventive agencies  in  coal-dust-and-air  explosions.  It  was  very 
evident  that  the  mode  of  action  of  these  "  quenches  "  was  by  no 
means  a  simple  matter,  and  the  facts  brought  forward  showed 
that  chemical  decomposition  of  the  quench  by  heat  was  quite  a 
subordinate  influence,  if  an  influence  at  all.  It  would  appear 
that  the  action  was  physical  rather  than  chemical. 

Mr.  T.  W,  D.  Gregory  (Central  School  of  Science  and  Tech- 
nology, Stoke-on-Trent)  wrote  that  the  author  had  stated  that 
"  the  eff'ect  of  a  quench  is  probably  due  to  the  rate  ...  of  heat- 
absorption  over  a  particular  range  of  temperature,  and  depends 

244       TRAXSACTK^NS    -TlIK    XORTIl    OV    KXliLAXI)    IXSTITITK.    [Vol.  Ixvi. 

not  merely  so  juucli  upon  tlie  total  lieat  effect ;  "  and,  again, 
that  "  a  quencliing  material  would  be  most  efficient  when  it  pre- 
vents a  rapid  rise  of  temperature  by  large  beat-absorption 
comparatively  earlv  in  the  rise  of  temperature — say  in  the  rise 
from  0  to  100  degrees  if  the  coal  fired  at  800°  Cent."  It  wOuld 
appear  from  the  various  tables  given  in  the  paper,  or  from 
calculations  made  from  the  figures,  that  if  100  grammes  of  each 
of  the  following  substances  be  taken,  namely,  gypsum,  anhydrous 
sodium  carbonate,  soda-crystals,  sodium  bicarbonate,  and  Glauber 
salts,  and  an  initial  rise  in  temperature  of  200°  Cent,  be  assumed, 
also  the  maximum  specific  heat  to  obtain  in  each  case  throughout 
the  rise,  and  intermolecular  change  being  ignored — the  amount 
of  heat  absorbed  would  be  as  under  :  — 

Gypsum  ..         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         4*8  K. 

Anhydrous  sodium  carbonate 
Sodium  bicarbonate 
Glauber  salts 

5-4  K. 
7  0  K. 

6-0  K. 
6-8  K. 

In  several  of  these  substances,  however,  intermolecular 
changes  were  taking  place,  which  required  heat  just  as  much  as 
heat  was  necessary  to  bring  about  a  rise  in  temperature.  For  100 
grammes  of  each  substance  before  mentioned,  the  measure  of  this 
heat — the  same  range  of  rise  of  temperature  being  assumed — 
would  be  as  follows  :  — 


Gypsum       281  K. 

Anhydrous  sodium  carbonate     ...         ...         ...         ...  Nil. 

Soda-crystals          ...         ...         ...          ...          6'31  K. 

Sodium  bicarbonate          ...          ...         ...         ...         ...  Nil. 

Glauber  salts    ■      ...         ...         ...         ...         ...          ...  4"61  K. 

The  remarks  already  quoted  from  the  paper  showed  that  these 
figures  must  be  material  in  estimating  the  heat  absorbed  in  the 
early  stages  of  the  rise  of  temperature.  For  example,  the  heat 
absorbed  by  equal  weights  of  soda-crystals  and  sodium  bicarbon- 
ate (taking  the  sum  of  Tables  A  and  B)  were  respectively  13-31  K. 
and  60  K.,  and  yet  it  would  be  found  from  the  author's  Table  I. 
that  the  sodium  bicarbonate  was  the  more  efficacious.  Again, 
gypsum  (weight  for  weight  with  anhydrous  sodium  carbonate) 
absorbed  7' 61  K,  compared  with  5'4  K,  and  yet  the  experimental 
data  adduced  showed  that  the  anhydrous  sodium  carbonate  was 


very  considerably  the  superior  deterrent.  Without  going  fur- 
ther, it  woukl  appear  that  the  conclusions  arrived  at  by  the 
author  with  regard  to  the  value  of  the  specific-heat  factor  were 
anything  but  proved. 

He  (Mr.  Gregory)  would,  moreover,  like  to  mention  a  point 
which  appeared  to  have  been  overlooked.  In  the  case  of  those 
substances  which  contained  combined  water,  the  heat  of  dehy- 
dration did  not  include  the  heat  necessary  to  vaporize  the  water 
separated,  that  was,  the  latent  heat.  Before  the  temperature 
could  pass  beyond  the  boiling-point,  each  gramme  of  water 
separated  must  be  converted  into  steam,  and  this  required  per 
gramme  of  water  at  100°  Cent.  OSST  K. 

Calculations  for  the  substances  already  mentioned  showed  that 
the  following  additional  amounts  of  heat  must  be  absorbed  by 
the  100  grammes  of  each  within  the  range  of  temperature  dealt 
with  :  — 


Gypsum  11-22  K. 

Anhydrous  sodium  carbonate      ....         ...  Nil. 

Soda-crystals  ...         ...         ...         ...  24"65  K. 

Sodium  bicarbonate  ...         ...         ...  Nil.     (Not  decomposed 

within  range  taken). 

Glauber  salts 23-2  K. 

Summarizing  the  various  absorptions  of  heat  for  these 
substances,  the  following  figures  were  arrived  at :  — 

A.  B.              C.  Total  heat. 

Gypsum  (CaSO,,  2H,0) 4-8  281  11-22  lS-83 

Anhydrous  sodium  carbonate  (Na2C03)         5  "4  —             —  5 '4 

Soda-crystals  (Na^COj,  SHjO) T'O  6-31  24-65  37-96 

Sodium  bicarbonate  (NaHL'Og)             ...         6-0  —  —  6-0 

Glauber  salts  (Na.,SO„  6H2O) 6-S  4-61  23-2  34-61 

Since  anhydrous  sodium  carbonate  and  sodium  bicarbonate 
required  relatively  such  small  amounts  of  heat  to  raise  their 
temperatures  in  the  initial  stages,  it  was  certainly  curious  that 
they  should  occupy  so  favourable  a  position  in  Table  I.  A 
probable  explanation  was  that  the  last  four  substances  in  Table  I. 
— the  most  effective  deterrents  by  some  considerable  margin — 
all  fused  at  temperatures  which  under  the  conditions  of  the 
experiment  would  be  quickly  reached.  It  was  conceivable, 
therefore,  that  coal-particles  when  mixed  with  these  substances 
became  coated  with  a  film  of  non-combustible  liqitid  which  pre- 

246      TRANSACTIONS — THE   XOKTII   OF    EXCiLAXJ)   INSTITUTE.    [Vol.  Ixvi. 

vented  or  retarded  coiubustiou.  The  other  substances  in  the 
list,  liowever,  would  remain  solid  at  the  temperatures  reached, 
and  consequently  hinder  hut  little  the  process  of  combustion. 

He  had  for  some  years  advocated  the  use  of  potash  alum  as  a 
deterrent ;  for  many  reasons  he  considered  it  more  suitable  than 
any  other  substance.  It  contained  large  quantities  of  combined 
water,  which,  unlike  many  other  substances,  such  as  soda- 
crystals,  it  could  retain  for  long  periods  at  the  ordinary  mine 
temperature.  It  absorbed  large  quantities  of  heat,  owing  to  the 
fact  that  heat  was  required  to  dehydrate  the  substance,  as  well  as 
to  vaporize  the  water  liberated.  It  also  became  liquid  on  heat- 
ing, and  tended  to  coat  or  film  the  substance  in  contact  with  it. 

Mr.  J.  D.  Morgan"  (Birmingham)  wrote  that  the  results  con- 
firmed what  had  hitherto  been  more  or  less  generally  believed, 
but  had  not,  so  far  as  he  knew,  been  established  by  a  systematic 
investigation,  namely,  that,  apart  from  considerations  of  cost 
and  convenience,  the  usefulness  of  an  inert  dust  in  diminish- 
ing or  preventing  a  combustible  dust  explosion  depended  upon 
its  capacity  for  heat  and  the  rate  at  which  heat  could  be  absorbed 
by  it.  Excepting  decomposible  inert  dusts,  those  properties 
depended  upon  specific  heat  and  conductivity.  The  value  of 
the  paper  would,  in  his  opinion,  be  increased  if  the  thermal 
conductivities  of  the  materials  mentioned  could  be  given.  He 
could  scarcely  agree  with  the  author  in  his  statement  that  the 
rate  of  heat-absorption  was  implied  in  the  conception  of  specific 
heat.  Rate  belong-ed  rather  to  conductivity.  In  the  case  of 
decomposible  compounds,  the  effects  of  specific  heat  and  con- 
ductivity were  supplemented  by,  if  not  subordinated  to,  the 
heat-absorption  in  the  process  of  decomposition.  Expressed  in 
general  terms,  the  usefulness  of  the  inert  material  depended 
upon  its  rate  of  and  capacity  for  heat-absorption,  a  fact  which 
was  abundantly  supported  by  the  evidence  adduced  in  the 
paper.  It  was  interesting  to  see  laid  low  the  old  fallacy  con- 
cerning materials  which  gave  off  carbon  dioxide  when  decom- 
posed by  heat.  One  still  heard  or  saw  repeated  the  statement 
that  a  dust  capable  of  givi'ng  off  that  gas  should  be  very  effective 
in  quenching  a  dust  explosion.  A  little  consideration  was  suffi- 
cient to  show  how  slight  was  the  justification  for  the  belief. 
The  carbon  dioxide  thus  formed  was  practically  a  bye-product  of 
the    explosion,    and    consequently    could    not    have    any    more 

1915-1916.]  ])ISCrSSIOX (OAL-Dl'ST    EXPLOSIONS.  247 

queiicliiug  effect   than    the   carbon  dioxide  ordinarily   produced 
in  a  coal-gas  or  dust-explosion. 

It  would  be  useful  to  have  in  Table  I.  the  figures  obtained  in 
the  tests  on  calcium  carbonate,  and  he  was  sure  that  it  would  be 
worth  while  to  add  to  the  paper  the  figures  or  curves  sbowing 
the  effect  on  the  exi)losibility  of  each  or  all  of  the  coal-dusts  of 
different  quantities  of  the  inert  dusts  employed. 

Prof.  Hex^ry  Louis  (Armstrong  College,  Xewcastle-upon- 
Tyne)  said  they  were  very  much  indebted  to  Mr.  Blatchford 
for  the  patience  that  he  had  shown  in  working  out  this  very 
interesting  branch  of  the  subject,  which  certainly  threw  much 
light  on  the  use  of  various  substances  in  quenching  explosions. 
Mr.  Blatchford  was  quite  right  in  remarking  that  the  original 
idea  of  those  investigations  sprang  from  some  remarks  that  he 
(Prof.  Louis)  had  made  when  discussing  papers  by  Mr.  AV.  C. 
Blackett  and  Mr.  R.  Clive,  in  which  he*. compared  the  effect  from 
the  theoretical  point  of  view  of  boiler-ashes  and  ground  shale — 
from  the  point  of  view  of  their  respective  specific  heats  and  of 
the  heat  absorbed  by  dehydration.  He  then  predicted  that  any 
bodies  that  were  capable  of  giving  off  moisture  at  a  low  tem- 
perature, and  thus  capable  of  absorbing  a  good  deal  of  heat, 
would  be  better  quenchers  than  anhydrous  substances  like 
boiler-ashes  or  sand.  It  was  a  matter  of  great  gratification  to 
him  that  these  theoretical  conclusions  had  now  been  proved  by 
practical  experiments  to  be  correct. 

The  explanation  of  the  figures  given  by  Mr.  Blatchford  was 
not  very  simple,  and  he  (Prof.  Louis)  ventured  to  think  that  Mr. 
lilatchford  had  overlooked  one  of  the  conditions  which  probably 
might  explain  some  of  the  anomalies  in  his  tables,  namely,  the 
degree  of  fine  division  of  the  particles,  which  might  account  for 
the  puzzling  fact  that  magnesia  was  a  much  more  efficient 
quencher  than  quicklime.  He  would  like  to  know  whether  the 
dimensions  of  these  particles  could  not  be  determined.  It  was 
quite  obvious  that  their  quenching-  effect  must  be  a  function  of 
their  size.  The  heat  was  absorbed  from  the  surface,  and 
obviously  the  smaller  the  particle  was,  the  greater  would  be  the 
proportion  which  the  surface  bore  to  the  mass  of  the  particle,  so 
that  the  fineness  of  division  played  an  important  part  from  that 

*  Trans.  Inst.  M.  K,  1913,  vol.  xlv.,  page  318  ;  and  1914,  vol.  xlvii.,  page  404. 

VOL.  LXVI.-l915-l'.ili:  18  E 


point  of  view.  They  were  very  much  indebted  to  Mr.  Blatchford 
and  Prof.  Bedson  for  havinp-  done  this  work  and  given  them  thi-s 
further  addition  to  tlie  lengthy  series  of  seientific  data  Avliifdi  the 
laboratories  of  Armstrong  College  had  been  able  to  furnish  to 
the  Institute. 

The  President  (Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener),  in  seconding  the  vote 
of  thanks,  said  that  he  would  like  to  know,  from  the  point  of 
A-iew  of  the  practical  engineer,  what  these  figures  meant.  Was 
he  correct  in  thinking  that  the  experiments  showed  that  Glauber 
salts  was  the  best  quencher,  and  that,  as  compared  with  boiler- 
ashes,'  for  instance,  the  proportion  in  volume  which  would  be 
necessary  would  be  as  O09  to  1'82  ? 

Mr.  Blatchford  replied  that  the  figures  represented  the 
proportions  by  weight. 

The  President  said  that  obviously  went  to  .show  that,  if  it 
were  possible  to  use  Glauber  salts,  the  quantity  which  would 
have  to  be  used  to  make  a  mine  immune  from  explosion  would 
be  very  much  smaller  than  in  the  case  of  boiler-ashes;  but  one 
would  have  to  consider  the  relative  costs  of  the  two  substances, 
and  whether  it  would  be  worth  while  to  go  to  the  expense  of 
purchasing-  Glauber  salts,  or  to  use  stone-dust,  which  might  be 
had  for  nothing. 

Mr.  William  Severs  (Beamish)  said  there  was  no  doubt  that 
the  paper  did  give  them  some  idea  of  the  relative  quenching 
properties  of  the  different  substances,  but  he  did  not  think  that 
the  conditions  were  th'e  same  as  those  that  obtained  in  the  pit. 
He  understood  that  Mr.  Blatchford  had  introduced  into  his  ex- 
perimentation vessel  a  certain  amount  of  coal-dust,  together  with 
a  certain  amount  of  quenchers,  and  these  had  been  mixed  together 
in  certain  proportions.  In  the  pit  the  conditions  were,  however, 
quite  different.  They  had  roads  dusted  with  a  quencher — say, 
boiler-ashes,  or  flue-dust  as  they  called  it — then  they  had  a 
deposit  of  fine  coal-dust  on  the  top  of  that,  and  probably  they 
had  in  a  week  or  two  to  redust  the  whole  road,  and  by  and  by 
they  got  the  whole  place  dusted,  three,  four,  five,  or  six  times 
with  one  layer  on  top  of  the  other.     The  whole  of  this  stuff  was 

1915-1916.]  niscrssiox — coal-dust  explosions.  249 

lying-  then  in  a  condition  of  rest  on  the  floor  and  the  sides  of  the 
naileries  of  the  mine.  They  might  have  an  explosion  after  that, 
but  that  explosion  might  probably  be  due  to  the  fine  dust  in 
the  pit  having'  been  mixed  up  with  the  air  and  having'  set  up 
certain  conditions  that  were  conducive  to  an  explosion.  If  there 
were  an  explosion,  the  blast  might  come  out-bye,  but  which- 
ever way  it  went  it  raised  the  whole  of  this  dust,  so  that  the 
conditions  prevailing  M^ere  quite  different  in  such  circumstances 
from  the  conditions  prevailing  in  the  tests  made  by  jMt.  Blatch- 
ford;  in  fact,  there  was  no  comparison  between  the  two.  Coal- 
dust  had  a  specific  gravity  of  1'25,  but  shale-dust  would  not 
rise  with  the  same  rapidity  as  coal-dust ;  con.sequently  all  the 
coal-dust  was  raised  in  the  air,  and  this  was  conducive  to  an 
explosion.  He  thought  that  Mr.  Blatchford  should  endeavour 
to  make  his  conditions  similar  to  those  obtaining  in  an  ordinary 
pit.  and  then  let  the  members  know  the  results. 

It  seemed  to  him  (Mr.  Severs)  almost  impossible  to  use 
Glauber  salts,  owing  to  the  expense,  but  they  were  glad  to 
employ  fiue-dust,  which  they  could  not  get  rid  of  otherwise, 
and  to  take  it  down  the  pit  to  be  used  as  a  quencher  by  dusting 
it  along  the  roads  and  galleries.  They  had  not  only  to  take  into 
consideration  the  relative  values  of  the  quenchers,  but  their  cost. 

Mr.  A.  S.  Blatchford,  replying  to  tlie  discussion,  wrote  that 
the  quenching  action  of  the  non-combustible  materials  was  com- 
plex; and  the  members  who  had  contributed  to  the  discussion 
agreed  fairly  well  that  the  explanation  was  to  be  looked  for  in 
the  physical  ratlier  than  in  the  chemical  properties  of  the  quench- 
ing materials. 

Mr.  J.  I).  Morgan  had  suggested  that  the  heat  conductivity 
miglit  possibly  be  of  importance,  and  had  ask'ed  for  the  inclusion 
of  the  conductivity  values  of  the  materials  used.  It  was  difficult 
to  obtain  reliable  information  regarding  these  values,  but  the 
figures  which  were  known  indicated  that  the  differences  in  con- 
ductivity were  not  large  enough  to  correspond  with  differences 
in  quenching  effect.  The  heat  required  to  raise  the  temperature 
of  1  cubic  centimetre  of  gj-jisum  1  degree  was  about  ISO  times  the 
heat  conducted  across  a  cubic  centimetre  between  faces  differing 
in  temperature  by  1  degree.  If  the  rapidity  of  the  explosion 
and  the  relative  smallness  of  the  conductivities  of   compounds 

250      TRANSACTIONS THE  XOKTII  OF  EX(;[.AX1)  INSTITUTE.    [Vol.  Ixvi. 

were  borne  in  in  hid .  diffeieiices  in  preventive  action  due  to  dittei- 
ences  in  conductivity  nii<ilit  be  taken  as  small  in  coni])arison 
with  diit'erences  due  to  heat-absorption. 

Mr.  T.  W.  D.  Gregory  had  calculated  and  set  forth  in  tables 
the  heat  recjuired  for  various  purposes  durin<>'  an  initial  rise  of 
200°  Cent.  In  his  (Mr.  Blatchford's)  opinion  the  GSl  K  in 
Table  B  required  by  the  soda-crystals  to  liberate  the  water  of 
crystallization  was,  on  account  of  the  greater  part  of  it  being 
required  at  38°  Cent.,  of  greater  consequence  than  the  7*0  K, 
which  was  approximately  the  heat  required  to  raise  the  tempera- 
ture of  the  same  substance  through  200°  Cent.,  and  to  combine 
these  numbers  in  simple  arithmetical  addition  was  hardly  justi- 
fiable. He  (Mr.  Blatchford)  made  no  attempt  to  combine  these 
heat  requirements  in  any  mathematical  way — certainly  not  by 
simple  addition,  as  he  was  of  the  opinion  that  the  expression 
obtained  would  be  too  complex  to  serve  any  useful  purpose.  In 
Table  C  the  heats  required  to  convert  the  liberated  water  into 
vapour  were  stated.  In  his  (Mr.  Blatchford's)  opinion  there  was 
a  special  mechanical  eifect  at  the  boiling-point.  A  cubic  foot  of 
water  yielded  about  1,700  cubic  feet  of  steani.  When  the 
particles  with  their  water  came  within  the  influence  of  the  ignit- 
ing medium,  the  production  of  steam  from  a  part  of  the  water 
would  convey  the  i;articles  out  of  the  region  of  influence  of  the 
igniting  medium,  an  idea  which  was  foreshadowed  in  the  paper. 
Moreover,  the  steam  would  contribute  an  atmosphere  which  was 
incombustible  and  a  non-supporter  of  combustion.  He  considered 
that  the  values  in  Table  C  should  be  reduced  to  some  fraction  of 
the  present  numbers,  and  even  then  the  combination  of  A,  B,  and 
C  should  not  be  by  arithmetical  addition.  In  Mr.  Gregory's 
opinion  the  explanation  was  to  be  found  in  the  fusibility  of 
the  inert  substances.  He  had  stated  in  Table  C  that  sodium  bi- 
carbonate was  not  decomposed  in  the  initial  200  degrees  rise,  and 
had  assumed  that  Glauber  salts,  soda-crystals,  and  gypsum 
formed  a  fluid  mixture  or  solution  with  the  liberated  water  of 
crystallization.  The  bicarbonate  yielded  less  than  10  per  cent, 
of  its  weight  as  water  above  200°  Cent.,  and  was  converted  into 
carbonate  fusing  at  about  1,100°  Cent.;  and  he  did  not  agree 
with  Mr.  Gregory  that,  under  the  conditions  of  the  experiment, 
sodium  bicarbonate  and  anhydrous  sodium  carbonate  were  easily 
fusible   or   formed  easily   fluid   mixtures.     The   coal-dust  itself 

1915-1916.]  DISCUSSION^ — COAL-DrST  EXPLOSIONS.  251 

would  fire  before  tlie  fusion  of  the  quench  tooli  place ;  it  was 
only  extreme  coals  that  required  1,300°  Cent,  for  a  firing  tem- 
perature, some  firing  as  low  as  800°  Cent.  If  the  last  four 
substiinces  in  Table  I.  were  to  be  regarded  as  easily  fusible,  then 
gypsum,  with  its  water  of  crystallization,  should  also  be  so 
regarded,  and,  according  to  this  point  of  view,  gypsum  should  be 
a  much  better  deterrent  than  the  results  indicated.  Mr.  Gregory 
considered  it  possible  for  the  coal-particles  to  become  coated  Tvith 
a  film  of  non-combustible  fluid.  It  was  hardly  conceivable  that 
5  grammes  of  water  would  form  very  protective  films  for  the 
particles  of  5  grammes  of  dehydrated  salt  and  90  grammes  of 
coal.  He  (Mr.  Blatchford)  could  quite  see  that  films  had  a  pro- 
tective value,  if  there  was  enough  fluid  to  provide  a  sufficient 
thickness  of  film,  but  in  the  experiments  under  consideration 
the  protectivehess  of  any  films  produced  was,  he  thought,  of 
small  importance. 

Mr.  Severs  had  stated  that  the  initial  arrangement  in  layers 
of  coal-dust  and  flue-dust  in  the  roads  of  the  mine  was  destroyed 
when  the  dust  was  raised  by  the  blast,  whichever  way  it  went ; 
therefore  it  hardly  mattered  whether  the  initial  arrangement 
was  one  of  layers  or  one  of  an  intimate  mixture.  In  the 
apparatus  when  the  mixture  was  projected  into  the  explosions- 
vessel  the  particles  would  arrange  themselves  in  the  air  some- 
what according  to  their  specific  gravities,  or  rather  according  to 
their  buoyancies,  and  this  Mr.  Severs  supposed  also  to  happen 
in  the  galleries.  The  conditions  in  the  apparatus  and  in  the 
gallery  with  regard  to  the  raised  dust  were  not  so  incomparable 
as  Mr.  Severs  thought. 

In  reply  to  Prof.  Louis,  he  (Mr.  Blatchford)  wished  to  say 
that  every  care  was  taken  to  obtain  and  use  the  materials  in 
as  fine  a  state  of  division  as  possible.  No  measurements  of  the 
sizes  of  the  particles  were  made.  Further  experimental  work 
would  solve  the  problem  raised,  but  he  was  of  opinion  that 
alterations  in  the  relative  proportions  of  the  figures  in  Table  I. 
would  be  slight. 

He  (Mr.  Blatchford)  had  rigidly  avoided  economic  considera- 
tions and  questions  of  cost. 

VOL.  LIVI.-lOlMfllB.  19  E 

252       TRANSACTIOJS'S — THE  NORTH  OF  E.NGJ.A.XD  INSTITUTE.    [Vol.  Ixvi. 



Held  in  the  Wood  Memorial  Hall,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 

June  3rd,  1916. 

Prof.  HENRY  LOUIS,  Vice-President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  StECRETARY  read  the  minutes  of  the  last  General  Meetings, 
and  reported  the  proceedings  of  the  Council  at  their  meetings  on 
May  20th  and  that  day. 

The  following-  gentlemen  were  elected,  having  been  previously 

nominated : — 

Member — 
Lieut. -Colonel  William  Henry  Ritson,  V.D.,  Colliery  Owner,  Springwell 
Hall,  Durham. 

Associate — 
Mr.  John  Stoker,  Colliery  Under-manager,  1,  Office  Street,  Wheatley  Hill» 
County  Durham. 

Subscribers  - 
The  Hardy  Patent  Pick  Company,  Limited,  Heeley,  Sheffield. 


Mr.  Samuel  Dean  (Delagua,  Colorado,  U.S.A.)  wrote  that,  in 
taking  the  photograph  for  Fig.  3  (page  345),  he  had  not  selected 
an  abnormal  place,  and  he  could,  if  necessary,  have  a  dozen  or 
m^ore  photographs  taken  showing  timbered  machine-faces. 

*  Trans.  Inst.  M.  E.,  1915,  vol.  1.,  pages  179  and  388;  and  1916,  vol.  li.> 
pages  35  and  340. 


At  least  75  per  cent,  of  the  shortwall  machines  in  use  were 
moved  between  the  working-places  by  the  aid  of  the  trailing- 
cable,  and  not  through  power  derived  from  a  bare  trolley-wire. 
If  novices  understood  that  machines  could  be  moved  by  means  of 
an  insulated  cable,  then  general  managers  or  agents  should  know 
that  they  could  be  moved  quickly  by  that  method  if  the  mine- 
workings  were  so  planned  as  to  facilitate  quick  movement. 

Mr.  Hare  had  not  described  how  his  "  failure  "  machine  was 
moved,  nor  had  he  described  the  machine  except  to  say  that  it 
was  a  bord-and-pillar  or  heading  machine,  and  a  heading 
machine  might  be  the  old-fashioned  breast  machine.  It  would 
appear  desirable  to  settle  one  controversy  at  a  time,  and  therefore 
he  would  suggest  that  the  thick  seams  in  Great  Britain  where 
the  pitches  were  not  heavy  might  be  dealt  with,  and  their  out- 
puts compared  with  similar  seams  in  America  where  electricity 
was  not  used  for  coal-cutting.  Mr.  Hare  had  not  given  a  plan 
or  any  data  relating  to  the  workings  where  the  machine  was  an 
absolute  failure,  nor  had  the  American  operator  made  any  state- 

The  writer  wished  it  to  be  understood  that  he  had  not 
intended  to  infer  that  British  mining  engineers  were  lacking  in 
skill,  as  Mr.  Greener  appeared  to  suggest.  He  hoped  that  the 
members  would  make  for  themselves  an  interesting  comparison 
of  the  statements  of  Mr.  Hare,  Mr.  Tate,  and  Mr.  Halbaum,  and 
he  asked  them  to  decide  to  what  conclusion  an  unbiassed  investi- 
gator would  come  after  studying  those  remarks. 

Later  on,  he  would  be  prepared  to  go  into  the  question  of  out- 
put in  thin  seams  with  difficult  pitches  and  bad  roofs.  Such 
seams  were  being  worked  in  America ;  he  knew  of  one  seam  4^ 
feet  thick,  pitching  38  degrees,  which  was  being  worked  on  the 
longwall-panel  method,  where  the  output  per  man  at  the  face 
was  7*43  long  tons  per  shift  of  8  hours,  and  coal-cutting 
machines  were  not  used.  The  roof  was  very  bad,  and  had  to  be 
timbered  with  collars  and  legs  right  up  to  the  face.  Airways 
had  to  be  driven  in  the  rock,  as  they  would  not  stand  in  the  coal. 

He  had  referred  to  Bentley  Colliery  because  the  co^l  there 
was  as  easy  to  break  down  as  many  seams  that  were  undermined 
by  machines,  and  there  was  no  necessity  to  use  electricity  in  a 
mine  of  that  description  to  increase  the  output  per  man. 



Mr.  Hiram  H.  Hirscii  (Philadelphia,  U.S.A.),  in  reply  to 
Mr.  Percy  L.  Wood,  wrote  that  he  was  quite  confident  that  upon 
investig-ation  it  would  be  found  that  his  lamp  was  the  first  port- 
able battery  cap-lamp  for  use  in  mines,  the  first  outfit  of  which 
was  installed  and  successfully  operated  about  seven  years  ago; 
since  then  it  had  been  developed  and  improved  upon,  in  order 
to  give  absolute  satisfaction  with  regard  to  efficiency,  practic- 
ability, and  durability.  The  lamps  were  in  use  in  many  of  the 
largest  coal-mines  in  the  United  States  of  America. 

As  to  the  capacity  of  tlie  lamps  for  withstanding  abuse,  the 
Pittsburgh  Bufialo  Company,  the  North-AYestern  Improvement 
Company,  the  Franklin  Coal  &  Coke  Company,  the  Pennsylvania 
Coal  &  Coke  Corporation,  the  Woodward  Iron  Company,  the 
Lehigh  Coal  &  Navigation  Company,  and  the  Reading  Coal  & 
Iron  Company,  wlio  had  large  installations  of  these  lamps,  all 
testified  as  to  their  strength  and  durability. 

He  quite  appreciated  the  fact  that  an  increase  in  the  size  of 
the  battery  would  result  in  a  lamp  of  higher  efiiciency,  and  give 
greater  illumination  :  this  was  very  easily  accomplished  by  in- 
creasing the  size  and  weight  of  the  battery,  say,  25  or  50  per 
cent. ,  which  would  permit  of  the  use  of  a  lamp  of  higher  candle- 
power.  Amongst  the  advantages  of  the  cap-lamp  might  be 
mentioned  the  fact  that  the  user  had  the  free  use  of  his  hands : 
the  lig*ht  was  thrown  wherever  he  turned  his  head,  so  that  he 
always  had  the  light  in  front  of  him. 


Mr.  I.  C.  Parfitt  (Jerome,  Pennsylvania,  U.S.A.)  wrote 
that  he  heartily  agreed  with  and  commended  the  conclusions 
arrived  at  by  Mr.  Gibson  with  regard  to ,  standardization, 
although  he  differed  from  him  as  to  the  particular  features  of 
the  tram  that  required  standardization  so  as  to  render  it  capable 
of  national  adoption. 

In  the  United  States  the  subject  of  "  trams  "  seemed  to  have 
received    more   attention   in  regard    to    their    construction    and 

•  Trans.  Inst.  M.  E.,  1916,  vol.  li.,  pages  61  and  350. 
t  Ihid.,  1916,  vol.  li.,  pages  72  and  350. 

1915-1916.]  DISCUSSION — THE   LOGIC  OF   TRAMS.  255 

the  reduction  of  friction  than  to  standardization  either  with 
respect  to  the  dimensions  of  the  body  of  the  car  or  of  the  wheel 
base.  The  tendency  in  the  United  States  had  been  to  adopt  the 
maximum  of  carrying-  capacity  under  any  and  all  conditions,  as 
he  (Mr.  Parfitt)  had  endeavoured  to  show  in  his  remarks  on  Mr. 
Samuel  Dean's  paper.*  This  tendency  was  caused  by  the  almost 
universal  adoption  of  the  electric  system  of  haulage,  which,  for 
its  successful  economic  operation,  required  strength  in  construc- 
tion of  the  rolling-stock,  and  this  could  be  more  easily  attained 
in  trams  of  large  than  in  those  of  small  capacity  when  the  cost  of 
construction  formed  an  important  factor,  as  it  necessarily  did. 

There  was,  however,  one  vital  objection  to  the  use  of 
maximum-sized  trams  in  electric  haulage,  namely,  the  limita- 
tion in  speed  and  size  of  trips  produced  by  the  gradients  of  the 
haulage-roads,  the  present  general  construction  of  mine  electric 
motors  being  such  as  to  give  a  maximum  of  efficiency  for  power 
consumed  on  gTadients  varying  from  a  dead  level  to  one  not 
exceeding  3  per  cent,  against  the  loads.  An  attempt  had  been 
made  to  operate  successfully  the  electric  locomotive  on  heavy 
grades  by  the  introduction  of  what  was  known  as  the  "  rack- 
rail  "  motor,  in  which  a  sprocket-wheel,  situated  in  the  middle  of 
the  machine,  acted  upon  a  sprocket-rail  laid  in  the  middle  of  the 
track,  thus  enabling  the  machine  to  climb  heavy  grades  regard- 
less of  frictional  resistance.  This  machine,  however,  had  not, 
as  yet,  come  into  general  use. 

The  use  of  cars  of  large  capacity,  with  their  necessarily  cor- 
responding weight,  had  imposed  an  increased  burden  of  labour 
upon  the  miner  where  the  cars  had  to  be  man-handled  in  rooms 
opened  on  an  ascending  grade  that  amounted  to  practically  50 
per  cent,  of  the  labour  required  in  blasting  and  loading  the  coal. 
Where  the  grade  dipped  to  the  working-face,  the  motors,  being 
equipped  with  reel  ropes,  could  haul  the  loads  to  the  entry. 
Animal  haulage  was  sometimes  employed  to  overcome  the  former 
condition,  but  the  use  of  animals  in  conjunction  with  electricity 
was  not  to  be  recommended. 

It  would  be  presumptuous  on  his  part  to  attempt  to  criticize 
adversely  Mr.  Gibson's  paper,  as  the  geological  formation  of  the 
coal-seams  and  the  methods  of  extraction  were  so  widely  differ- 
ent in  the  two  countries  as  to  present  no  particular  feature  in 

*  Trans.  Inst.  M.  E.,  1915,  vol.  1.,  page  395. 


common ;  hence  comparisons  in  general,  or  in  any  one  particular, 
would  be  as  irrelevant  as  tliey  would  be  injudicious,  as  he  had 
no  knowledge  of  English  mining  conditions  and  methods  beyond 
that  derived  from  reading  and  from  hearsay.  Any  comments  and 
suggestions  that  he  offered  in  the  present  remarks  might  be 
regarded  as  more  applicable  to  the  conditions  and  methods  pre- 
vailing in  the  United  States  than  to  those  in  Great  Britain, 
except,  perhaps,  such  as  were  of  so  general  a  character  that  they 
might  be  of  general  application. 

It  appeared  to  him  that  the  standardization  of  trams  under 
conditions  such  as  he  was  informed  existed  in  Great  Britain, 
where  several  seams  of  coal  were  developed  from  the  same  shaft, 
the  seams  differing  materially  in  height  and  in  the  composition 
of  the  contiguous  strata,  would  result  in  all  the  advantages  and 
benefits  claimed  by  Mr.  Gibson. 

Mr.  Gibson  had  made  certain  statements  relative  to  the  deter- 
minating factors  in  the  size  of  trams  that  were  of  so  general  and 
application  that  they  might  be  regarded  as  universal,  and,  as 
such,  he  would  take  the  liberty  of  commenting  upon  them. 

Mining  engineers  and  managers  were  neither  harassed  nor 
embarrassed  in  the  United  States  by  such  a  variety  of  nomencla- 
ture in  mining  terms  as  existed  in  Great  Britain.  The  mining 
community  in  America  consisted  of  so  heterogeneous  a  com- 
position of  all  nationalities  that  a  common  nomenclature  had  been 
made  necessary  by  the  very  existence  of  this  composite  character. 
A  "  tram  "  in  the  United  States  was  familiarly  characterized  by 
the  name  of  "car"  or  "mine-car."  The  adjunct  in  the  latter 
name  was  a  distinctive  appellation,  so  as  to  distinguish  between 
the  inside  and  outside  rolling-stock :  the  latter  was  commonly 
designated  as  "steels"  or  "flats,"  the  one  term  designating  the 
composition  and  the  other  the  form.  The  parallel  steel  lines  on 
which  the  cars  ran  were  known  as  the  "track,"  and  the  bed  on 
which  the  track  was  laid  was  known  as  the  "  road."  Sleepers 
were  known  as  "  ties,"  and  the  term  had  a  distinctive  signifi- 
cance, since  they  were  the  implements  by  which  the  rails  were 
bound  or  tied  together  and  supported  and  maintained  at  the 
specified  distance  (gauge)  apart. 

Under  the  section  "  What  Governs  the  Size  of  the  Tram  "  it 
was  stated  that  (other  considerations  apart)  the  greater  the  dis- 
tance was  the  larger  the  tram  should  be.     This  was  theoretically. 

1915-1916.]  DISCUSSIOM" THE    LOGIC  OF   TRAMS.  257 

incontrovertible  aside  from  the  parenthetical  expression.  If 
the  distance  or  length  of  roadway  over  which  the  tram  was  to  be 
man-handled  was  regarded  as  a  factor  in  the  size,  then  the  size 
would  be  definite.  In  most  mines  and  collieries  this  distance 
was  fixed,  in  room-and-pillar  work,  by  the  length  of  the  rooms 
and  the  distances  between  cut-throughs  on  entries,  since  this  was 
the  distance  through  which  cars  had  generally  to  be  man- 
handled ;  and  he  supposed  that  in  longwall  work  the  advancing 
faces  would  be  cut  oif  at  stated  intervals  by  what  he  believed  were 
known  as  "cross-gates."  If  the  distance  over  which  the  tram 
was  to  be  hauled  from  the  point  of  delivery  at  the  main  haul  were 
taken  as  the  factor,  the  size  of  the  car  would  then,  upon  the  pre- 
ceding hypothesis,  be  determinable  only  by  the  greatest  length 
of  haul. 

Again,  it  was  stated  that  "  in  thin  seams  a  predetermined 
minimum  height  and  width  of  gate-road  is  set  up  by  the  size  of 
the  tram."  If  this  was  the  case,  it  appeared  to  him  that  this 
was  a  method  practically  reversing  that  generally  adopted  to 
determine  the  size  of  the  tram.  If  he  understood  the  expression 
correctly,  the  author  inferred  that  the  size  of  the  tram  was 
fixed  or  determined  before  the  seam  was  developed  to  such  an 
extent  as  to  reveal  the  conditions  under  which  the  tram  was 
to  be  used.  In  such  a  case  the  dimensions  of  the  tram  were  not 
made  to  conform  to  the  natural  conditions — in  other  words,  the 
natural  conditions  were  made  to  conform  to  the  arbitrary  con- 
ditions. Such  a  method  was  injudicious  and  unbusinesslike.  It 
was  easier  and  less  expensive  to  make  arbitrary  conditions  con- 
form to  natural  ones  than  the  reverse.  The  height  of  the  seam 
and  the  nature  of  the  contiguous  strata  should,  within  prescribed 
limits  in  all  seams,  determine  the  cross-section  of  all  roadways, 
and  the  size  of  the  roadway  should  determine  the  size  of  the  tram. 

The  calculations  with  reference  to  the  facility  with  which 
trams  of  various  weights  and  coefl&cients  of  friction  could  be 
man-handled  were  a  very  instructive  feature  of  the  paper,  and, 
in  determining  the  size  of  the  vehicles  used  in  the  transportation 
of  coal  underground,  this  was  a  factor  to  which  adequate  con- 
sideration had  not  been  given  by  operators ;  in  fact,  the  labour 
involved  in  man-handling  trams  was  the  last  factor  taken  into 
consideration  in  the  United  States,  although  it  was  perhaps 
one  of  the  most  vital  features  in  the  production  of  output,  as 

'2bS       TKAX.SAC'TION.S TIIK  NOHI'II  OF  p:N{iI,AND  IXSTI'lTTE.    [Vol.  Ixvi. 

he  had  already  explained.  Conservatism  had  become  an  indus- 
trial slo<>an  in  the  United  States,  and  yet  here  was  one  of 
the  most  important  factors  in  the  conservation  of  human 
energy  that  was  practically  ignored.  Man-handling  in  small 
seams  could  not  be  eliminated,  but  the  adoption  of  a  system 
of  exploitation  that  would  materially  reduce  the  grades,  either 
in  the  handling  of  loads  or  empties,  or,  in  case  this  was  not 
feasible,  the  installation  of  mechanical  means  as  an  auxiliary 
power,  would  generally  reduce  so  unwarrantable  an  expenditure 
of  energy,  and  conserve  the  waste  for  application  to  an  in- 
creased output. 

With  respect  to  the  diameter  of  wheels  on  a  minimum-sized 
tram,  he  could  not  agree  with  the  author  that  this  should  be  a 
small  diameter,    for  tlie  reason   that  wheels   of   small  diameter^ 

either  revolving^ 
alone  or  in  con- 
junction with 
the  axle,  would 
make  a  greater 

number  of 
revolutions  in 
passing  over  a. 
specified  length 
of  track  than 
those  of  larger 
diameters.  For 
example,  a  wheel 
8  inches  in  diameter  would  have  to  revolve  I5  times  to  cover 
the  same  space  as  a  14-inch  wheel  would  cover  in  1  revolution. 
Assuming  that  both  wheels  covered  the  same  ground  in  the 
same  time,  it  was  evident  that  the  small  wheel  would  have  to 
travel  If  times  as  fast  as  the  larger.  Since  friction  varied  as 
the  squares  of  the  respective  velocities,  the  small  wheel  would 
produce  3"06  times  the  friction  of  the  larger,  less  the  small 
increase  that  might  be  due  to  the  increased  weight  of  wheel. 
In  addition,  the  small-diameter  wheel  would  bring  the  base 
of  the  car-boxing  close  to  the  track-bed,  and  any  obstruction  of 
moderate  size  would  militate  against  the  free  movement  of  the  car. 
It  seemed  to  him  that  in  standardizing  cars  the  adoption  of 
a  standard  size  and  construction  of  wheels  would  be  one  of  the 

Fig.  1. — Perspective. 




first  points  to  demand  consideration.  For  small-capacity  trams 
these  mi.arht  be  ligliter  than  in  the  case  of  those  of  larger  capacity, 
and  the  bearings  might  be  of  simpler  construction,  as  suggested 
by  the  author.    A  sketch  of  such  wheels,  with  their  assembling  in 


Fig.  2. — Side  Elevation. 


Fig.  3. — Cross-section. 

Fig.  4.-  -Wheel-base  and  General  Plan. 




Fig.  5. — Axle  Attached  to  Bottom 
OF  Car  by  Journal  Bearing. 




Fig.   6. — Axle  Attached  to  Bottom 
OF  Car   by  Bolt. 

the  truck  and  their  bearings  for  a  car  of  10  cwt.  capacity,  was 
shown  in  Figs.  1  to  6,  which  were  not  drawn  to  scale. 

In  his  scale  of  standard  trams  Mr.  Gibson  had  given  dimen- 
sions that  led  him  (Mr.  Parfitt)  to  infer  that  the  framework  was 
based  upon   a   rectangular  parallelogram  or  a  parallelopipedon. 


or  that  the  box  of  tlio  car  had  its  opposite  sides  parallel  and 
perpendicular  to  the  adjacent  sides  throughout  their  entire 
extent,  whilst  tlie  variations  in  size  were  formed  by  a  propor- 
tional extension  of  the  length,  width,  and  height.  Variations 
of  this  form,  in  which  the  same  capacity  or  a  larger  one  might  be 
secured  by  changing-  only  one  or  two  of  the  dimensions,  might 
be  desirable,  and  for  this  purpose  he  submitted  sketches  (Figs. 
7  to  10)  illustrative  of  several  forms. 

Mr.   Gibson  had  clearly  demonstrated  the  pecuniary  advan- 
tages derived  from  the  use  of  large  trams  or  cars,   both  as  to 
the  initial  cost  of  the  equipment  and  the  reduced  expense  inci- 
FiG.  7.  Fig  8. 




Figs.  7  and 

Fig.  9. 

-High-seam  Cars. 

Ja  "  jJ 

Fig.  10. 


Figs.  9  and  10. — Low-seam  Cars. 

dent  to  the  upkeep  of  the  stock  and  track  when  once  the  latter 
was  constructed  to  suit  the  size  and  capacity  of  the  former.  It 
seemed  that  the  best  system  of  haulage  for  the  collieries  of 
Great  Britain  was  endless  rope,  as  he  was  informed  that  most  of 
the  seams  were  gaseous,  and  also  that  most  of  the  coals  were 
more  or  less  of  an  inflammable  character,  conditions  w^hich, 
naturally,  prohibited  the  installation  of  electric  haulage, 
although  ihej  might  be  adapted  to  haulage  by  compressed  air. 
One  portion  of  Mr.  Gibson's  statement  relative  to  this  subject 
did  not  appear  comprehensible  to  the  writer.  He  had  stated 
that  '*  if  small  trams  must  be  used  at  the  faceSj  and  the  road 
does  not  p?rmit  of  the  installation  of  endless-rope  or  such  like 

1915-1916.]  DISCUSSIOX — THE   LOGIC  OF   TRAMS.  261 

haulage,  it  follows  that  the  best  policy  would  be  to  use  small 
trams  near  the  faces  and  very  large  trams  out-bye."  He  (Mr. 
Pariitt)  understood  from  this  that  in  such  a  case  the  coal  would 
have  to  be  transferred  from  the  smaller  to  the  larger  trams  for 
final  haulage  to  the  shaft-bottom.  It  appeared  to  him  that 
this  would  result  in  a  decided  increase  in  the  surface  cost  of 
the  coal,  and  would,  as  the  author  suggested,  be  a  strong 
argument  in  favour  of  standardization.  Such  a  system,  how- 
ever, appeared  to  be  impracticable. 

Mr.  Gibson's  remarks  upon  the  subject  of  tracks  were  per- 
tinent and  valuable,  and  should  receive  such  consideration  as 
would  secure  their  adoption.  The  same  conditions  as  to  length 
of  rails  and  as  to  the  construction  of  track  within  a  specified 
distance  from  the  working-faces  were  as  prominent  in  the 
majority  of  mines  in  the  United  States  as  they  were  in  Great 
Biitain;  and  the  loss  of  time  due  to  the  one  and  the  number  of 
wrecks  and  consequent  loss  of  time  and  labour  incident  to  the 
other  were  factors  that  contributed  largely  to  reduce  the  output 
and  increase  the  cost.  In  the  United  States  the  rails  used  were 
generally  of  the  "  T  "  type,  those  for  rooms  and  lateral  entries 
being  lighter  in  weight  per  unit  of  length  than  those  for  main 
haulage.  He  had  seen,  however,  a  rail  that  was  more  con- 
venient for  use  in  rooms  than  those  mentioned.  It  was  known 
as  a  "  strap''  rail,  and  measured  about  h  inch  thick  by  2  inches 
in  width  and  15  to  18  feet  in  length.  Such  a  rail  was  laid  by  driv- 
ing it  edgewise  into  a  notched  tie,  so  that  when  the  rail  was  in 
position  the  thickness  took  the  place  of  the  ball  of  the  "  T  "  type. 
Such  a  rail  could  be  used  without  the  aid  of  spikes  or  nails ;  it 
was  adapted  to  a  straight  or  crooked  road,  presented  a  narrow 
friction  surface,  and  was  as  enduring  as  the  less  pliable  and 
more   cumbersome  "T"rail. 

He  had  found,  by  comparing  the  length  and  width  of  car- 
boxings  with  the  gauge  of  road  and  the  length  of  truck 
(between  centres  of  wheel  axles)  in  well-balanced  cars,  that  they 
bore  a  certain  definite  relation  to  each  other,  according  to  the 
following  rule :  — The  length  of  the  boxing  was  to  the  width 
(inside  measurements  in  both)  as  the  gauge  of  the  track  was 
to  the  length  of  the  wheel-base  (measured  between  centres  of 

In  standardizing  cars,   the  gauge  of  the  track,   the  wheel- 


base,  and  the  diameters  of  the  wlieels  were  three  factors  that 
would  require  little  if  any  modification  in  making  changes  in 
the  car  capacity.  Mr,  Gibson  suggested  24  inches  as  the  standard 
gauge,  and  the  illustrations  that  he  had  given  would  justify  this 
size  under  surface  conditions ;  but  he  (Mr.  Parfitt)  was  inclined 
to  the  opinion  that  underground  conditions  might  conduce  to 
a  change  in  this  standard.  For  example,  if  the  bottom  or  floor 
were  soft,  a  narrow-gauge  track  such  as  was  suggested  wo  aid 
exert  more  pressure  over  a  given  area  than  one  of  a  larger  gauge 
would  with  the  same  load,  as  the  weight  was  more  concentrated, 
and  the  repairs  to  the  track  would  be  correspondingly  greater. 
The  size  of  track  or  wheel-base  would  necessarily  have  to  be 
such  as  to  enable  the  cars  to  pass  easily"  round  curves,  and 
switches  should  be  of  the  size  required  for  the  system  of  mining 
employed  and  the  physical  conditions  of  the  seam.  A  wheel-base 
constructed  upon  the  rule  given,  in  which  the  gauge  was  l'T5 
times  the  distance  between  the  wheel  centres,  would,  he  thought, 
meet  the  conditions,  as  cars  of  2  tons  capacity  constructed  upon 
this  plan  would  round  curves  and  switches  of  a  small  radius. 
With  regard  to  wheels,  they  should  not  be  less  than  12  inches  in 
diameter,  and  should  be  of  uniform  shape.  The  gauge  and  the 
wheel-base  having  been  standardized,  the  boxing  or  body  of  the 
car  could  be  constructed  to  suit  these  dimensions,  or  such  modi- 
fications in  form  could  be  made  at  a  comparatively  small  expense 
as  compared  with  modifications  in  the  factors  given,  if  the 
boxing  were  constructed  of  wood,  as  would  best  suit  existing 
conditions.  AVitli  the  assumed  minimum  diameters  of  wheels, 
the  minimum  gauge  should  not  be  less  than  30  inches. 

Mr.  John  Gibson  (Kilmarnock)  wrote  that  his  main  purpose 
in  preparing  the  paper  was  to  show  the  great  efiiciency  and 
economy  that  would  follow  the  adoption  of  standardized  trams,  or 
even  the  gauge.  To  show  in  detail  every  step  of  reasoning  would 
have  required  a  paper  of  very  great  length.  As  mining  engineers 
were  usually  very  fully  occupied  in  ordinary  practice,  he  had 
thought  that  a  brief  paper  would  be  more  widely  read  than  one 
full  of  details  such  as  would  possibly  be  familiar  (and  therefore 
tiresome)  to  the  majority  of  the  members.  He  preferred  the  risk 
of  being  obscure  rather  than  prolix,  although  any  obscurity  was 
to  be  regretted.     Brevity  also  had  this   great   advantage — that 

1915-1916.]  DISCUSSIOX — THE   LOGIC  OF   TRAMS.  263 

criticism  was  kept  more  closely  fociissed  on  the  chief  proposition 
and  less  dissipated  on  interesting-  thoug-h  inessential  details  and 
side  issues. 

Several  gentlemen  had  questioned  the  statement  that  ''  in 
thin  seams  a  predetermined  minimum  height  and  width  of  gate- 
road  is  set  up  by  the  size  of  the  tram."  This  dictum  permitted  of 
veiy  easy  explanation.  It  was  stated  in  the  paper  that  "  a  man 
has  no  great  difficulty  in  travelling  in  a  road  having  a  minimum 
height  of  3  feet  above  the  rails  and  a  width  of  3  feet  between  the 
narrowest  timbers,"  and  that  statement  had  not  been  questioned 
by  anyone.  It  followed  that,  if  the  tram  in  use  could  not  pass 
through  any  part  of  a  gate-road  of  such  dimensions,  the  gate-road 
must  be  increased  in  size.  Therefore,  the  tram  predetermined 
the  minimum  height  and  the  width  of  the  gate-roads.  He  would 
illustrate  his  remarks  bj-  a  22-inch  seam,  in  which  2h  feet  of 
ripping,  6  feet  wide,  was  taken  down,  so  that  the  gate-road  then 
measured  4  feet  4  inches  in  height  by  6  feet  in  width.  Even  with  a 
good  pavement,  the  height  30  yards  back  from  the  face  would  not 
be  more  than  3i  feet.  If  a  4-inch  bar  were  used,  the  height  would 
then  be  3  feet  2  inches ;  and  the  sleeper  and  rails  would  again 
reduce  this  to  2  feet  10  inches  above  the  rails.  If  the  bar  sagged 
3  incites,  the  total  available  height  would  then  be  2  feet  T  inches. 
Even  if  a  tram  of  minimum  size  were  u,-;ed  in  such  a  road,  the 
drawer  would  be  in  danger  of  losing  fingers,  of  smashing  out 
the  bars,  or  at  least  of  jamming  his  full  tram  between  the  rails 
;'.nd  the  roof.  All  these  conditions  were  very  familiar  to  those 
who  worked  very  thin  seams.  The  same  process  went  on  in  con- 
nexion with  the  sides:  the  packs  were  pushed  out  and  toppled 
over;  the  cost  of  repairs  was  high,  and  stowage  was  usually 
scarce  ;  therefore  a  road  3  feet  wide  between  the  narrowest  timbers 
sufficed  if  the  tram  could  pass,  and  this  width  was  economical. 
If  the  tram  were  large,  it  was  evident  that  gate-roads  of  greater 
height  and  width  must  be  maintained  and  repaired,  or  cross- 
gates  must  be  more  frequent.  This  extxa  cost  must  be  charged 
against  the  tram. 

Another  assertion  that  had  received  adverse  criticism  was 
that  "  wheels  of  small  diameter  and  simple  bearings  are  suitable 
for  small  trams."  Mr.  Lupton  and  Mr.  Parfitt  seemed  to  be  of 
opinion  that  friction  must  be  kept  down  to  the  lowest  practicable 
limits  in  trams  of  all  sizes.     Let  them  take,  as  an  example,  three 


trams  weigliiug-  o,  4,  and  0  cwis.  respectively,  and  assume  that 
with  simple  bearing's  the  friction  etjiialled  ^jj.  Assuming  that, 
by  the  provision  of  roller  or  other  bearings,  the  friction  was 
reduced  to  yl^y,  and  that  each  l>earing  added  14  pounds  to  the 
weight,  the  weights  would  then  be  3h,  4i,  and  6^  cwts.  respec- 
tively.    The  limits  of  inclination  would  be  as  follows :  — 

(1)  Trams  with  Simple  Bearings. 






Limit  of 


1  in  6  (approximately^ 


1  ,,  82 


1    „   14 

(2)  Trams  with 



Limit  of 


1  in  7  (approximately). 


1  „  9 


1  „  13-6 


The  following  deduction  was  quite  clear  from  the  foregoing 
figures  :  — 

(1)  With  a  3-cwt.  tram,  it  was  wrong  to  use  roller-bearings, 
or  anything  else  in  its  construction,  however  useful,  which  added 
56  pounds  to  the  weight. 

(2)  With  4-cwt.  trams  an  inclination  of  1  in  8f  was  the 
dividing-line ;  steeper  roads  suited  the  lighter  weight.  Less 
steep  roads  gave  the  advantage  to  the  tram  with  the  lower 

(3)  With  trams  weighing  6  cwts.,  the  dividing-line  was  at 
1  in  13| ;  therefore  in  almost  every  case  the  roller-bearing  had 
the  advantage.  Even  easy  gradients  demanded  some  form  of 
self-acting  incline,  and  of  course  the  low  coefficient  of  friction 
made  these  practicable,  whereas  with  ordinary  bearings  they 
would  not  be  so. 

He  reg'retted  his  inability  to  agree  with  Mr.  James  Ashworth's 
opinion  that  detailed  plans  of  the  proposed  standard  trams  should 
have  been  included  in  the  paper.  If  he  (Mr.  Gibson)  succeeded  in 
proving  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  members  the  great  benefits  to  be 
derived  from  standardization,  he  would  be  quite  content  to  leave 
the  matter  of  construction  to  settle  itself.  He  was  not  pledged  to 
nor  pi^ejudiced  in  favour  of  any  form.  In  the  same  way  he 
agreed  with  Mr.  H.  F.  Bulman  that  nine  different  sizes  were  not 
recjuired.  By  proposing  that  number  he  (Mr.  Gibson)  hoped  to 
gain    wider    ap])r()bation    for   the    general    proposition.        After 

1915-1916.]  DISCUSSION" THE   LOGIC  OF   TRAMS.  265 

staudardization  had  been  adopted,  the  sizes  least  in  demand  would 
gradually  fall  into  desuetude. 

Mr.  Ashworth  had  stated  that  the  "  Secretary  of  State  could 
occupy  his  time  more  usefully  than  in  considering  the  question 
of  the  standardization  of  the  gauges  of  rails."  He  (Mr.  Gibson) 
quite  agreed  with  that  statement.  Mr.  Ashworth's  sentence,  how- 
ever, was  based,  he  thought,  on  a  misunderstanding  of  English 
constitutional  practice,  which  worked  in  this  way: — Supposing 
that  the  reform  in  question  were  in  force,  and  that  a  coal-owner 
wished  to  deviate  from  the  standard  gauge  for  some  particular 
reasons,  he  would  then  apply  to  the  Secretary  of  State  for  exemp- 
tion, which  would  be  decided  by  his  expert  advisers.  The  Secre- 
tary of  State,  however,  was  responsible  to  Parliament  for  the 
decision  of  his  advisers.  Thus,  if  A  could  show  that  exemption 
was  refused  to  him,  whereas  B,  under  the  same  conditions 
obtained  exemption,  a  bad  state  of  affairs  would  exist;  but  the 
responsibility  to  Parliament  of  the  Secretary  of  State  made  such 
an  eventuality  practically  impossible. 

Mr.  Ashworth  had  expressed  the  opinion  that  the  question  of 
ventilation  had  not  received  sufficient  attention  in  the  paper.  In 
regard  to  this  point,  it  might  be  noted  that  the  Coal  Mines  Act 
(1)  set  up  a  standard  of  ventilation  by  requiring  a  certain  per- 
centage of  oxygen,  and  by  fixing  a  maximum  for  the  percentage 
of  carbon  dioxide  that  might  be  present  in  the  mine  air;  and  (2) 
the  Inspector  being  armed  with  certain  powers  might  require  air- 
ways to  be  maintained  of  reasonable  dimensions,  as  also 
travelling  and  haulage-roads. 

The  question  at  issue  was  not  regarding  roads  such  as  these, 
but  gate-roads  which  from  their  commencement  to  their  aband- 
onment might  not  last  more  than  three  months.  They  were  not 
primarily  intended  for  ventilation,  but  were  usually  kept  clear 
by  leakage.  It  followed  that  the  smaller  they  were  in  cross- 
section,  the  higher  must  be  the  velocity  of  the  air-current,  and, 
of  course,  the  better  for  the  ventilation  of  the  road. 

Mr.  Kilpatrick  had  raised  the  question  of  the  wisdom,  of 
doing  anything  which  interfered  with  "  natural  and  individual 
predilection."  As  this  was  interfered  with  in  every  law — with, 
in  many  cases,  excellent  results — it  seemed  that  Mr.  Kilpatrick 
feared  an  imaginary  danger.  Not  only  so,  but  custom  itself  had 
established  laws  which  could  not  conveniently  be  broken.     In  the 


case  of  ordinary  clothiuo-,  anyone  might  design  for  his  own  par- 
ticular use  a  garb  of  original  texture,  colour,  and  form,  but  it 
would  probably  prove  less  useful  and  convenient  than  clothing 
made  in  the  ordinary  way,  and  more  costly.  Of  what  advantage 
was  "  natural  predilection  "  in  such  a  case  ?  In  the  same  way  with 
trams,  everyone  at  present  designed  his  own — its  construction, 
form,  and  size — and  the  purpose  of  tlie  paper  was  to  show  that 
this  procedure  was  less  useful  and  convenient  and  more  costly 
than  the  logical  method — just  as  in  the  case  of  clothing. 

Mr.  Kilpatrick  had  questioned  the  accuracy  of  the  statement 
that  a  healthy  man  could  for  a  period  of  2i  minutes  perform 
work  at  the  rate  of  0-24  horsepower.  He  (Mr.  Gibson)  had 
hoped  to  take  tests  of  men  and  boys  on  a  typical  tram-road  and 
present  the  results  to  the  members,  but  regretted  that  lack  of 
time  had  not  permitted  him  to  do  so.  In  any  case,  the  statement 
was  made  in  the  course  of  an  argument  to  prove  that  in  small 
trams  it  was  more  important  to  keep  down  weight  than  to  keep 
down  friction.  Supposing  that  it  was  found  that  the  output  of  a 
man  was  0-12  horsepower  instead  of  0'24,  then  it  strengthened 
(not  weakened)  the  argument.  Indeed,  he  had  chosen  the 
maximum  figure  for  the  purpose  of  proving  his  contention 
beyond  question. 

Mr.  Parfitt's  interesting  criticism  showed  the  trend  of  opinion 
in  America,  and  gave  many  valuable  hints  with  regard  to  con- 
struction. The  sketches  that  he  had  so  kindly  submitted  brought 
out  clearly  the  lines  on  which  American  mining  engineers  were 
proceeding.  AVith  respect  to  nomenclature,  it  was  interesting  to 
note  that  the  difficulties  arising  from  mixed  nationalities  and 
languages  had  perforce  brought  about  the  standardization  of 
trade  names.  Mr.  John  Watson  in  his  remarks  on  the  same 
subject  had  brought  out  clearly  the  difficulties  with  which 
engineers  had  to  contend  in  this  country. 

Mr.  Myles  Brown's  contribution  to  the  discussion  was  notable, 
in  that  he  sketched  out  a  mode  of  procedure  for  testing  the  stand- 
ardization proposals  and  for  bringing  them  to  fruition. 

He  respectfully  appealed  to  the  Institute  not  to  throw  aside 
lightly  without  close  scrutiny  the  proposal  for  the  standard- 
ization of  trams,  but  to  devote  all  the  Institute's  talents, 
influence,  and  prestige  to  the  task  of  carrying  out  the  reform  if 
it  should  be  considered  practicable  and  beneficial. 



Mr.  James  Ashworth  (Vancouver,  British  Columbia)  wrote 
that  the  paper  was  certainly  interesting  from  the  theoretical 
point  of  view,  but  to  the  man  who  had  to  look  after  the  practical 
safeguarding  of  colliery  operations  the  absence  of  any  warning 
of  the  invariable  presence  of  methane  was  very  noticeable. 

It  had  been  stated,  as  the  result  of  experiments,  that  in  cases 
where  certain  incombustible  substances  were  present  in  the  air, 
they  would  arrest  the  flame  of  an  explosion  when  the  mixture  of 
air  and  methane  was  in  its  most  dangerous  condition.  If  such  an 
experimental  conclusion  were  correct,  the  arrestment  must,  in 
the  opinion  of  the  writer,  take  place  at,  or  very  close  to,  the 
point  of  origin  of  the  explosion. 

If  an  incombustible  substance  was  to  be  effective  in  control- 
ling the  progress  of  an  explosion  in  a  coal-mine,  it  must 
necessarily  be  intimately  mixed  with  the  air  before  the  flame 
reached  any  particular  point.  In  order  to  postulate  such  a  con- 
dition in  a  coal-mine,  the  theory  as  to  the  presence  of  a  pioneer- 
ing cloud  of  dust  in  advance  of  an  explosion  flame  must  be 
accepted.  A  great  many  people  believed  and  positively  asserted 
that  a  pioneering  cloud  was  always  a  factor,  but  the  writer  had 
persistently  taken  the  opposite  view,  namely,  that  after  the 
initiatory  stage  a  pioneering  cloud  in  front  of  the  flame  was  an 
impossibility,  excepting  only  when  the  speed  of  the  sound  wave 
was  greater  than  the  speed  of  the  flame.  Even  then,  the  term 
"  pioneering  "  was  not  correct,  as  the  flame  was  passing  through 
the  cloud  continuously,  and  was  not  actually  driving  the  dust  in 
front  of  it.  If  vx.e  cloud  of  dust  were  driven  forward  by  the 
flame,  the  flame  would  be  smothered  out  through  excess  of  dust 
and  want  of  oxygen. 

All  experiments  on  the  quenching  of  a  coal-dust  flame  by 
incombustible  dust  had  been  made  with  mechanical  mixtures  of 
the  two  dusts,  and  not  with  the  dusts  as  they  were  found  in 
collieries,  where  the  different  dusts  were  in  layers,  with  the 
finest  and  most  dangerous  fresh  dust  already  floating  in  the  air. 

Air  under  pressure  was  a  totally  different  flame-carrier  from 

♦  Trans.  Inst.  M.  E.,  1916,  vol.  li.,  page  369. 

VOL.  LITI.-1916-1M6.  20    E 

268      TUANSACTIOXS       TIIK   NOKI'll   OF   KN(;LANI)   INSTITrTK.     |"Vol.  Ixvi. 

air  at  normal  air-pressure,  and  here  again  was  a  missing  factor 
in  experiments  made  in  galleries  on  the  surface. 

AVith  reference  to  the  liberation  of  carbon  dioxide  from  a 
quench,  it  was  to  be  remembered  that  the  gas  under  those  con- 
ditions was  hot,  and  therefore  not  as  effective  as  when  cold ; 
consequently  steam  gave  better  results  when  liberated  from  the 
quench  than  did  carbon  dioxide. 

With  respect  to  the  controversies  that  were  continually 
arising  in  connexion  with  coal-dust  and  flame-quenching,  he 
(Mr.  Ash  worth)  would  like  to  see  some  notice  taken  of  Mr.  W. 
A.  Douglas  Hudge's  experiments  and  conclusions  on  the  thermo- 
electrical  pos^sibilities  of  an  explosion  and  its  initiation.* 

Mr.  A.  S.  Blatciifoed  (Armstrong  College,  Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne)  wrote  that,  strictly  speaking,  a  reply  to  the  points  raised 
by  Mr.  Ashworth  was  not  necessary. 

Mr.   Charles   L.    Dobson's    "  Memoir   of   the   late   George 
May  "  was  read,  as  follows  :  — 

*  "On  the  Electrification  Produced  during  the  Raising  of  a  Cloud  of  Dust," 
Proc.  Royal  Society,  1914,  series  a,  vol.  xc,  page  256  ;  see  also  discussion  on  the 
writer's  paper  on  "The  Killingworth  Colliery  (New  South  Wales)  Explosion," 
Trans.  Inst.  M.E.,  1915,  vol.  xlix.,  pages  99-108. 

IW.  ZAfV.,  Plate  111. 



Born   on  Feliuarv   12//7,   1839,  aj.d  died  on  June  iZih,    1915- 
{Presented  by  The  North  of  England  Institute  of  Mining  and  Mechanical  Engineers.) 

1915-1916.]     DOBSON MEMOIR    OF   THE  LATE    GEORGE    MAY.  269 



George  May  was  a  native  of  the  County  of  Durham,  having 
been  born  at  Bishop  Auckland  on  February  12th,  1839.  His 
father,  George  May,  was  a  timber  merchant  in  business  in  that 
town,  his  mother  being  a  sister  of  James  Thompson,  late  of 
Hurworth-on-Tees . 

Mr.  May  was  educated  at  the  Grammar  School,  Bishop 
Auckland,  and  at  Hartforth  School,  near  Richmond,  Yorkshire. 
He,  even  in  these  early  days,  showed  that  infinite  capacity  for 
taking  pains  so  characteristic  of  him  in  later  life,  for  many  of 
his  school-books  (still  extant),  shown  to  the  writer  some  few 
years  ago,  are  models  of  neatness,  and  give  evidence  of  very 
careful  work. 

He  began  to  serve  his  apprenticeship  in  the  year  1856  at 
the  Hetton  Collieries,  under  the  late  John  Wales,  who  was  at 
that  time  viewer.  Mr.  Wales  was  succeeded  after  his  death 
in  1859  by  the  late  John  Daglish,  under  whom  Mr.  May  com- 
pleted his  apprenticeship,  and  by  whom  he  was  appointed 
manager  of  Elemore  Colliery. 

In  1863  Sir  Lindsay  Wood,  Bart.,  took  over  the  charge  of 
the  Hetton  Collieries  on  the  retirement  of  Mr.  Daglish  in  that 
year,  thereby  originating  a  close  professional  connexion  of 
45  years'  standing.  In  the  same  year  Mr.  May  was  appointed  by 
Sir  Lindsay  to  the  position  of  resident  viewer  to  the  North 
Hetton  Collieries,  and  this  post  was  held  by  him  until  his 
appointment  by  Sir  Lindsay  in  1872  to  the  charge  of  the  Harton 

Whilst  at  North  Hetton  Mr.  May  married  Fannie,  daughter 
of  the  late  Joseph  Bourne,  of  Benton,  Northumberland,  and  of 
his  wife  Sarah,  daughter  of  Robert  Nicholson,  of  Bewick  Hill, 
in  the  same  county.  The  Bournes  were  descendants  of  Henry 
Bourne,  the  historian  of  Newcastle  (1694-1733),  and  old  records 
show  that  the  family  were  tenants  on  the  estates  of  the  Dukes  of 


Northumberland  300  years  ago.  Joseph  Bourne  was  a  brother 
of  John  Bourne,  engineer  to  the  North-Eastern  Railway  Com- 
pany (Northern  Division)  for  a  long  period  of  years;  whilst  the 
Nicholsons  were  related  to  the  Grace  and  Lambert  families, 
well  known  in  Newcastle  and  district.  It  is  of  interest  to  note 
that  by  this  connexion  Mrs.  May  was  a  cousin  of  Dr.  AV.  G. 
Grace,  the  "  Grand  Old  Man  "  of  cricket. 

Mr.  May  began  his  long  connexion  with  the  large  and  im- 
portant Harton  Collieries  at  the  early  age  of  33  (a  connexion 
which  lasted  for  35  years),  the  group  at  that  time  comprising  the 
Harton,  St.  Hilda,  and  Boldon  Collieries.  The  old  Brandling 
drops  in  South  Shields  formed  part  of  the  Harton  Company's 
property,  these  being  connected  by  a  wagonway  with  St.  Hilda 
Colliery.  During  the  greater  part  of  Mr.  May's  connexion  with 
the  collieries,  box  or  chaldron  wagons,  drawn  by  horses, 
conveyed  the  coal  between  the  colliery  and  these  staithes,  the 
wagonway  crossing  on  the  road  level  several  of  the  streets  of 
South  Shields.  One  of  the  last  improvements  taken  in  hand  by 
Mr.  May  was  in  connexion  with  this  wagonway,  a  tunnel  being 
substituted  for  the  level  crossing  over  one  of  the  busiest  and  most 
important  streets,  and  electric  locomotives  substituted  for  horses 
with  great  success. 

In  the  early  years  of  his  management,  St.  Hilda  Colliery 
was  entirely  remodelled,  a  new  winding-engine  was  erected, 
and  the  shaft  winding  arrangements  modernised  by  the  large 
four-decked  cages  introduced,  with  other  essential  improve- 
ments and  alterations.  The  heapstead  and  screening  arrange- 
ments were  extended,  and  a  ventilating  fan  of  the  Guibal  type 
(50  feet  in  diameter)  was  installed  in  place  of  the  old  furnace. 
The  aiTangements  generally  of  this  old-established  colliery,  sunk 
by  the  Brandling  family  in  1822,  were  brought  up  to  date. 

Boldon  Colliery  was  comparatively  new  when  Mr.  May  took 
up  his  position  as  agent,  but  under  his  management  the  surface 
arrangements  were  laid  out  in  a  spacious  manner.  This  colliery 
was  for  many  years  one  of  the  model  collieries  of  the  Durham 
coalfield,  and  visitors  from  abroad  or  from  other  districts  were 
frequently  directed  to  Boldon  as  a  representative  type  of  a 
modern  well-equipped  colliery. 

At  Harton  Colliery  the  improvements  carried  out  during  Mr. 
May's  term  of  management  comprised  extensions  of  the  screening 

1915-1916.]      DOBSOX MEMOIR    OF   THE   LATE    GEORGE    MAY.  271 

plant  and  a  rearrangement  of  the  heapstead ;  whilst  his  fore- 
sight, which  was  one  of  his  strongest  characteristics,  led  him  to 
recommend  the  owners  to  adopt  electricity  as  a  motive  power, 
in  the  days  when  this  form  of  power,  so  far  as  its  practical 
application  on  a  large  scale  to  collieries  was  concerned,  was  in  its 
infancy.  Before  his  retirement  in  1907,  orders  were  placed  for 
an  electric  winder  to  replace  the  old  vertical  engine,  which  had 
been  working  for  upwards  of  50  years ;  and  for  a  Sulzer  pump  to 
be  erected  at  the  shaft-bottom,  in  substitution  of  the  old  beam 
pump  which  had  been  installed  at  the  time  when  the  colliery  was 
sunk.  Mr.  May  did  not,  however,  see  this  plant  in  operation, 
as  on  his  retirement  in  October,  1907,  it  had  not  been  delivered. 

In  1891  the  Harton  Company  acquired  the  property  and 
undertaking  of  The  "Whitburn  Coal  Company,  Limited,  com- 
prising "Whitburn  Colliery,  the  Marsden  Quarries  and  Lime- 
works,  and  the  railway  connecting  the  colliery  with  the  North- 
Eastern  Railway  line  at  South  Shields.  Under  Mr.  May's 
supervision  Whitburn  Colliery  was  transformed  from  a  pit 
having  only  a  small  output  into  a  large  and  successful  colliery, 
the  change  necessitating,  inter  alia,  the  erection  of  a  large 
winding-engine,  the  installation  of  a  Walker  fan,  and  the 
enlargement  of  the  heapstead  and  screening  arrangements 
requisite  for  dealing  with  the  increased  output. 

The  site  of  the  T;^ne  Plate  Glass  Works,  South  Shields,  with 
the  quay  having  a  river  frontage,  and  the  railway  connecting 
the  works  and  the  Whitburn  Colliery  line,  were  purchased  by 
the  Harton  Company  in  1892.  A  new  wharf  was  laid  down  on 
the  river  front,  and  this  site  was  eventually  converted  into  an 
up-to-date  coal-shipping  staithe,  having  a  river  frontage  of 
700  feet  and  direct  railway  communication  with  the  St.  Hilda 
and  Whitburn  collieries. 

During  Mr.  May's  management  of  these  collieries  a  lease 
was  obtained  of  the  land  required  for  the  formation  of  a  railway 
to  connect  Harton  Colliery  with  the  company's  shipping  staithes, 
and  this  railway  is  now  in  use. 

During  the  35  years  that  Mr.  May  held  the  position  of  agent 
to  the  Harton  Coal  Company,  he  lived  at  Simonside  Hall,  near 
Tyne  Dock.  He  took  a  great  interest  in  farming,  and  the  large 
estates  of  the  company  were  efficiently  farmed  under  his  super- 

272       TRANSACTIOXS — TIIK   XORTIIOF   E.\(iLA.\l)  IXSTITTTK.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

In  liis  earlier  days  at  Hartou  lie  occasionally  took  mining 
students  under  his  charge,  and  several  men  who  have  since 
become  eminent  in  the  profession  served  an  apprenticeship 
with  him. 

Mr.  May  for  a  short  time  was  a  member  of  the  South  Shields 
Town  Council  and  the  Durliam  County  Council,  but  public  life 
of  this  kind  made  no  appeal  to  him,  and  he  very  soon  severed  his 
connexion  with  these  bodies. 

More  than  once  he  was  urged  to  allow  his  name  to  be  put 
forward  for  a  Commission  as  a  Borough  and  County  magistrate, 
and  although  appointed  a  member  of  the  South  Shields  Bench, 
he  never  took  his  seat. 

He  was  very  keenly  interested  in  The  North  of  England 
Institute  of  Mining  and  Mechanical  Engineers,  and  was  at  the 
time  of  his  death  one  of  the  oldest  members,  his  election  dating 
back  to  1862.  When  President  of  the  Institute  (1896-1898) 
his  Presidential  Address  had  special  reference  to  the  importance 
of  improvement  in  the  education  and  methods  of  training  of 
the  colliery  mechanical  engineer,  a  subject  in  which  he  was 
deeply  interested ;  and  the  legacy  which  he  left  to  the  Institute 
for  the  award  of  scholarships  is  evidence  of  the  depth  of  his 
interest  in  educational  matters,  especially  with  reference  to  the 
scientific  development  of  coal-mining.  Mr.  May  was  well  knuwn 
for  his  generosity,  every  genuine  appeal  receiving  his  liberal 

Mr.  May  acted  as  chairman  of  the  Haulage  Committee 
formed  by  the  Institute  in  connexion  with  the  model  coal-mine 
which  was  so  prominent  a  feature  of  the  Jubilee  Exhibition  held 
at  Newcastle-upon-Tyne  in  1887.  He  also  represented  the 
Institute  for  some  years  as  a  director  of  the  Institute  and  Coal 
Trade  Chambers,  Limited,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

He  was  active  in  the  work  of  the  Durham  Coal  Owners  Assoc- 
iation, being  a  member  of  the  Conciliation  Board  and  Joint 
Committee,  and  was  usually  appointed  to  any  committee  of 
importance  during  his  long  connexion  with  the  Association. 
For  many  years  he  acted  as  one  of  the  examiners  of  candidates 
for  colliery  manager's  certificates,  a  duty  in  which  he  took  much 
interest.  Candidates  who  appeared  before  him  for  viva-voce 
examination  were  assured  of  a  sympathetic  and  reassuring 
hearing.     During   his   occupancy  of  the   Presidential   chair  of 

1915-1916.]     DOBSON — MEMOIR    OF  THE  LATE    GEORGE    MAY.  273 

the  Institute,  he  acted  as  the  external  examiner  of  students 
desirous  of  taking-  the  B.Sc.  Degree  in  Mining-  at  the  Armstrong 
College,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

In  1892  Mr.  May  was  appointed  a  director  of  the  Bearpark 
Coal  &  Coke  Company,  Limited,  and  by  virtue  of  his  technical 
knowledge  he  assisted  his  colleagues  on  the  hoard  in  an  advisory 
capacity  up  to  the  time  of  his  death. 

On  retiring  from  the  position  of  agent  to  the  Harton  Coal 
Company,  he  was  appointed  a  director  of  the  company,  which 
position  he  likewise  tilled  until  his  death. 

On  his  retirement  he  took  up  residence  at  Clervaux  Castle, 
near  Croft.  For  some  time  previously  his  sight  had  caused 
him  much  trouble.  Gifted,  however,  v/ith  a  wonderful  memory, 
he  was  able  to  remember  facts  read  and  to  follow  plans  explained 
to  him  with  remarkable  ability,  and,  notwithstanding  the 
severe  blow  which  his  loss  of  sight  involved,  his  remaining  years 
were  cheerful  and  happy. 

Mr.  May  on  his  retirement  received  from  the  officials  and 
staff  of  the  Harton  Collieries  a  presentation  of  plate,  this  occasion 
affording  an  opportunity  to  his  staff  of  showing  their  regard  and 
esteem.  He  was  very  much  liked  by  such  of  the  older  generation 
of  workmen  as  could  remember  his  early  days  with  the  Harton 
Company,  and  he  always  enjoyed  talking  over  those  early  daj^s 
with  them.  He  was  a  great  lover  of  animals — horses  in  parti- 
cular— and  at  Clervaux  Castle  indulged  in  his  hobby  by  the 
breeding  of  Shetland  ponies. 

He  soon  became  well  known  in  the  district  of  Croft,  and  was 
very  popular  with  his  neighbours,  although  he  was  a  man  who 
strongly  disliked  publicity  in  any  form.  Amongst  his  own 
circle  of  friends  he  was  very  much  liked  and  esteemed.  Perhaps 
he  was  seen  at  his  best  when  fulfilling  the  duties  of  host,  in  which 
capacity  he  acted  in  a  delightful  and  hospitable  manner.  Being 
gifted,  as  already  mentioned,  with  a  good  memory,  he  would 
delight,  to  a  sympathetic  listener,  in  telling  incidents  of  his 
early  life  and  of  old  mining  days. 

He  was  a  member  of  the  Horticultural  Society,  of  the 
Northern  Antiquarian  Society,  and  of  one  or  two  farming  assoc- 
iations, and  took  much  interest  in  the  work  of  these  several 

Mr.  May  died  at  Clervaux  Castle  on  June  18th,  1915,  and 

274      TRANSACTIONS— THE  NORTH  OF   K\(iLANI)  INSTITUTK.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

was  buried  in  Croft  Churcliyard,  where  also  lies  interred  his  wife, 
who  predeceased  him  in  1907.  His  two  daughters,  Mrs.  A.  Paget 
Steavenson,  of  Hurworth-on-Tees,  and  Mrs.  Scott,  of  Riding 
Mill,  survive  him. 

A    photograph   of    the    deceased    gentleman    (Plate    VI.)    is 
attached  to  this  brief  memoir. 

Prof.  Henry  Louis  proposed  and  Mr.  E.  Seymour  Wood 
seconded  a  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  Dobson  for  his  interesting 




The   followiug   contractions   are    ii.sed   in   the   titles   of   the   publications 
abstracted  : — 
Bull.  Soc.  Indust.  Miii.     Bulletin  de  la  Societe  de  ITndnstrie  Minerale,  St. 

Bull.   Univ.  Illinois.     Bulletin  of  the  University  of  Illinois,  Urbana,  U.S.A. 
Bur.  Mines.     Bureau  of  Mines,  Washington,  U.S.A. 

Com.  Cent.  Houill.  France.     Comite  Central  des  Houilleres  de  France,  Paris. 
Geol.  Surv.  Canada.     Geological  Survey   (Department  of  Mines)  of  Canada, 

Ottawa,  Canada. 
Ocol.    Surv.    New    South    Wales.      Geological    Survey  of    New    South    Wales 

Department  of  Mines,  Sydney,  N.S.W. 
Geol.    Surv.     Western    Australia.     Geological    Survey    of    Western    Australia, 

Perth,  Western  Australia. 
J  our  n.  Lake  Superior  Min.  Inst.     Joui'nal  of  the  Lake  Superior  Mining  In.sti- 

tute,  Ishpeming,  U.S.A. 
Montanist.  Bunds.     Montanistische  Rundschau,  Berlin  and  Vienna. 
Bee.  Geol.  Surv.  India.     Records  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  India,  Calcutta, 

Soc.   Ingen.   C'ivils  des  France.     Societes  Ingenieurs   Civils  de  France,  Paris. 
Trans.    Can.    Min.    Inst.     Transactions   of   the    Canadian   Mining   Institute, 

Zeitschr.  f.  Berg-,  Hiltt.-  u.  Salinenwes.     Zeit.schrift  fiir  das  Berg-,  Hiitten- 

und  Salinenwesen  im  jjreussischen  Staate,  Berlin. 


Prospectingr  for  Gold  in  the  Metalliferous  Strata  of  the  Black 
Mountain. — By  R.  Espahseil.  Bull.  Soc.  Indust.  Min.,  1915,  series  o, 
vol.  vii..  Images  297-329. 

Gold  was  first  discovered  in  the  Black  Mountain  at  the  Limousis  Copper 
Mine  by  the  writer's  father.  Tlie  gold-bearing  strata  occur  at  about  9^ 
miles  (15  kilometres)  to  the  north  of  Carcassonne  on  a  plateau  of  the  Black 
Mountain  in  a  region  that  has  been  subjected  to  long-continued  erosion,  and 
is  cut  up  by  torrents  that  have  formed  deep  gorges.  The  strata  of  the  Black 
Mountain  belong  in  general  to  the  Lower  Silurian  formation,  parts  near  the 
crest  of  the  hill  being  metamorphosed  and  interspersed  with  volcanic  rocks. 

TOL.  LXVI.— ieiS..1916.  ^        A 

2         TRANSACTIONS-THE   XORTH   OF   EXGLAXD   IXSTITFTE.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

Two  systems  of  metalliferous  veins  of  quartz  cross  each  otlier,  the  primary 
one  running,  like  the  hills,  roughly  east  and  .vest  and  he  secondary  one 
c  ossing  it  at  right-angles.  In  the  latter  the  gold  and  also  veins  of  silver 
arHor  the  most  part  found.  In  the  primary  system  are  found  pyrites,  copper 
and  lead  The  yield  of  the  secondary  system  is  most  capricious.  A  typical 
case  of  one  of  the  veins  in  the  Villaniere  Concession  is  as  follows:- 

Per  cent. 

Arsenic  ...        15  to  33 

Sulphur 1^''^^ 

Silica     6-12 



Magnesia     ...     Traces. 
Alumina       ...     2"12 
Gold  ...     230  to  300  grains  (15 

to  19  grammes)  per  ton. 

.jj^^  Traces'    ;   Silver  ...     600  to  800  grains  (40 

""^       '  to  50  grammes)  per  ton. 

The  ravages  caused  bv  the  fumes  of  arsenic  emitted  from  the  surface  plant 
.re  extremely  troublesome.  Tliese  take  the  form  of  poisoning  fo^^^f'^^f/^ 
;f  cattle,  destruction  of  vegetation,  etc.  At  the  Salsique  Mines  this  diihculty 
has  been  overcome  by  the  installation  of  "  bag-houses."  A.  K.  ^. 

L.St    of    Canadian    Mine.a.    Occurrences.-By   A.    A.    Johnston.        Geol_ 
Surv.  Canada,  Department  of  Mines,  1915,  Memoir  No.  74,  pages  1-275. 
In  the  present  list  the  intention  has  been  to  bring  together  as  completely 
as  possible  all  notable  occurrences  so   far   (December  1st,  1914)    ^-ord^  in 
Canada,  thus  leaving  the  compilation  of  a  new  descriptive  list  for  considera- 
tion in  some  subsequent  report.  .^„:^^^  wbirh 
Part  I.  embraces  a  list,  arranged  alphabetically,  of  the  mateiials  which 
have  so  far  with  reasonable  certainty  been  identified  as  ^^^-^^-^^J^  ^^'^^^ 
and  in  each  case  a  list  of  localities  of  occurrence  is  given  for  each  piovmce 
and  territory  in  the  Dominion.  . 

In  Part  II.  are  embraced  lists  of  the  minerals  known  to  occur  in  the  vari- 
ous municipal  and  mining  divisions  (arranged  alphabetically)  into  which  the 
provinces  and  territories  are  subdivided.  It  is  expected  tl^-^l^^/™^^- 
ment  will  prove  to  be  of  value  both  to  the  prospector  and  to  the  collector. 

It  is  proposed  to  publish  supplements  to  this  list  at  suitable  intervals  and, 
when  the  accumulation  of  new  information  warrants  such  ^  ^^o^"^^'  g"  '''" 
corporate  it  in   a  new  revised  list. 

coalfields  of  British  Col«mbia.-By  D.  B.  Dowling.     Geol.Surv.  Canada, 
Department  of  Mines,  1915,  Memoir  No.  69,  pages  1-350. 
The  discoverv  of  coal  in  1835,  on  the  British  Columbian  coast  at  Suquash 
and  later  near  Nanaimo,  was  due  to  information  given  to  the  officers  of  the 
Hudson's  Bav  Company  by  the  Indians.     The  coal-minmg  industry   therefore, 
niav  be  said  \o  have  grown  up  with  the  general  development  "^  tl^^/^^^^^^; 
"several  important  coal-bearing  areas  are   situated  on  the  islands  off  the 
mainland,   and  in  this  respect  are   very  favourably   placed   to  ^^^P^^  ^^^ 
other  coalfields  which   are   tributary  to  the  Pacific.     Inland  areas  of   prime 
importance  have  been  connected  with  the  markets  by  railway,  as  ^^^^^^^^ 
with  the  Crow's  Nest  area.     Other  large  fields,  such  as  the  Upper  Elk  Eiver 
field,  await  the  demands  of  a  market  before  the  construction  of  the  connect- 
ing, railway   and    the    installation   of   mining  machinery.     The  demands   for 


transportation  for  other  purposes  may  facilitate  the  opening  of  many  other 
coal-deposits;  and  of  those  listed  and  described  there  may,  in  time,  be  many 
which  will  supply  the  wants  of  the  settler,  the  manufacturer,  or  the  reduction- 
works.  At  the  present  time,  however,  active  mining  is  limited  to  the  southern 
part  of  the  province  and  to  Vancouver  Island. 

Coal  is  found  in  the  early  Tertiary  and  in  several  of  the  divisions  of  the 
Cretaceous  formations.  The  Cretaceoiis  coal-bearing  rocks  of  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tains represent  portions  of  the  Great  Plains  coal-bearing  basin,  and  are  cor- 
related directly  with  the  Alberta  beds.  The  early  Cretac-eous  coal-bearing 
sediments  of  northern  British  Columbia,  while  of  about  the  same  age  as,  or 
possibly  older  than,  the  coal-bearing  strata  of  the  Rockies,  may  not  have 
been  deposited  in  the  same  basin.  The  deposits  of  ITpper  Cretaceous  time 
which  occur  in  the  Peace  River  basin  are  probably  of  about  the  same  age 
as  the  Belly  River  formation,  and,  if  so,  antedate  the  Cretaceous  beds  of 
Vancouver  and  Graham  Islands,  which  are  gfenerally  correlated  with  beds  in 
the  upper  part  of  the  Pierre  overlying  the  Belly  River  formation. 

The  Tertiary  sediments  on  the  coast  which  are  coal-bearing  in  places 
are  supposedly  in  conformable  relation  with  the  Cretaceous,  so  that  their 
Eocene  age  is  generally  admitted.  In  the  interior  basins,  where  Tertiary  sedi- 
ments are  capped  by  Miocene  lava-fiows,  a  coal  horizon  in  the  sediments  is 
held  to  be  somewhat  later  in  age  than  Eocene ;  but,  from  a  study  of  the 
plant-remains.  Prof.  D.  P.  Penhallow  did  not  feel  inclined  to  pronounce 
it  later  than  Oligocene.  Two  examples  of  sediments  later  than  the  first 
or  larliest  lava-fiow  are  attributed  to  the  Lower  Miocene.  It  has  been 
pointed  out  that  the  Oligocene  beds  of  the  Coldwater  group  are,  in  places, 
tilted  and  otherwise  deformed  beneath  the  trap  flows,  thus  showing  a  time- 
interval  between  the  Oligocene  and  the  deposits  of  the  Lower  Miocene. 

A.  P.  A.  S. 

Coalfields  of  the  Domain  of  Kebao,  China. — By  LoiTiS  Ra3IEax:.     Bull.  Soc. 
Indiist.  Min.,  1915,  series  5,  vol.  vii.,  pages  165-176. 

So  long  ago  .is  the  year  1849,  French  naval  officers  observed  Chinese  coal- 
mining operations  being  conducted  in  Kebao,  which  is  the  largest  island  in 
the  Gulf  of  Tonquin.  A  French  explorer  named  Jean  Dupuis,  who  had 
secured  a  mining  concession  there  in  1888,  was,  after  the  French  occupation 
of  the  country,  confirmed  in  the  possession  of  the  present  Kebao  Domain. 
The  output  of  coal  rose  from  1,641  metric  tons  in  1902  to  17,085  tons  in  1910, 
the  total  output  during  the  period  amounting  to  nearly  100,000  tons. 

The  roughly  triangular  island  of  Kebao  lies  with  its  longest  (south-eastern; 
side  towards  the  main  channel,  along  which  in  a  tract  from  1^  to  3  miles  (2  to 
5  kilometresj  in  width  the  coal  district  lies.  The  down-stream  end  of  the 
island  is  mountainous,  and  contains  only  thin  unworkable  seams.  At  a  distanqe 
of  about  a  third  from  the  lower  end,  coal  is  found  in  workable  quantities. 
This  zone  extends  for  about  2^  miles,  but  the  first  thousand  yards  (1  kilo- 
metre), up  to  a  fault  which  runs  north-east  and  south-west,  although  includ- 
ing seams  40  and  24  inches  thick  (1  metre  and  600  millimetres)  respectively, 
has  hitherto  proved  unworkable,  on  account  of  difficulties  of  transpart.  The 
field  actually  worked  is  cut  into  four  districts  by  faults.  In  the  easternmost 
of  these — the  Cai  Dai  district — about  sixteen  senms  are  enumerated,  having- 
thicknesses  of  from  32  inches  to  10  feet  (800  millimetres  to  3  metres)  and  a 
total  thickness  of  62  feet  (18a5  metres).     These  seams  dip  to  the  north-east. 


Westward  of  this,  between,  two  succeeding  faults,  i.s  the  Trainee  Verte  dis- 
trict. The  seams  here  vary  from  24  to  64  inches  (600  millimetres  to  16 
metres)  in  thickness,  and  have  a  total  thickness  of  about  30  feet  (91  metres). 
Thirteen  seams  are  mentioned:  they  dip  to  the  north-east,  fold  upwards 
awhile,  and  dip  again.  A  line  of  rails  runs  through  the  district,  and  its 
terminus  practically  ends  the  field  so  far  as  work  is  concerned.  To  the  west 
and  south  further  good  seams  have  been  found.  A.  R.  L. 

Characteristics  of  Fossil  Coal. — By  K.  Weithofer.  ilontanist.  RutuJs., 
1915,  vol.  vii.,  pages  107  and  133. 
It  is  still  an  open  question  whether  brown  coal  and  bituminous  coal  are 
different  varieties  of  the  same  substance,  or  whether  they  differ  radically  from 
each  other.  Prof.  Donatli  is  of  the  latter  opinion,  and  does  not  consider  that 
the  one  kind  of  coal  can  ever,  in  any  length  of  time,  or  under  anj-  condi- 
tions of  pressure  and  heat,  be  converted  into  the  other.  This  view  is  contro- 
verted by  the  writer,  and  many  geologists  look  upon  bx'own  coal  and  bitumin- 
ous coal  as  two  memlj«rs  of  a  progressive  series  of  carbonizing  processes. 
Chemical  analysis  of  various  kinds  of  coal  according  to  their  age  shows  that 
the  carbon  in  them  is  gradually  enriched  as  the  water  and  oxygen  are  elimi- 
nated. The  oldest  coal  is  the  bituminous  with  the  largest  percentage  of 
•carbon,  and  brown  coal,  lignite,  peat,  and  wood  are,  in  the  writer's  opinion, 
successive  stages  of  development,  decreasing  in  age  downwards.  Age,  how- 
ever, is  not  the  only  factor  in  the  formation  of  coal :  the  original  plant  sub- 
stance from  which  it  was  produced  is  also  an  agent.  The  characteristics  of 
the  two  kinds  of  coal  are  not -always  the  same,  and  even  geologically  it  is  not 
■easy  to  draw  the  dividing  line  accurately.  "  Lignin  "  is  one  of  the  main 
features  of  brown  coal,  which  tends  gradually  to  disappear.  The  writer 
attributes  its  presence  to  the  richness  of  plant  life  at  the  time  when  the  coal 
was  formed.  Coal,  he  states,  consists  of  the  fossil  remains  of  a  succession  of 
plant  forms,  and  that  found  in  the  Carboniferous  Age  is  the  result  of  a 
different  class  of  plant  life  from  that  which  gives  rise  to  the  coal  of  the 
Tertiary  Era.  E.  M.  D. 

Characteristics  of  Coal-deposits  in  the  Limestone  Strata   (Germany).- — 

By  E.  DoNATH  and  Prop.  Ezehak.     Montanist.  Bunds.,  1915,  vol.  vii., 
jiages  1,  35,  and  74. 

The  writer  considers  the  difference  between  various  kinds  of  coal,  bitumin- 
ous and  brown,  in  Germany  and  Austria.  He  endeavours  to  determine 
whether  the  two  types  of  coal  belong  to  the  Upper  and  Lower  Limestone 
formations,  and  with  this  object  has  studied  varieties  from  Carpano  in 
Istria,  Barsinghausen,  Obernkirchen  in  Schaumburg-Lippe,  Ost-erwald,  near 
Hanover,  Borkowitz  in  Moravia,  Lowenberg  in  Silesia,  and  coal  from  Southern 
Styria.  Samples  were  tested  chemically  for  their  degree  of  moisture,  which 
was  found  to  be  small  in  bituminous  and  large  in  brown  coal.  Other  charac- 
teristics were  determined  by  burning  in  a  crucible,  boiling  in  a  solution  of 
potash,  in  benzol,  or  in  weak  solutions  of  nitric  acid  and  sulphuric  acid.  He 
is  of  opinion  that  the  coal  in  the  Lower  Limestone  formations  contains  more 
tropical  fossils,  whilst  the  coal  in  the  Upper  Limestone  shows  fossils  belong- 
ing rather  to  the  Tertiary  Age.  E.  M.  D. 

1915-191G.]  NOTKS    UF    tOLOXlAL   AND   FOREIGX   PAPERS.  i) 

Mining:   Fields  of  Western  Australia. — By  A.   Gibb  Maitland.      Geol.   Surv. 
U\-.<frrn    Au.</ra!ia.    1915.    Bulletin   No.    64,   pages    92-105. 

The  iuception  of  active  mining  operations  in  Au.stralia  dat^es  back  to  1842, 
when  lead  and  copper  lodes  were  first  discovered  and  worked  at  Waneranooka, 
in  the  Northampton  district  of  Western  Australia.  Since  then  the  State 
(estimated  to  embrace  975,920  square  miles)  had  pro-duced,  up  to  the  end  of 
1912,  minerals  to  the  value  of  ^113,660,065,  of  which  545  per  cent,  was 
obtained  from  the  East  Coolgardie  goldfield,  which  includes  the  gold-mining 
centre  of  Kalgoorlie.  The  real  mining  history,  however,  dates  back  to  the 
year  189.3. 

The  principal  mineral  products  of  greatest  importance,  arranged  in  order 
of  value,  are  gold,  copper,  coal,  tin,  lead,  and  phosphates.  The  metals  and 
metalliferous  minerals  make  up  by  far  the  greater  proportion  of  the  value  of 
the  output,  l>eing  over  98  per  cent,  of  the  total. 

The  author  gives  valuable  information  regarding  the  Kimberley,  Pilbara, 
West  Pilbara,  Ashburton  and  Gascoyne,  Peak  Hill,  Murchison,  Talgoo, 
Yilgarn,  and  Eastern  goldfields. 

Tlie  copper,  tin,  and  coalfields  are  also  discussed.  The  Collie  coalfield  is 
the  only  one  that  is  in  active  operation,  although  there  are  districts  in  which 
lignites  and  brown  coals  occur.  Tlie  production  of  this  coalfield  up  to  the 
end  of  1912  amounted  to  2,323,136  tons,  valued  at  £1,069,435.  The  principal 
local  consumers  are  the  Government  railways  and  local  factories ;  the  gold- 
fields  market  for  coal  is  limited,  as  good  firewood  supplies  are  available. 

A.  C. 

Mining  Geolo°ry  of  Yerilla,  North  Coolgrardie  Goldfield. — By  J.  T.  JuTSOK. 

Gvol.  Surv.    I^«?.-■^■/•/l   Au.ftralia,   1915,  Bulletin  No.  64,  pages  13-45. 

Yerilla  is  situated  about  21  miles  east-south-east  of  Kookynie,  a  mining 
town  on  the  Kalgoorlie-Leonora  railway.  It  has  been  a  small  mining  ce.ntre 
for  a  fair  number  of  years,  having  been  apparently  discovered  soon  after  the 
first  rush  to  the  Eastern  goldfields  over  20  years  ago.  Yarri  is  about  40 
miles  and  Edjudina  about  50  miles  farther  to  the  south-east.  Most  of  the 
country  is  flat,  but  occasional  high  ridges  occur. 

The  general  geology  is  simple.  There  are  three  chief  series  of  rocks — - 
basic,  intermediate,  and  acid.  The  basic  are  the  oldest,  and  the  others  may 
be  approximately  contemporaneous  with  each  other. 

The  basic  series  consists  of  massive  and  schistose  rocks,  to  all  of  which  the 
local  name  of  "greenstones"  has  been  given.  The  massive  greenstones  are 
divided  into  fine-grained,  porphyritic,  and  coarse-grained,  the  relations  of 
which  have  not  }>een  definitely  determined.  The  greenstones,  especially  the 
schistose  group,  carry  most  of  the  auriferous  reefs  of  the  field.  The  inter- 
mediate series  consists  of  a  rock  provisionally  termed  a  syenite,  which  is 
intrusive  into  the  greenstones,  and  is  apparently  non-auriferous.  The  acid 
series  consists  of  small  intrusions  into  the  greenstones  of  a  granite,  and  of 
a  number  of  acid  dykes  genetically  related  to  the  granite.  These  dykes  com- 
prise aplites,  quartz  and  felspar-porphyries,  probably  granite-porphyries,  and 

The  future  prospects  of  Yerilla.  both  as  to  new  reefs  and  as  to  mining 
in  depth,  are  discussed. 

A.  C. 

6  TRANSACTIONS TIIK    NORTH    OF    ENULAXl)    INS'irn-TK.     [Vol,  Ixvi. 

Geologrical  Observations  and  Remarks  on  the  Present  State  of  Mining 
in  the  Districts  of  Mount  Magrnet,  Lennonville,  and  Boogrardie, 
Murchison  Goldfield. — By  J.  T.  Jutson.  Geol.  Surv.  Western 
Australia,  1914,  Bulletin  No.  59,  pages  91-139. 

The  rocks  of  the  districts  discussed  consist  largely  of  greenstones, 
frequently  foliated,  with  which  are  associated  iron-bearing  quartzites,  theso 
latter  being  apjiarently  highly-altered  products  of  the  greenstones.  Some 
quartz-porphyry  dykes  have  also  been  discovered,  and  possibly  a  basic  dyke. 

The  lodes  comjjrise  three  series,  namely,  quartz-reefs,  quartzite-lodes, 
and  fault-lodes.  The  first  are  numerous,  and  of  varying  length  and  thick- 
ness, having  proved  to  be  auriferous  to  500  feet  in  depth.  They  are 
most  extensively  developed  between  Lenuonville  and  Mount  Magnet.  The 
quartzite-lodes  are  thick  masses  of  altered  country  of  low-grade  character, 
frequently  intersected  by  thin  quartz-veins,  and  then  stated  to  be  most 
aiiriferous.  They  have  not  been  worked  deeper  than  300  feet.  The  fault- 
lodes  are  the  famous  Boogardie  "breaks."  These  breaks  are  sometimes 
extremely  rich  in  free  gold;  below  water-level,  however,  where  worked,  they 
have  yielded  poor  results. 

No  definite  conclusion  as  to  the  origin  of  the  gold  can  be  arrived  at.  It 
is  very  probable  that  secondary  deposition  and  concentration  in  certain  areas 
within  the  zone  of  oxidation  have  taken  place. 

With  regard  to  future  possibilities,  the  reefs  appear  to  have  every 
chance  of  existing  at  greater  depths  than  those  at  present  worked,  although 
some  will  probably  give  out,  judging  from  their  aj^parent  character  of  short 
leuticles.  Tlie  quartzite-lodes  have  yet  to  be  proved  in  depth,  but  some  that 
have  been  opened  up  are  promising,  and  their  mode  of  occurrence  suggests 
that  other  undiscovered  lodes  exist.  A.  C. 

Coal  Resources  of  Western  Australia. — By  H.  P.  Woodward.     Geol.  Surv. 
Western  .iustralia,  1915,  Bulletin  No.  64,  images  7-12. 

The  author  describes  in  minute  detail  the  Collie  coalfield,  which  is 
situated  on  the  Collie  River,  about  100  miles  to  the  soiithward  of  Perth. 

The  coal  is  non-caking  bituminous,  high  in  moisture.  It  is  black,  dirty 
to  handle,  partly  of  a  splintery  character,  and  partly  of  bright  layers  alternat- 
ing with  soft  bauds  which  present  the  appearance  of  compressed  soft  wood 
charcoal.  The  splint  coal  is  extremely  tough  to  cut  or  break,  but  rapidly 
develops  cracks  ujion  exposure  to  dry  warm  air,  rendering  it  unsatisfactory 
for  long  railway  journeys  or  storage  on  goldfields.  The  coal  does  not  kindle 
so  quickly  as  coals  from  New  South  Wales,  but  burns  with  little  smoke  until 
only  light  white  or  reddish  ash  is  left. 

Four  companies  are  at  work  upon  the  field  :  they  work  the  whole  or  a 
portion  of  the  lai'gest  seams  by  inclined-plane  haulage.  Tlie  height  of  the 
coal  is  from  6  to  10  feetj  and  the  system  adopted  pillar  and  .stall. 

Up  to  the  present  the  deepest  vertical  shaft  is  only  250  feet,  but  it  is 
likely  that  a  pair  of  vertical  shafts  will  shortly  be  put  down  to  a  depth  of 
1,000  feet. 

Electric  band  cutters  are  used  for  cutting,  black  powder  being  u.sed  as 

As  the  workings  are  free  from  gas,  naked  lights  are  used,  whilst  (provided 
good  ventilation  is  available)  there  is  no  danger  of  choke-damp. 

A.  C. 

1915-1916.]  XOTES   OF   COLONIAL  .AND  FOEEIGX   PAPERS.  7 

Certain    Mining:    Centres   at   the    South    End    of   the    Yalgoo   Goldfield. — 

By  H.  P.  WooDWAHD.  Geol.  Surv.  Westtrn  Australia,  1915,  Biilletin 
No.  64,  pages  46-51. 

The  author  describes  visits  to  the  Golden  Eagle,  Porcupine,  Boflfbie 
Venture,  and  Crusoe  mining  centres. 

Golden  Eagle  Group. — Two  very  rich  leaders  are  being  worked  upon  the 
edge  of  an  old  dry-blowing  patch,  and  it  is  probable  that  these,  with  others, 
formed  the  source  from  which  the  alluvial  gold  was  derived. 

Porcupine  Group. — This  is  situated  upon  a  low  ridge  of  hills,  the  gold- 
bearing  lodes  lying  upon  either  side  of  one  of  those  banded  jaspery  iron- 
stone outcrops,  which  have  commonly  proved  to  be  of  so  considerable  an 
economic  importance  upon  the  Murchison  goldfield. 

Bonnie  Venture  Group. — About  two  years  ago  gold  was  discovered  in  a 
conglomerate  bed,  situated  in  a  belt  of  rough  broken  country,  some  5  or  6 
miles  south  of  Mount  Singleton.  There  is  an  abundant  water-supply,  while 
there  is  ample  mining  timber  and  fuel  in  the  neighbourhood  to  last  for  a 
considerable  time;  therefore  if  this  body  of  ore  should  prove  to  carry  any- 
thing approaching  the  estimated  4  dwts.,  this  should  before  long  become  an 
important  mining  centre. 

Crusoe  Group. — Gold  was  discovered  here  some  years  ago,  but  was 
abandoned,  owing  to  the  large  quantity  of  copper  contained  in  the  .stone.  It 
is  an  extremely  promising  tract  of  country,  very  similar  in  apjiear- 
ance  to  those  portions  of  the  Tilgarn  belt  in  which  the  greenstone  schists  are 
capped  by  travertine  deposits.  A  number  of  small,  but  rich,  leaders  have  Ijeen 
discovered,  but  so  far  no  actual  work  has  been  done  upon  them  to  prove  their 
size  or  direction.  A.  C. 

Xurnalpi,  North-East  Coolgardie  Goldfield. — By  J.  T.  Jutsox.     Geol.  Surv. 
Western  Australia,  1914,  Bulletin  Xo.   59,  pages  13-30. 

The  author  points  out  that  extensive  alluvial  deposits  exist  at  Kurnalpi, 
which  suggests  the  possibility  of  more  axiriferous  reefs  or  lodes  than  have 
hitherto  been  discovered  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  alluvial  deposits, 
the  evidence  indicating  that  the  alluvial  gold  has  not  travelled  far.  It  is 
suggested  that  some  of  this  gold  may  be  of  chemical  origin,  and  some  derived 
from  deep  leads  by  denudation  of  portions  of  the  latter. 

The  main  rocks  are  greenstones  of  somewhat  varied  character,  and  the 
typical  form  is  akin  to  an  amphibolite.  These  rocks  occupy  a  wide  belt  of 
country  that  is  possibly  all  auriferoiis. 

Quartz-reefs  are  numerous  and  strong  in  the  neighbourhood.  Only  one 
quartz-porphyry  intrusion  has  been  observed.  As  similar  dykes  are  intimately 
associated  in  various  parts  of  the  Eastern  Goldfields  with  the  occurrence  of 
gold,  and  appear  at  times  to  be  responsible  for  it,  these  outcrops  should 
always  be  noted  and  search  made  for  any  adjacent  quartz-reefs. 

Eich  contact-gold  has  been  discovered,  and  there  appears  to  be  no  reason 
why  other  patches  should  not  be  located  in  depth  and  otherwise.  It  has  been 
claimed  that  lode  formations  occur;  but,  while  the  author  does  not  dispute 
the  fact,  he  points  out  that  much  more  sinking,  driving,  and  cross-cutting  will 
be  required  before  their  existence  can  be  definitely  proved. 

Satisfactory  development  of  any  belt  will  probably  be  of  much  value  as  a 
guide  and  stimulus  to  the.  rest  of  the  field.  A.  C. 

8         TRANSACTIONS — THE   XORTH   OF   EXGLAXD   INSTITUTE.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

Report  upon  the  Ardlethan  Tinfield.— By  J.  K.  Godfrey.      Geol.  Stirv.  New 
Sotifh  Wales,  1915,  Mineral  Resources  No.  20,  pages  1-77. 

This  report  is  the  result  of  a  systematic  examination  and  sampling  of  the 
various  occurrences.  A  portion  is  devoted  to  assays  of  4.31  samples.  In 
nearly  every  case  the  tin-oi-e  occurs  as  a  secondary  product  in  altered  granite, 
and  though  these  altered  belts  can  often  be  traced  for  considerable  distances, 
the  ore  itself  usually  seems  to  exist  in  pipes  and  bunches,  the  continuity  of 
which  is  doubtful. 

A  rough  estimate  is  given  of  the  amount  of  payable  ore  likely  to  be 
obtained,  but  this  must  be  considered  merely  as  a  very  mde  approximation 
to  the  truth.  First,  because  the  patchy  nature  of  the  deposits  render  a 
calculation  of  ore  in  sight  a  matter  of  great  uncertainty,  since  a  pi]}e  may 
go  down  for  some  distance  or  cut  out  in  a  few  feet ;  secondly,  because  it  was 
imjjossible  to  sample  all  the  dumps  of  reputedly  payable  stone  scattered 
throughout  the  field :  and  thirdly,  because  from  the  very  nature  of  the 
deposits  it  is  probable  that  other  rich  pockets  and  pipes  will  be  found  from 
time  to  time  in  different  parts  of  the  field.  A.  C. 

The    Mayari    Iron-ore    Deposits,   Cuba. — By  J.   F.   Keiip.        Bull.   American 
Inst.  Mill.  Engineers,  1915,  pages  129-154. 

The  author,  in  addition  to  giving  references  to  the  numerous  papers  deal- 
ing with  the  iron-ore  deposits  of  Cuba,  describes  the  mineralogical  character 
and  chemical  composition  of  the  Mayari  deposits.  A  diagram  is  appended 
showing  the  physical  and  mineralogical  changes  that  have  taken  place  in  the 
serjDentine  during  its  passage.  Sections  are  given  of  three  distinct  layers 
occurring  in  the  pits,  the  top  one  of  which  is  of  a  crimson-brown  colour, 
the  middle  yellowish-brown',  and  that  at  the  bottom  a  lighter  shade  of 
yellowish-brown.  At  the  surface,  or  a  few  feet  below,  in  some  places  slabs, 
and  sometimes  continuous  sheets  of  solid  iron  hydrate  (called  plancha)  occur. 

The  general  run  of  the  ore  is  earthy,  resembling  the  Mesabi  ores  both  in 
colour  and  in  texture.  When  newly  mined,  it  has  a  peculiar  mealy  character, 
which  however  disappears  as  the  ore  dries. 

Analyses  are  given  of  laterite  ores  in  other  districts,  and  these  are  com- 
pared with  Mayari  ores. 

The  author  also  describes  a  discovery  of  ore  similar  to  the  Mayari  deposits 
reported  from  the  northern  portion  of  Mindanao  in  the  Philippine  Islands. 
It  is  estimated  to  contain  800,000,000  tons,  in  which  the  ferric  oxide  is  as 
high  as  77'7  per  cent.,  corresponding  with  544  per  cent,  of  iron.  There  are 
only  traces  of  phosphorus  and  sulphur.  A.  C. 


Working:  and  Concentration  of  the  Output  of  a  Coalfield  in  Bohemia. — 

By  L.  KiESCHNEB.     Montanist.  Runds.,  1915,  vol.  vii.,  pages  101-104. 

The  writer  describes  a  method,  which  has  been  introduced  at  the  Ignaz 
Mine,  Marienberg,  in  Moravia,  of  getting  out  and  winding  the  coal  simul- 
taneously. The  coal  is  brovight  to  the  pit-bottom  as  it  is  got  out,  and 
immediately  wound,  all  the  different  operations  being  carried  on  at  the  same 
time.  The  seams  lie  at  a  steep  incline,  and  are  woi'ked  in  cross-cut  levels,  all 
converging  towards  the  centre  :  the  distance  from  the  farthest  working  to  the 
winding  shaft  should  not  exceed  1|  miles  (3  kilometres).     By  these  cross-cuts 

1915-1916]  XOTES   OF   Ct)LOXIAL   AND   FOREKiX   PAPERS.  9 

the  different  seams  are  couuected  with  each  other,  and  the  steep  inclination 
of  the  ground  is  utilized  for  the  conveyance  of  the  coal  on  the  brake-block 
system.  Roadways  for  this  purpose  are  in  some  cases  driven  in  the  rock  itself. 
The  levels  are  packed  as  the  coal  is  wrought,  on  account  of  the  great  pressure 
iu  the  mine,  and  other  special  conditions.  The  mine  is  worked  on  a  modifica- 
tion of  the  longwall  system  in  some  parts,  in  others  by  pillar  and  bord,  and 
the  pillars  are  robbed  a^  the  coal  is  wrought.  The  height  of  the  levels 
depends  on  the  inclination  of  the  seams.  If  the  gradient  is  so  steep  that  the 
coal  and  rock  fall  of  themselves,  a  great  height  is  required;  but  if  the  seam 
is  not  more  than  5  feet  thick,  less  height  is  sufficient.  The  best  width  has 
been  found  to  be  20  feet. 

The  writer  recommends  this  method  of  working  a  mine  as  cheapest, 
quickest,  and  most  efficient  where  sharply-inclined  seams  have  to  be  wrought. 
The  jDackiug  is  obtained  from  various  parts  of  the  mine,  especially  the  venti- 
lating shafts.  E.  M.  D. 

Methods  of  Drawing:  Pillars  in  Pitching:  Seams. — By  J  Someeville 
QuiGLEY.     Trans.  Can.  Min.  Inst.,  1914,  vol.  xvii.,  pages  406-414. 

The  two  methods  of  drawing  pillars  chiefly  in  in  Canada  have  each 
their  advantages  and  disadvantages. 

The  first  method  is  that  of  working  the  rooms  on  the  strike  of  the  seam. 
Slopes  are  sunk  on  or  as  near  as  possible  to  the  full  pitch  of  the  seam,  and  as 
near  the  centre  of  the  area  to  be  worked  as  convenient.  Levels  and  counter- 
levels  are  broken  away  on  each  side  of  the  slope  every  400  or  500  feet,  and 
are  driven  to  their  boundary  before  the  pillars  are  extracted.  A  pillar 
from  200  to  400  feet  wide  is  left  to  protect  the  slope.  From  the  entries  head- 
ings are  driven  up  the  pitch  at  approximately  every  400  feet.  The  haulage 
system  in  these  headings  depends  chiefly  on  the  degree  of  the  pitch.  The 
three  systems  generally  used  are  back-balance,  shoot  or  gravitation,  and  jig. 

The  second  method  consists  in  driving  rooms  up  to  the  true  pitch  of  the 
seam,  and  drawing  pillars  down  the  pitch.  As  in  the  other  system,  entries  are 
driven  on  the  strike  of  the  seam,  with  a  gradient  in  favour  of  the  loads  of  from 
^  to  1  per  cent.,  which  also  allows  for  drainage.  Rooms  are  driven  from 
these  entries  up  the  pitch  with  approximately  60-foot  centres;  cross-cuts  are 
driven  connecting  these  rooms  every  50  or  60  feet,  thus  forming  blocks  of  coal 
50  or  60  feet  square.  A.  C. 

Condensation  of  Gasoline  from  Natural  Gas. — By  A.  Burrell,  Frank  M. 
Seibert,  and  G.  G.  Oberfell.  Bur.  Mines,  1915,  Bulletin  No.  88,  pages 

The  U.S.A.  Bureau  of  Mines  is  conducting  a  series  of  investigations 
with  the  common  aim  of  minimizing  the  losses  that  occur  in  the  mining  and 
treatment  of  mineral  substances.  The  present  report  deals  with  a  method  of 
preventing  some  of  the  waste  of  natural  gas  incidental  to  oil-mining. 
This  method,  the  condensation  of  gasoline  from  natural  gas,  offers  to  the  oil- 
operator  and  others  a  profitable  means  of  utilizing  some  of  the  oil-well  gas 
that  is  now  partly  wasted.  The  most  desired  constituent  of  crude  oil  is 
obtained,  the  production  of  oil  is  not  hindered,  and  the  gas,  after  the  extrac- 
tion of  gasoline,  can  be  returned  to  the  leased  area  to  drive  pumps  or  into 
pipe-lines  for  uses  to  which  natural  gas  is  ordinarily  put,  usually  with  its 
fuel  value  lessened  only  in  slight  degree. 

10      TRANSACTIONS — THE  NORTH   OV   ENGLAND   INSTITUTE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

The  coudeusatioii  of  gasoline  from  natural  gas  is  a  physical  process.  The 
process  in  principal  use  at  the  present  time  consists  essentially  in  compressing 
the  gas  to  pressures  up  to  300  pounds  and  cooling  it  with  water  oi  ordinary 
temperature.  Cooling  the  gas  by  means  of  a  refrigerant  without  compres- 
sion, or  using  a  refrigerant  other  than  water  in  conjunction  with  compressors, 
are  processes  tliat  are  coming  into  use.  The  pressure  best  suited  for  the  con- 
densation of  gasoline  from  natural  gas  depends  upon  the  partial  pressures 
of  the  gases  and  vapours  present  in  the  mixture.  The  partial  pressures  ai^'e 
difficult  to  determine.  Henoe  the  best  that  one  can  do  in  plant  operation  is  to 
experiment  until  the  most  suitable  pressures  are  found.  Single-stage  and 
two-stage  compressors  are  generally  used  in  gasoline-plant  operations.  Single- 
stage  compressors  are  as  a  rule  in  use  where  pressures  of  110  pounds  per 
square  inch  are  not  exceeded.  In  most  two-stage  plants  but  little  condensate 
is  obtained  after  the  first  compression. 

Several  changes  occur  in  the  gas  when  it  is  treated  in  a  gasoline  plant 
for  the  condensation  of  gasoline.  One  is  connected  with  the  condensation  of 
vapour,  another  with  the  liquefaction  of  gas,  and  a  third  with  the  solubility 
of  gases  in  the  liquids  produced.  The  condensate  as  it  is  received  in  the  accu- 
mulator tanks  consists  principally  of  the  liqviids  peutane  and  hexane  and  the 
liquefied  gas  butane.  Some  heptane  and  licjuid  propane  may  also  be  present. 
For  a  particular  natural  -gas  there  is  a  certain  pressure  best  suited  to  produce 
the  most  saleable  gasoline.  An  increase  in  the  pressure  may  result  in  pro- 
ducing more  condensate  in  the  accumulator-tanks,  but  the  additional  yield 
may  be  so  volatile  as  to  escape  quickly  after  exposure  to  air.  The  quantity  of 
gas  that  dissolves  in  the  condensate  in  the  accumulator-tank  is  so  small  as  to 
be  insignificant.  At  least  one  plant  in  the  United  States  using  a  refrigera- 
tive  method  with  low  pressures  is  in  successful  operation. 

Exclusive  of  foundations  -and  housing  for  machinery,  pipe-line  to  wells, 
railway  sidings,  storage-tanks,  etc.,  the  compressing  and  condensing  equip- 
ment for  gasoline  plants  costs  from  about  £560  (.?2,800)  for  a  plant  suitable 
for  handling  120,000  cubic  feet  of  gas,  up  to  £1,560  (|7,800)  for  a  plant  suit- 
able for  handling  600,000  to  700,000  cubic  feet  of  gas.  Two  plants  that  pro- 
duced 490,000  gallons  of  gasoline  in  1913  cost  £8,000  (|40,000)  to  complete. 
Tlie  owners  realized  55  per  cent,  on  their  investment  in  the  first  year.  About 
35  cubic  feet  of  gas  disappears  at  some  plants  for  each  gallon  of  condensate 
jjroduced  from  1,000  cubic  feet  of  gas.  At  other  plants,  as  much  as  500  cubic 
feet  of  gas  may  disappear.  A.  P.  A.  S. 

Mine-rescue    Apparatus. — By    Charles    Graham.     Trans.    Can.    Min.    Inst., 
1914,  vol.  xvii.,  pages  364-372. 

The  various  types  of  apparatus  now  in  use  may  be  divided  into  (1)  those 
in  which  oxygen  is  chemically  generated  within  the  apparatus,  (2)  those  in 
which  liquid  air  is  the  source  of  the  oxygen  supply,  and  (3)  those  in  which 
the  respired  air  is  chemically  purified  or  regenerated. 

The  ideal  breathing-apparatus  should  fulfil  the  following  requirements  :  — 
(1)  It  must  be  light  in  weight,  yet  strong ;  (2)  self-contained,  that  is,  indepen- 
dent of  any  fixed  base ;  (3)  permit  of  the  wearer  engaging  in  heavy  manual 
labour ;  (4)  allow  of  the  removal  of  carbon  dioxide  by  the  regenerator  as  com- 
pletely as  possible;  (5)  a  gauge  should  be  provided  to  indicate  distinctly  and 
accurately  how  long  the  apparatus  may  be  used ;  (6)  must  be  readily  recharg- 
able ;  (7)  the  charges  should  be  prepared  in  such  a  way  as  not  to  deteriorate 
through  keeping;    and  (8)  its  operation   must  be   automatic. 


The  author  points  out  that  two  general  types  fulfilling  most  of  these 
requirements  have  been  constructed,  in  one  of  which  air  is  supplied  through  a 
mouthpiece,  the  nostrils  being  closed  by  a  clip.  In  the  other  a  helmet  is 
worn,  an  air- joint  being  made  around  the  face  by  a  pneumatic  cushion. 

The  principal  consideration  in  the  use  of  any  apparatus  is  the  thorough 
training  of  the  men,  who  must  be  made  thoroughly  familiar  with  all  its 
details.  Tliorough  and  constant  systematic  training  will  tit  men  to  perform 
the  most  dangerous  and  exhaiisting  work  that  any  coal-miner  is  called  upon 
to  undertake. 

In  the  author's  opinion  it  is  not  always  fair  to  blame  the  apparatus  when 
an  accident  occurs ;  it  is  often  due  to  lack  of  the  necessary  precaiitions  before 
the  apparatus  is  put  into  iise,  or  to  the  inexperience  of  the  men  using  them. 

A.  C. 

Studies  and  Investigrations  Relating  to  Various  Explosive  Mixtures, 
with  Nitrate  of  Ammonia  as  the  Base. — By  H.  Schmerber.  Bull.  Soc. 
Indusf.  Min.,  1915,  series  5,  vol.  vii.,  j^ages  197-231. 

Following  up  some  investigations  on  explosives  for  use  in  gassy  miues, 
Mr.  Schmerber  here  goes  systematically  into  the  question  of  binary  explosives 
containing  different  proiX)rtions  of  a  number  of  the  combustibles  employed  in 
the  explosive  industries  when  combined  with  nitrate  of  ammonia  as  a  base, 
the  principal  of  these  being  naphthalene,  toluene,  xylene,  nitro-glyceriue, 
picric  acid,  and  cotton.  Pointing  out  that  an  explosive  of  this  kind  may  be 
such  that  a  sufficiency,  an  excess,  or  a  deficiency  of  oxygen  may  be  con- 
tained in  it,  the  author  comes  to  the  following  general  conclusions  : — (1)  That, 
as  regards  explosives  with  an  excess  of  oxygen,  the  different  mixtures  that 
can  come  in  question  will,  at  the  low  temperatures  of  detonation  suitable  to 
mine  work,  give  much  the  same  explosive  powers;  and  (2)  that  as  regards 
mixtures  that  do  not  contain  sufficient  oxygen  to  transform  all  the  carbon 
into  carbonic  acid,  the  explosive  power  will  always  be  less  than  when  the 
oxygen  is  just  sufficient  in  amount  to  effect  this.  A.  R.  L. 

Occurrence  of  Explosive  Gases  in   Coal-mines. — By  N.   H.   Dartox.     Bur. 
Mities,  1915,  Bulletin  Xo.  72,  pages  1-248. 

This  report  presents  the  results  of  an  investigation,  begun  by  the  Govern- 
ment in  the  summer  of  1907,  under  the  immediate  supervision  of  Dr.  J.  A. 
Holmes,  and  continued  under  him  by  the  Bureau  of  Mines.  The  purpose  of 
the  investigation  was  to  obtain  information  on  the  origin  of  the  inflammable 
gases  in  coal  and  the  conditions  under  which  they  occur.  It  was  especially 
intended  to  ascertain  whether  there  was  any  relation  between  the  occurrence 
of  gas  and  the  structural  or  other  geological  features  of  the  coal-beds.  To 
this  end  many  months  were  spent  in  mines  and  much  time  was  devoted  to  the 
examination  of  mine  maps,  borehole  records,  and  other  data  made  available 
by  the  kindness  of  various  coal  companies.  Two  fields  of  work  were  selected 
— one  in  the  northern  anthracite  basin  of  Pennsylvania,  where  the  beds  ai-e 
considerably  folded,  and  the  other  in  the  southern  part  of  the  bituminous 
coalfield  of  Illinois,  where  the  beds  lie  nearly  horizontal. 

In  order  to  take  advantage  of  the  results  of  previous  investigations  of 
the  same  general  subject,  an  extended  examination  was  made  of  reports  from 
various  investigators  in  Europe  and  America.  A  digest  of  the  information 
obtained  from  these  publications  is  included  in  the  first  part  of  this  report. 

12       TRANSACTIONS THE    NORTH    OF    ENGLAND    INSTITUTE.      [Vol.  Ixvi. 

which  cunstitutes  an  introduction  to  the  discussion  of  the  conditions  governing 
class  of  plant  life  to  the  coal  of  the  Tertiary  Period.  A.  P.  A.  S. 

Some    Remarks    on    Gas    in    Coal. — By   G.    A.    Lavoie.     Trans.    Can.    Min. 
Inst.,  1914,  vol.  xvii.,  pages  487-492. 

Gas  is  very  unevenly  distributed  in  coal-beds,  this  being  especially  notice- 
able in  very  fiery  mines,  not  only  in  the  main  return  airways,  but  also  at 
the  face.  Sudden  outbursts  of  gas  and  coal  in  apparently  regular  beds  sub- 
mitted to  an  even  pressure  f-liow  an  irregularity  in  the  quantities  of  the 
gases,  the  amount  liberated  in  some  explosions  being  entirely  out  of  pro- 
portion to  the  normal  quantity  occluded  in  the  coal.  It  was  reported  that 
m  an  explosion  some  30  years  ago  the  gas  disengaged  by  the  projection  of 
4,200  cubic  feet  of  outburst  coal  was  estimated  to  be  at  least  100,000  cubic 

The  reason  why  gases  have  not  been  diffused  more  evenly  through  the 
coal  under  the  pressure  of  the  superincumbent  strata  is  owing  to  the  imper- 
meability of  the  mineral.  The  initial  or  latent  pressure  in  coal  depends  on 
various  factors :  (1)  the  thickness  of  the  sedimentation  over  the  constituents 
of  the  seam,  and  especially  the  limit  of  time  during  which  the  first  sediment 
was  formed;  (2)  the  nature  of  the  cover;  (3)  differences,  -  however  small, 
between  the  constituents  of  the  same  coal-bed  in  different  regions;  and  (4) 
residual  compression  and  tensional  stresses  due  to  the  incomplete  massive  or 
molecular  changes  in  the  measures  during  the  ages  which  have  elapsed  since 
the  contraction  of  the   earth's  crust   began. 

The  g-ases  enclosed  in  the  pores  and  in  the  many  joints  of  the  coal  have, 
by  reason  of  their  expansive  force,  a  tendency  to  cause  these  pores  to  burst 
out  and  split  open  the  fragnTents  in  contact.  Tlie  resistance  opposed  to  this 
expansion  is  generally  variable,  and  depends  on  the  degree  of  agglomeration 
resulting  from  the  number,  extent,  and  dispo.sition  of  the  joints  in  the  coal, 
and  on  the  disposition  of  the  face  in  relation  to  these  joints.  So  soon  as  the 
gas-pressure  overcomes  the  resistance  of  the  seam,  phenomena  of  sudden 
expansion  may  take  place.  A.  C. 

Limits   of    Inflammability    of    Mixtures    of    Methane   and    Air. — By    G.    A. 

BuREELL  and  G.  G.  Oberfell.     Bur.  Mines,  1915,  Technical  Paper  No. 
119,  pages  1-30. 

This  paper  records  certain  experiments,  made  at  the  Pittsburgh  experi- 
ment station  of  the  Bureau  of  Mines,  on  self-propagation  of  flame  in  mixtures 
of  methane  and  air,  and  shows  the  composition  of  some  coal-mine  atmospheres. 
Tlie  results  of  the  investigation  are  svimmarized  as  follows:  — 

Low  Limit. — (1)  The  smallest  propoi-tiou  of  methane  in  mixtures  of 
methane  and  air  that  permitted  self-propagation  of  flame  was  4'9  per  cent. 
This  result  was  obtained  in  a  box  5f  feet  high  and  having  a  capacity  of  SJ 
cubic  feet.  Ignition  was  effected  from  the  bottom  upwards  by  means  of  an 
electric  flash  produced  by  pulling  apart  two  copper  wires  through  which  a 
current  of  7  amperes  at  220  volts  was  flowing.  The  box  was  closed  at  both 
ends,  but  a  thin  paper  diaphragm  at  the  top  allowed  a  vent  for  the  burned 

(2)  Under  the  same  conditions,  except  that  ignition  was  from  the  top  and 
the  paper  diaphragm  was  at  the  bottom,  the  smallest  percentage  of  methane 
that  allowed  self-propagation  of  flame  the  entire  length  of  the  box  was 
between  5'4  and  5"5  per  cent. 

1915-1916.]  XOTES  OF   COLOXIAL  AND  FORKIGN   I'APKRS.  13 

(3)  With  the  same  conditions  as  those  under  No.  2,  except  that  the  paper- 
covered  aperture  was  at  the  top,  the  low  limit  obtained  was  between  57  and 
5"8  per  cent,   of  methane. 

(4)  With  the  box  in  a  horizontal  jDositiun,  the  value  obtained  was  between 
55  and  5"6  per  cent,  of  methane.  This  limit  is  the  most  important  as  regards 
the  application  of  the  result-s  to  coal-mining. 

(5)  With  a  Hempel  explosion  pipette,  and  with  ignition  at  the  top,  a 
value  between  5"5  and  56  per  cent,  of  methane  was  obtained. 

(6)  With  a  2,800-cubic-centimetre  vessel  12  inches  high  and  5  wide,  and 
with  ignition  at  the  bottom,  a  value  close  to  5  per  cent,  of  methane  was 

High  Limit. —  (7)  The  vipper  limit  of  self-propagation  of  methaue-and-air 
mixtures  was  between  13'4  and  139  jier  cent,  of  methane  when  ignition  was 
from  the  top  in  an  ii-on  pipe  7  feet  long  and  12  inches  in  diameter,  and 
ignition  was  caused  by  pulling  apart  two  copper  wires  through  which  a  cur- 
rent of  7  amperes  at  220  volts  was  flowing.  A  paper-covered  aperture  placed 
at  the  top  of  the  box  gave  vent  for  the  burned  gases. 

(8)  Under  the  same  conditions  of  experiment  as  those  described  under  Xo. 
7,  except  that  ignition  was  from  the  bottom,  a  value  between  15  and  15-4  per 
cent,  of  methane  was  obtained. 

(9)  When  a  Hempel  explosion-pijjette  was  used,  with  ignition  at  the  top, 
a  value  lying  between  12'4  and  132  per  cent,  of  methane  was  found  as  the 
high  limit.     A  small  spark  from  an  induction-coil  was  the  source  of  ignition. 

Other  Results. — (10)  Of  the  results  obtained,  those  that  have  reference  to 
horizontal  propagation  are  most  important  as  regards  mining.  With  hori- 
zontal jDropagation  the  low  limit  ranged  from  5'5  to  5'6  per  cent,  of  methane. 
The  upper  limit  would  l>e  intermediate  between  the  values  given  for  upward 
and  downward  flame  propagation,  and  would  be  about  149  per  cent,  of 

(11)  Clement  found  that  the  addition  of  10  per  cent,  of  carbon  dioxide 
only  rai.sed  the  low  limit  from  o8  to  6'2  jjer  cent,  of  methane.  When  he 
kept  the  oxygen  constant  at  20  per  cent.,  it  required  the  replacement  of  part 
of  the  nitrogen  by  62  per  cent,  of  carbon  dioxide  to  raise  the  low  limit  to 
8'8  per  cent,  of  methane. 

(12)  Clement  also  found  that  the  oxygen  content  could  be  reduced  to  17 
per  cent,  when  the  low  limit  would  be  raised  only  02  per  cent,  above  that 
obtained  with  20  per  cent,  of  oxygen.  From  17  per  cent,  of  oxygen  down- 
ward, however,  the  limits  change  rapidly^  until  with  13  per  cent,  of  oxygen 
the  low  limit  is  6'6  per  cent,  of  methane  and  the  high  limit  68. 

(13)  Analyses  of  mine  air  collected  in  a  fiery  part  of  a  mine  in  which  an 
explosion  had  occurred  some  time  before  showed  explosive  proportions  of 
nuethane  at  the  working-face  near  the  top,  and  a  high  proportion  70  feet 
from  the  face  near  the  top ;  whereas  at  the  face,  but  halfway  to  the  floor, 
the  proportion   was  much  smaller. 

(14)  In  twelve  samples  of  mine  air,  out  of  fifty-one  samples  from  thirty- 
one  mines,  the  oxygen  content  was  less  than  20  per  cent.  Three  of  the  twelve 
samples  were  collected  at  places  where  the  air  was  still,  and  nine  were  col- 
lected in  the  moving  current.  The  highest  proportion  of  carbon  dioxide 
found  was  1  per  cent.-  in  return  air.  At  another  mine,  where  42,400  cubic 
feet  per  minute  of  air  was  passing,  the  oxygen  content  was  17-71  per  cent. 

(16)  The  results  of  analysis  of  a  series  of  samples  show  the  change  in 
chemical  composition  that  the  mine  air  underwent  as  it  traversed  certain 
workings  of  a  mine.     The  air,  from  being  almost  pure  at  the  intake,  gradually 

14       TEAXSACTIOXS THE   XURTII    OF    KXCiLAXI)    IXSTITUTK.      [Vol.lxvi. 

changed  in  composition,  the  carbon-dioxide  content  raising  to  016  per  cent., 
the  oxygen  content  falling  to  2063  per  cent.,  and  the  methane  cont«nt 
rising  to  0-37  per  cent,  over  a  distance  of  15,140  feet. 

(17)  Analyses  are  presented  of  another  series  of  samples  that  were  taken 
from  a  mine  wherein  a  disastrous  explosion  had  occurred  some  time  previously. 
The  highest  proportion  of  methane  was  24'61  i>er  cent.,  the  lowest  oxygen  con- 
tent was  12'91  per  cent.,  and  the  highest  carbon-dioxide  content  was  Ool 
per  cent. 

(18)  As  the  result  of  its  work,  the  Bureau  fiuds  that  in  vt'utilated  mines 
there  is  seldom  enough  variation  in  the  oxygen  and  carbon-dioxide  contents 
of  the  different  atmosjjlieres  to  affect  sensibly  the  inflammability  of  methane- 
and-air  mixtures.  In  mines  that  are  not  ventilated,  and  in  sealed  areas, 
different  conditions  prevail.  A.  P.  A.  S. 

Investigration  of  Certain  Phenomena  Accompanying  a  Mining^  (Air-blast) 

Accident. — By  F.  Mbvik.     Moutanist.  Bunds.,  1915,  A'ol.  vii.,  pages 

An  accident  took  place  iu  singular  circumstances  in  the  Ferdinand  Mine 
at  Kladno  (Bohemia)  on  February  18tli,  1914,  in  which  two  miners  lost  their 
lives.  No  danger  had  till  then  been  apprehended  in  the  mine.  Without  any 
warning,  late  in  the  afternoon,  a  sudden  violent  air-blast  was  felt  in  different 
parts  of  the  mine,  which  extinguished  most  of  the  lights,  and  threw  many  of 
the  men  violently  to  the  ground,  or  against  the  working-face.  In  one  of  the 
levels  the  roof  seam  gave  way,  fell  upon  two  hewers  below,  and  crushed  them 
instantly  to  death.  The  direction  of  the  air-blast  throughout  the  mine  was 
always  from  the  "  old  man  "^^tliat  is,  the  goaf.  No  damage  was  done  to  any 
other  part  of  the  mine. 

The  mine  is  worked  on  the  pillar-and-bord  system.  Two  months  pre- 
viously the  work  of  robbing  a  pillar,  which  had  for  four  years  supported  the 
roof  in  this  level,  was  begun,  but  not  proceeded  with  till  the  day  of  the  acci- 
dent. Tlie  level  was  21  feet  long,  and  the  timbering  and  supports  had 
lately  been  streugtlieued,  although  no  special  pressure  had  been  observed. 
The  entire  level  collapsed,  the  crossways  were  broken  iip,  and  a  new  level 
had  to  be  driven  in  the  seam,  before  it  was  possible  to  reach  the  bodies.  A 
curious  featiire  of  the  explosion  was  that  no  dangerous  gases  were  liberated 
by  the  air-blast.  Upon  investigation,  an  enormous  block  of  sandstone,  46 
feet  long  and  40  wide,  was  found  in  the  wrecked  level ;  it  had  crushed  a 
26-foot  seam  of  coal  to  10  or  12  feet. 

The  writer  attributes  the  accident  to  the  great  pressure  in  the  roof  of  the 
level,  which  consists  of  sandstone  and  clay.  As  soon  as  the  robbing  of  the 
pillar  was  again  attempted,  the  pressure  of  the  rock  being  greater  than  the 
consistency  of  the  roof,  it  fell  in,  drove  the  air  out  of  the  "  old  man,"  and 
produced  the  violent  air-blast.  Tlie  sinking  of  the  roof  was  further  accelerated 
by  two  faults  in  the  strata,  running  east  and  west,  both  of  which  started  from 
this  seam.  •  E.  M.  D. 

Explosion  in  a  Coal-mine  near  Neurode,  Prussian  Silesia. — By  —  Warne. 
Zeitschr.  f.  Berg-,  Hiitt.-  ti.  Salinenwes.,  1915,  vol.  Ixiii.,  pages  1-15. 

This  accident,  in  which  two  men  lost  their  lives  and  two  were  badly 
injured,  took  place  on  May  18th,  1914,  at  the  Ruben  Pit,  near  Neurode  (in 
Silesia).   This  part- of  the   mine  was   known  to  be   very   dangerous.     Several 

1915-1916.]  XOTES   OF   COLOXIAL   AXD  FORKIGX   TAVERS.  15 

explosions  of  carbonic-acid  gas  had  already  taken  place,  but  the  present  acci- 
dent was  caused  by  mine  gas,  and  methane  and  olefiant  gas  were  given  off 
for  some  time  from  the  fissures  caused  by  the  explosion.  It  occurred  more 
than  half  a  mile  (1,000  metres)  from  the  scene  of  former  accidents,  and  its 
eftect  was  to  loosien  70  tons  of  coal  and  fling  it  many  yards  away.  The 
temperature  in  this  part  of  the  mine  also  fell  considerably.  Tlie  coal  here 
is  soft,  with  a  heating  value  of  7,000  calories  (12,600  British  Thermal  units 
per  pound),  and  is  worked  by  pillar  and  bord.  The  ventilation  is  good,  5,300 
cubic  feet  of  air  being  supplied  per  minute.  Additional  measures  of  safety 
have  been  taken  since  the  accident.  The  coal  is  now  brought  down  wholly 
by  blasting,  with  water-cartridges,  after  all  the  miners  have  been  withdrawn. 
Work  Avitli  a  pickaxe  is  forbidden,  because  of  the  risk  of  liberating  firedamp. 

E.  M.  D. 

Analysis  of  Natural  Gas  and  llluminatingr-gras  by  Fractional  Distillation 
at  Lovw  Temperatures  and  Pressures. — By  G.  A.  Btjreell,  F.  M. 
Seibert,  and  I.  W.  Robertsox.  Bur.  Mines,  liJl5.  Technical  Paper 
Xo.  104,  pages  1-41. 

This  publication  describes  in  detail  the  results  of  experiments  made  by 
the  Bureau  of  Mines,  with  a  method  of  separating  and  determining  the 
hydrocarbons  in  gaseous  fuels.  The  method  employs  fractional  distillation  in 
a  vacuum  at  low  temperatures.  Tlie  gas  is  liquefied,  the  different  constituents 
separated  by  proper  adjustment  of  temperatures,  the  various  fractions  re- 
moved with  a.  mercury  pump,  and  these  fractions  analysed  by  ordinary  slow- 
combustion  methods.  The  method  was  successfully  applied  to  the  separation 
of  hydrocarbons  in  natural  gas  and  in  artificial  illuminating-gas,  and  is  the 
only  known  method  applicable  to  the  separation  of  some  hydrocarbons. 

Tlie  first  part  of  this  report  describes  the  results  of  experiments  by 
which  the  natural  gas  used  in  Pittsburgh  (Penna.),  was  separated  into  its 
individual  paraffin  hydrocarbons.  The  second  part  describes  experiments  in 
which  the  separation  of  the  illuminants  in  artificial  Pittsburgh  and  New. 
Tork  illuminating-gas  was  effected.  Some  experiments  to  determine  the 
practicability  of  separating  gases  the  boiling-points  of  which  lie  close  to- 
gether, such  as  ethane  and  ethylene,  are  included. 

Methane  can  be  removed  at  the  temperature  of  liquid  air  and  the  ethane 
separated  from  the  propane,  butane,  etc.,  at  temiaeratures  ranging  from  -150° 
to  -140°  Cent.  The  propane  is  separated  from  the  higher  paraffins  at  tem- 
peratures rangin,g  from  -135°  to  -120°  Cent.  The  method,  although  some- 
what involved,  is  the  only  known  method  applicable  to  the  separation  of  some 

A  method  of  seiDarating  the  illuminants  in  coal-gas  is  also  described.  The 
methane,  hydrogen,  carlx)n  monoxide,  nitrogen,  and  oxygen  are  first  removed 
at  the  temperature  of  liquid  air,  the  ethane  and  ethylene  are  removed  at  a 
t€inj>erature  not  higher  than  -140°  Cent.,  the  jiropane  and  propylene  are 
removed  at  a  temperature  not  higher  than  -120°,  leaving  the  butylene, 
butane,  and  benzene  as  a  residue.  Tlie  benzene  can  be  separated  from  the 
butane  and  the  butylene  at  a  temperature  of  -78°  Cent. 

Benzene  can  be  simply  and  quickly  determined  in  coal-gas  or  other  mix- 
tures by  removing  the  carbon  dioxide  and  water-vapour,  cooling  the  mixture 
at  a  temperature  of  -78°  Cent.,  withdrawing  the  other  gases  at  this  tem- 
perature, and  finally,  after  the  refrigerant  has  been  removed  and  the  benzene 
vaporized,  reading  the  A'apour  pressure  on  a  mercury  manometer. 

16      TRANSACTIOXS^ — THE   XORTII   OF   ENGLAND   INSTITUTE.     [Vol.  Ixvi. 

Ethane  and  ethylene,  the  normal  boiling-points  of  which  are  only  about 
10°  Cent,  apart,  cannot  Ije  satisfactorily  separated  by  liquefaction  and  frac- 
tionation, because  of  the  tediousness  of  the  operation. 

By  liquefaction  and  fractionation  gases  may  be  prepared  in  a  condition 
of   exceptional  purity.  A.  P.  A.  S. 

Addition  of  Lime  to  Briquettes  to  Reduce  the  Sulphur  Percentage. — By 

E.  DoNATH.     Montanist.  Bunds.,  1915,  vol.  vii.,  page  741. 

The  experiments  here  described  consisted  in  adding  lime  to  coal  during 
combustion,  with  the  object  of  reducing  the  amount  of  sulphur  contained  in 
the  smoke  gases.  The  injurious  effect  of  smoke,  especially  on  vegetation,  is 
attributed  by  the  writer  mainly  to  the  presence  of  sulphur  in  it.  Part  of  this 
sulphur  (the  sulphides  and  sulphates)  are  converted  into  sulphuric  acid,  and  it 
is  this  which  causes  the  harmful  results  of  smoke.  By  adding  lime  to  the 
coal  during  the  process  of  combustion,  the  writer  endeavoured  to  reduce  the 
sulphur  to  a  harmless  minimum.  To  coal  containing  124  per  cent,  of  sulphur 
he  added  from  1  to  2  per  cent,  of  lime,  and  found  that  the  sulphuric  acid  in 
the  products  of  combustion  fell  to  085  per  cent.  When  the  same  coal  was 
burnt  without  lime,  the  quantity  of  sulphur  was  1'03  per  cent.  Coal  from 
Carpano  (Istria)  containing  a  total  of  9  per  cent,  of  sulphur  was  burnt  with  a 
10-per-cent.  addition  of  lime,  and  the  amount  of  siilphur  was  rediiced  thereby 
to  2'63  per  cent.  When  it  was  treated  with  hydrochloric  acid,  sulphuretted 
hydrogen  was  always  generated.  Tlie  writer  considers  that  these  experi- 
ments show  that  the  addition  of  c{uicklime  to  bituminous  coal  or  coke  during 
combustion  affords  a  simple  means  of  reducing  the  proportion  of  sulphur  in 
the  smoke  gases,  which  on  economic  grounds  is  most  desirable.  He  suggests 
that  an  effective  way  to  secure  an  intimate  mixture  of  the  lime  with  the 
coal  is  to  make  the  latter  into  briquettes,  and  to  add  the  lime  during  the 
process.  Austrian  brown  coal,  after  being  converted  into  briquettes  with  a 
mixture  of  lime,  might  probably  be  more  profitably  utilized  in  this  than  in 
any    other    way.  E.  M.  D. 

Utilization    of    Lignite    or    Brown    Coal. — By    J.    Huebers.         Montanist. 
Kunds.,  1915,  vol.  vii.,  page  168-170. 

There  are  extensive  seams  of  lignite  in  Lower  Austria,  which  have  only 
beeu  worked  of  late  years,  and  the  writer  considers  the  question  of  the  best 
way  of  utilizing  them.  As  the  freight  costs  are  excessively  high,  sometimes 
as  much  as  lialf  the  cost  of  production,  to  transport  the  lignite  in  bulk  is  not 
advisable.  It  can  be  cheaply  got  out,  often  from  the  surface,  and  the  seams 
can  generally  be  worked  clean  out :  no  deep  working  is  required,  aud  no 
pumping,  as  there  is  no  water.  The  lignite  contains  50  per  cent,  of  moisture, 
and  has  a  heating  value  of  2,500  calories  per  kilogramu.e.  The  thickness  of 
the  seams  varies  from  5  to  32  feet. 

The  writer  suggests  five  ways  of  utilizing  the  lignite.  If  cheaper  trans- 
port were  available,  it  might  be  burnt  as  fuel  under  boilers,  but  this  would 
require  a  remodelling  of  the  grates,  and  is  too  expensive  a  scheme.  The  same 
objection  attaches  to  the  conversion  of  the  lignite  into  bricj[uettes.  A  third 
plan  is  to  burn  it  at  the  pit's  mouth  under  boilers,  in  order  to  produce  steam 
for  driving  turbine-engines.  From  electric  power  might  be  generated, 
and  distributed  over  a  wide  area ;  but  the  installation  of  a  costly  modern 
power-plant  would  be  required.     Again,  the  lignite  might  be  converted  into 


gas  at  the  mine,  and  the  boilers  there  fired  with  gas  instead  of  solid  fuel.  Tlie 
heating  value  of  gas  made  from  lignite  is  low,  but  gas  of  much  poorer  cjuality, 
.such  as  blast-furnace  gas,  gives  a  high  heat-efficiency.  This  plan  would 
therefore  be  practicable,  but  the  writer  considers  that  much  the  best  and 
most  economically  efficient  system  would  be  to  use  the  gas  to  drive  gas- 
engines  at  the  pit's  mouth,  and  so  generate  a  central  supply  of  electricity  for 
distribution.    An  efficiency  of  75  per  cent,  should  be  secured. 

E.  M.  D. 

Utilization   of   Brown-coal    Dust. — By   Dr.    Herbuhg.      Montanist.    Bunds., 
1915,  vol.  vii.,  pages  333-334. 

lu  the  working  of  brown  coal  much  dust  is  produced,  which  is  extremely 
volatile.  Tlie  writer  deals  with  the  harmful  effect  of  this  dust,  especially  in 
industrial  centres,  and  the  means  of  disposing  of  it  which  modern  science  has 
placed  at  our  command.  Much  brown  coal  is  converted  into  briquettes,  but 
this  necessitates  the  crushing  and  drying  of  the  raw  material,  and  more  dust 
is  generated  in  the  process.  There  are  two  ways  of  arresting  this  dust — 
the  wet  and  the  dry  system.  By  the  former  it  is  precipitated  by  water  and 
steam  played  upon  it  through  nozzles.  The  dust  is  then  treated  in  slime- 
filters,  passed  into  clearing  basics,  and  the  water  drawn  off.  With  the  dry 
system  the  dust  does  not,  of  course,  need  to  be  dried  again.  It  is  forced 
through  thick  filters  by  an  air-current  (sometimes  the  chimney  draught  only 
is  sufficient),  and  is  then  carried  off  and  returned  to  the  briquette  manufac- 
turers, or  burnt  under  boilers;  but  the  writer  considers  that  a  comijletely 
satisfactory  method  of  utilizing  it  has  not  yet  been  devised. 

E.  M.  D. 

Notes  on  the  Use  of  Low-g^rade  Fuel  in  Europe. — By  E.  H.  Fennald.    Bur. 
Mines,  1915,  Technical  Pajoer  No.  123,  pages  1-37. 

In  its  investigation  of  fuels  belonging  to  or  intended  for  the  United 
States,  which  form  a  part  of  the  general  work  which  it  is  doing  to  increase 
efficiency  in  the  utilization  of  the  mineral  resources  of  the  country,  the 
Bureau  of  Mines  has  given  attention  to  the  combustion  of  fuel  in  furnaces  and 
gas-producei's,  and  has  tested  a  large  number  of  samples  of  coal  and  lignite 
in  order  to  determine  their  value  for  producing  power.  Tlirough  these  investi- 
gations of  the  utilization  of  fuel,  the  Bureau  is  endeavouring  to  aid  in 
prolonging  the  life  of  the  nation's  supply  of  high-grade  fuel  by  lessening 
present  waste  and  by  bringing  about  a  wider  utilization  of  fuels  noAV 

In  order  that  the  true  significance  of  these  important  commercial  prob- 
lems might  be  more  fully  presented  to  those  responsible  for  the  production, 
transport,  and  utilization  of  fuel  in  the  United  States,  an  attempt  was 
made  during  the  summer  of  1914  to  procure  in  Europe,  through  personal  in- 
spection, definite  information  relating  to  (a)  tho  utilization  of  high-ash  coais; 
(h)  the  use  of  wood  refuse  and  other  similar  materials ;  (c)  the  recovery  from 
fuel  of  bye-products — ammonium  sulphate,  tar,  pitch,  etc. ;  (d)  the  receut 
developments  in  the  praparation  and  use  of  peat;  (e)  the  results  of  low- 
temperature  distillation  of  fuels;  (/)  the  possibilities  of  the  slagging  type  of 
gas-producer;  and  ((/)  the  use  of  powdered  fuel. 

The  author  spent  the  greater  part  of  the  early  summer  of  1914  in  the 
British  Isles,   Belgium,   and   Holland.      The    nature    of  the    problems    under 

TOL.  LXVI. -1915-1916.  B     E 

18       TRAXSACTTONS THE  XOUTH  Ob"  EN(;i>AND  INSTITUTE.       [Vol.  Ixvi. 

consideration,  and  the  helpful  infonnation  received  from  abroad,  indicated 
that  mncli  desirable  material  was  also  to  be  expected  from  Germany,  Norway, 
Sweden,  Russia,  Austria,  Hungary,  Italy,  and  France.  Unfortunately,  just 
as  the  work  was  well  under  way  in  Germany,  tlie  European  war  broke  out. 
Tliis  not  only  shut  off  absolutely  further  researclies,  but  also  prevented  the 
collection  of  many  valuable  data  and  photographs  previously  promised,  thus 
making  impossible  the  satisfactory  completion  of  the  contemjilated  investiga- 
tion. Tlie  notes  are  therefore  incomplete,  but  will  serve,  perhaps,  to  indicate 
the  trend  in  Europe  of  some  of  the  important  fuel  jiroblems  that  are  conspicu- 
oTisly  before  the  United  States,  and  should  stimulate  positive  action  in  this 
much-neglected  industrial  field. 

The  notes  deal  with  the  utilization  of  high-ash  coals  in  non-bye-product 
producer-gas  plants ;  the  use  of  wood-refuse  and  similar  material ;  the  size 
and  character  of  bye-product  plants;  the  uses  of  tar;  low-temperature  dis- 
tillation; the  slaggiug  gas-producer  installation  in  Dutch-Luxemburg;  and 
the  use  of  powdered  fuel.  A.  P.  A.  S. 

Difficulties  in   Firing:   Explosives,   either  Electrically  or  by   Hand. — By  T. 

Blxjm.     Montanist.   Bunds.,  1915,  vol.  vii.,  pages  210,  263,  299,  343, 
and  388. 

Tlie  writer  jJasses  in  review  the  chief  characteristics  of  three  different 
ways  of  firing  an  explosive  charge,  namely,  by  hand,  with  an  ordinary  fuse, 
instantaneous  electric  ignition  of  several  charges,  and  successive  electric 
ignition  of  these  charges.  In  the  first  method  the  time  of  explosion  is  deter- 
mined accurately  by  the  length  of  the  fuse,  and  explosion  is  relatively  slow. 
Several  can  be  sejDarately  ignited,  an  important  matter  where  blasting 
is  necessary  in  a  confined  space.  The  method  is  simple  and  cheap,  and,  so 
long  as  the  fuse  is  2>erfectly  dry,  reliable,  but  the  operator  must  be  near 
the  scene  of  the  blasting.  With  instantaneous  electric  ignition  all  the  fuses 
can  be  fired  simultaneously  from  any  distance,  but  some  of  the  shots  often 
fail,  and  an  interruption  of  the  electric  current  may  occur  at  any  time.  This 
method  has  con.sequently  been  more  or  less  superseded  by  the  third,  in  which 
the  electric  current  fires  the  charges  in  gradual  succession,  by  interposing 
different  lengths  of  fuse  between  the  capsules  and  the  priming.  The  advan- 
tage of  firing  from  a  distance  is  retained,  but  the  shots  occur  in  such 
rapid  succession  that  they  cannot  be  counted,  and  failures  cannot  be  detected. 
After  each  blasting  operation  a  careful  search  of  the  mine-face  is  necessary, 
otherwise  these  misfires  may  explode  later,  and  endanger  the  manipulator. 
With  both  kinds  of  electric  ignition  both  premature  and  retarded  shots  may 
take  place,  as  the  writer  proves  by  many  examples.  lie  also  maintains  that 
electric  ignition  is  from  five  to  six  times  more  expensive  than  hand  ignition. 
He  instances  one  mine,  in  which  there  was  a  loss  from  misfires  of  nearly  4 
pounds  (I'B  kilogrammes)  of  dynamite  in  24  hours.  The  violence  of  the  ex- 
plosions electrically  produced  also  destroys  the  roof  of  the  workings,  and 
shatters  the  Avaste  rock. 

Tlie  writer  summarizes  these  advantages  and  drawbacks  in  favoiir  of 
hand-fired  fuses,  which  are,  he  considers,  cheaper  and  simpler  to  handle  than 
electrically  ignited  fuses,  with  fewer  misfires  and  greater  certainty  in  locat- 
ing them,  so  that  the  workers  are  not  endangered.  Both  kinds  of  electric 
Ignition  are,  in  his  opinion,  dear,  unreliable,  difiicult  to  manipulate,  and 
dangerous  if  carelessly  handled.  E.  M.  D. 


Destructive  Force  and  Speed  of  Explosions  of  Modern  Blasting: 
Materials. — By  Dr.  Kast.  Montanist.  Riinds.,  1914,  vol.  vi.,  page 
601,  and  1915,  vol.  vii.,  pages  7  and  38. 
The  writer  made  experiments  to  determine  the  efliciency  of  modern  blast- 
ing explosives,  for  which  a  certain  standard  is  required.  The  energy  of 
explosion  does  not  depend  only  on  the  amount  of  heat  developed,  for  this  takes 
no  count  of  the  volume  of  products  of  combustion  (that  is,  of  gases  into  which 
the  explosive  is  converted),  nor  of  the  loss  by  radiation.  The  more  rapid  is 
the  explosion,  the  less  will  be  this  loss.  The  energy  of  the  explosion  may  be 
iitilized  either  to  force  violently  asunder  the  surrounding  rock,  or  to  destroy 
and  shatter  it.  The  value  of  the  explosive  depends,  however,  chiefly  on  the 
amount  of  work  done  in  a  given  time,  and  not  on  the  energy  that  it  contains. 
Tliere  are  thus  three  factors  to  be  considered  :  (1)  the  amount  of  energy  avail- 
able, (2)  its  speed  of  development,  and  (3)  what  the  writer  terms  the  "  concen- 
tration "  or  "density  "  of  the  energy.  The  proportion  of  inert  substances, 
such  as  nitrogen,  which  must  l>e  heated,  but  do  not  add  to  the  energy  of  the 
explosive,  cannot  be  ignored.  Thus  the  heat  develojjed  by  niti-oglycerine  is 
less,  if  reckoned  in  calox-ies  jier  kilogramme  of  the  combustible  constituents 
of  the  explosive,  than  per  litre  of  explosive  mixture  generated. 

The  destructive  force  of  an  explosive  is  calculated  by  comparing  its 
action  with  that  of  another  explosive  of  known  energy.  The  speed  of  the 
detonating  wave  is  an  important  factor.  The  law  of  the  propagation  of 
detonating  force  is  determined  by  photography  or  by  the  use  of  Siemens's 
■'  spark-chronograph,"  with  which  the  writer  has  made  many  experiments 
during  the  last  seven  years.  This  speed  depends  partly  on  the  chemical  com- 
^jositiou  of  the  explosive  mixture,  and  partly  on  the  method  of  ignition.  Tlie 
diameter  of  the  borehole,  consistency  of  the  tamping,  and  the  cubic  density 
of  the  explosive,  all  play  a  part  in  the  determination.  Liquid  explosives  are 
more  difficult  to  ignite  than  solid.  E.  M.  D. 

Use    of    Liquid     Air    for    Blasting:    in     Coal-mines. — By    M.     Przyborski. 
Montanist.  Runds.,  TO  15,  vol.  vii.,  page  145. 

The  first  attempt  to  use  liquid  air  for  blasting  was  made  by  Prof.  Linde  in 
1897.  A  cardboard  cylinder,  prepared  by  previous  soaking  in  liquid  air,  ■ 
was  used,  but  the  result  was  not  satisfactory,  as  the  action  depended  on  the 
skill  of  the  manipulator,  and  the  rapidity  of  the  operation.  The  temperature 
of  the  liquid  air  being— 191°  Cent,  a  rapid  exchange  of  heat  must  of  necessity 
take  place  between  it  and  the  surrounding  materials,  and  in  less  than  10 
minutes  its  effect  has  evaporated.  The  system  was  improved  by  Claude  in 
France  and  Kowatsch  in  Gei'many.  In  order  to  counteract  this  rapid  evapora- 
tion, the  fuse  was  introduced  dry  into  the  borehole  with  the  usual  tamping, 
and  the  liquid  air  was  not  applied  until  just  before  the  moment  of  explosion. 
Thus  the  action   was  made  more   certain. 

The  blasting  cylinder  now  contains  a  mixture  of  infusorial  earth,  asphalt 
or  soot,  and  paraffin  in  three  cylinders  fitting  one  over  the  other.  The  liquid 
air  is  contained  in  a  small  bottle,  through  the  mouth  of  which  a  metal  tube  is 
connected  to  the  tube  of  the  fuse.  In  order  to  obtain  an  explosion,  the  bottle 
is  lifted ;  the  liquid  air  rises  under  pressure  of  its  own  evaporation  into  the 
metal  tube,  and  ru.shing  into  the  fuse  at  a  given  moment  unites  with  the 
contents  of  the  cylinder,  and  produces   a  violent  explosion.      As   the  charge 

20       TKANSACTIONS THE  NOUTll  OF  EXCiLANl)  INSTITUTE.       fVol.  Ixvi. 

contains  no  inflammable  materials,  the  danger  is  minimized  :  the  materials 
can  be  separately  and  leisurely  introduced  into  the  borehole.  The  process  i3 
simplified  if  the  liquid  air  is  made  on  the  spot.  E.  M.  D. 

Arrangrements    for    Reversing^    the    Ventilation    in    Mines. — By    G.    Ryb.\. 

Montanist.  Bunds.,  1915,  vol.  vii.,  pages  497-499. 

If  a  lire  occurs  in  the  intake  shaft  of  a  mine,  the  danger  is  great, 
especially  if  this  shaft  forms  the  only  communication  with  above  ground.  The 
fire  must  be  most  carefully  handled,  and  must  not  be  extinguished  by  pour- 
ing w^afcer  on  it  till  all  the  miners  have  been  brought  out.  The  main  point 
in  such  an  accident  is  to  reverse  the  ventilation  if  possible,  and,  where  there 
are  two  shafts,  to  convert  the  intake,  where  the  fire  is,  into  the  upcast  as 
quickly  as  possible.  One  plan  is  to  revei-se  the  ventilating  engine,  but  this 
is  a  process  which  takes  time.  The  writer  describes  a  method  which  he 
considers  safer  and  quicker. 

Two  passages  are  excavated  in  the  mine,  one  connecting  the  intake  and 
return  shafts  below  the  surface,  and  having  not  far  from  the  ground  a  door 
or  damper  which  can  be  easily  reached  and  closed.  Between  this  passage  and 
the  surface  a  trap-door  is  built  into  the  intake,  which  can  be  closed  in  case 
of  need.  The  upcast  has  also  a  door  worked  from  the  surface,  and  below  it 
the  second  or  branch  passage  discharges  some  Avay  off  into  the  open  air.  Tliis 
also  has  a  door  or  damper  worked  from  above.  If  it  is  desired  to  reverse  the 
ventilation  of  the  mine,  the  ordinary  doors  into  the  intake  are  closed.  The 
aix'-currents  draw  into  the  upcast  shaft  and  into  the  passage  leading  from  it, 
thus  ventilating  the  mine  in  the  opposite  direction.  In  other  words,  the 
functions  of  the  two  shafts  are  reversed.  By  a  similar  method,  if  the  mine 
is  ventilated  by  a  furnace  at  the  pit-bottom,  the  system  can  be  changed,  and 
ventilation  by  exhaustion  substituted,  or  vire  versa.  E.  M.  D. 

Rotating:  Ventilation-doors  for  Upcast  Shafts. — By  G.   Eyba.     Montanist. 
Bunds.,  1915,  vol.  vii.,  pages  436-4.39. 

The  system  here  described  is  intended  to  be  applied  in  mines  where  the 
down-draught  ventilating  shaft  is  also  used  for  winding.  If  the  quantity  of 
coal  to  be  brought  out  within  a  given  time  is  too  large  for  one  shaft  to  deliver, 
an  endeavour  is  often  made  to  avoid  the  cost  of  a  third  shaft  by  utilizing 
the  upcast  for  winding  also.  This  may  be  done  if  the  air  from  the  mine  is 
exliausteJ  into  the  open;  but,  if  ventilation  is  by  suction,  care  must  be  taken, 
when  the  cage  conies  to  bank,  not  to  allow  the  air  to  escape  at  the  same  time, 
and  sjDecial  arrangements  for  the  pui-pose  are  needed. 

The  writer  suggests  two  plans  for  overcoming  the  difficulty.  The  shaft 
may  be  provided  with  a  cover,  with  a  hole  for  the  winding  rope  to  pass 
through,  and  the  cage  emptied  before  it  reaches  the  surface.  A  better  method 
is  to  withdraw  the  tubs  through  lock-doors,  one  of  which  is  always  closed  l^y 
mechanical  means  while  the  other  is  open.  If  the  cage  is  brought  up  from  a 
pit  where  ventilation  is  by  exhaiisting  the  air,  the  shaft-house  must  itself 
he  hermetically  sealed,  and  the  coal  brought  out  under  a  water-seal,  or  througii 
a  system  of  dampers.  The  writer  describes  the  Skutzik  arrangement  of  a 
covered  airtight  "  whipper  "  with  two  openings,  to  deal  with  six  tubs  at  a  time. 
It  consists  of  two  concentric  cast-iron  drums,  fitting  one  over  the  other;  the 
outer  drum  is  stationary,  the  inner  revolves.  Inside  the  drums  is  a  brake  with 
guides  and  balance-weights  to  catch  and  hold  ihe  cage.     It  forms  a 



series  of  lock-doors,  through  which  the  tubs  can  be  emptied  one  after  the 
other,  and  the  two  processes  of  holding-  the  cage  in  position  and  emptying  the 
tubs  are  carried  on  simultaneously.  The  inner  drum  runs  on  rollers  over 
rails,  and  is  worked  by  gearing  at  the  top,  actuated  by  a  driving  wheel 
which  turns  it  as  required.  The  outer  stationary  drum  has  two  openings 
connected  through  the  inner  drum  with  the  two  tiers  of  tubs.  Tlie  whole 
arrangenient  is  worked  from  the  shaft  by  a  pulley  and  brake-block.  It  is 
in  duplicate,  one  set  of  drums  and  brake  serving  the  full,  the  other  the  empty 
cage.  As  the  balance-weights  are  heavier  than  the  weight  of  the  empty  cage, 
the  ascent  and  descent  of  the  cages  are  automatically  effected. 

E.  M.  D. 

study  of  Mine  Ventilation:  Combination  of  Natural  and  Artificial 
Ventilation. — By  J.  Botr vat-Martin.  Bull.  Soc.  Indiist.  Min.,  1915, 
series  5,  vol.  vii.,  pages  5-163. 

This  is  a  second  instalment  of  a  treatise  with  the  above  title.  It  sum- 
marizes the  different  sy.stems  of  artificial  ventilation  of  mines,  and  points  out 
their  respective  advantages  and  limitations.  The  author  show.s  how  natural 
and  artificial  systems  of  ventilation  react  upon  each  other,  ventilation  of  a 
mine  begun  by  artificial  means  inducing  an  additional  natural  draught, 
which,  especially  in  deep  pits,  may  considerably  augment  its  action.  The 
efficiency  of  a  fan  is  stated  to  vary  with  the  temperature.  A  Rateau  fan  with 
a  diameter  of  7  feet  2|  inches  (22  metres)  is  Instanced,  the  air  depression  of 
which  was  found  to  vary  by  175  per  cent,  and  the  delivery  by  27  per  cent.  In 
a  Guibal  fan  over  a  shaft-orifice  of  51"5  square  feet  (4'8  square  metres)  the 
variations  were  found  to  be  400  per  cent,  and  20  per  cent,  respectively.  In 
the  Guilial  fan,  the  depression  plotted  off  on  a  diagram  gave  a  curve  the 
general  character  of  which  was  approximately  sinusoidal,  with  crests  occur- 
ring in  summer  and  hollows  in  winter.  Along  this  curve,  however,  ran 
smaller  waves  the  crests  and  hollows  of  which  corresponded  with  night-time 
and  day-time  respectively.  Tlie  heat  imparted  to  the  air  in  its  passage 
through  a  jDroperly-develojjed  mine  is  found  to  be  fairly  constant,  the  differ- 
ence in  ventilating  action  being  due,  not  to  it,  but  to  variation  in  the  tem- 
peratiire  of  the  outer  atmosphere.  The  action  of  the  induced  natural  ventila- 
tion, however,  increases  rapidly  with  the  depth  of  the  mine.  The  author 
investigates  the  different  classes  of  mine  ventilators,  gives  formulae  for  the 
delivery,  depression,  velocity,  etc.,  of  the  air,  and  illustrates  the  effects  cf 
these  bv  the  aid  of  curves  and  characteristic  surfaces.  A.  R.  L. 

Some  Considerations  in  Reg^ard  to  the  Internal  Resistance  of 
Ventilators. — By  J.  Botjvat-Martin.  Bull.  Soc.  Indust.  Miti.,  1915, 
series  5,  vol.  vii.,  23ages  273-296. 

The  writer  examines  some  of  the  popular  conceptions  as  to  internal 
resistance  of  mine  ventilators,  and  the  importance  of  large  sectional  areas  in 
the  same.  He  establishes  formulae  for  the  various  losses  in  the  ventilators, 
and  illustrates  the  effects  of  their  application  by  a  series  of  curves.  His 
general  conclusions  are  that  the  efficiency  of  a  mine  ventilator  depends  in  a 
high  degree  on  the  conditions  attaching  to  the  mine  it.self ,  and  that  "  internal 
resistance "  and  "  oi'ifice  of  passage,"  as  applied  to  mine  ventilators,  are 
improijer  terms  which   have  no   meaning.  A.  R.  L. 

22       TRAXSACTIONS THE  NORTH  OK  P^XCiLAM)  INSTITUTE.       [Vol    Ixvi. 

Irruptions  of  Quicksand  in  the  Brovvn-coa.!  Measures  of  North-West 
Bohemia. — By  A.  Padour.  Montaniat.  Bunds.,  1915,  vol.  vii.,  pages 
205,  258,  295,  and  338-341. 

In  some  of  the  mines  in  North-West  Bohemia  the  workings  have  been 
pushed  so  rapidly  that  the  composition  of  the  roof  had  not  been  previously 
examined.  As  a  result  quicksand  beds  were  found  in  many  mines  above  the 
roof,  and  broke  into  the  workings,  jJouring  in  with  disastrous  results.  From 
1890  to  1900  twelve  irruptions  of  sand  took  place.  A  scheme  for  counteract- 
ing and  avoiding  the  danger  was  therefore  carefully  drawn  up,  and  the  whole 
question  thoroughly  studied. 

The  lie  of  the  quicksand  belt  is  chiefly  along  the  line  Briix-Bilin-Dux 
(near  Teplitz),  and  spreads  over  an  area  of  12  square  miles  (32  square  kilo- 
metres). The  strata  are  generally  aligned  above  the  Coal-Measures,  and  are 
found  on  the  edges  of  the  coal-basins,  a  few  feet  from  the  surface.  The 
bottom  of  the  strata  is  generally  from  118  to  295  feet  (36  to  90  metres)  above 
the  roof  of  the  coal-seams.  It  varies  much  in  thickness,  and  seldom  consists 
of  pure  sand,  but  is  mostly  mixed  with  clayey  soil. 

The  chief  method  adopted  to  avert  the  danger  of  irruptions  is  to  drain 
the  sand.  Careful  experiments  have  shown  that,  if  a  third  of  the  water  con- 
tained in  the  sand  is  drained  off,  it  ceases  to  move.  A  regular  system  of 
drainage  was  established,  and  controlled  by  boreholes  and  shafts,  and  so  soon 
as  the  water  was  reduced  to  20  per  cent,  of  its  original  amount,  it  was  found 
possible  to  begin  short  stall  work ;  the  withdrawal  of  less  than  that  Cjuantity 
would  not  ensure  safety.  The  thickness  of  the  intermediate  strata  was  also 
carefully  noted,  and  the  piessure  of  the  sand  determined  from  the  boreholes. 
When  the  thickness  was  about  260  to  330  feet  (80  to  100  metres)  there  was  no 
danger  of  an  irruption;  if  it  fell  to  65, to  160  feet  (20  to  50  metres)  immedi- 
ate precautions  were  taken,  and  the  sand  was  drained.  There  was  less 
danger  with  pillar-and-stall  than  with  longwall  working.  Indications  of 
danger  were  given  by  the  wetness  of  the  coal,  and  also  by  certain  movements 
in  the  workings.  The  diameter  of  the  drainage  shafts  was  abovit  5  feet 
(1'5  metres). 

Another  method  of  controlling  the  danger  was  to  build  dams  with  sluice- 
doors,  close  to  the  boreholes,  so  as  to  hold  back  the  sand  after  it  had  Ijeen 
drained.  Tliese  dams  are  generally  of  brick,  with  lime  or  cement  mortar. 
Electric  alarm-signals  are  also  provided,  and  means  of  escape  for  the  miners, 
who  are  instructed  to  wat<!h  for  the  first  signs  of  danger.  The  height  of  the 
workings  depends  on  whether  they  are  carried  through  drained  or  \mdrained 
sand ;  in  the  latter  case  they  are  not  allowed  to  be  more  than  16  feet  (5  metres) 
high.  By  these  two  methods,  of  drainage  and  of  dams,  means  of  combating 
the  danger  have  been  devised  which  have  been  found  effectual. 

E.  M.  D. 


Application  a;f  the  Elmore  Apparatus  at  the  Guerrouma  Mines. — By  D. 

DussERT.     Bull.    Soc.    Indust.   Min.,   1915,    series   5,   vol.    vii.,   pages 

The  Bou  Medran  Mining  Company,  which  holds  the  concessions 
of  Guerrouma  and  Nador-Chair  in  Algeria,  has  to  deal  with  an  ore  composed 
of  blende,  barytine,  and  siderose,  the  specific  gravities  of  which  differ  little 
the  one  from  the  other.  Difficulties  of  separation  and  enrichment  by  the 
ordinary    methods   have    led   to    the    application  of    the  Elmore    appai-atus. 

1915-1916.]  NOTES  OF  COLONIAL  AND  FOREIGN  rAFERS.  23 

Up  to  1912,  ore  in  small  lumps  liad  been  heated  and  sifted.  The  larger 
grained  enriched  material  resulting  from  this  treatment  had  contained  45 
per  cent,  of  metal,  and  the  residue  from  38  to  40  per  cent.  'ITiis  residue  was 
now  put  through  the  Elmore  apparatus,  as  a  result  of  which  its  percentage 
rose  to  50.  Despite  local  difficulties,  which  prevented  the  workings  from 
being  grouped  to  the  best  advantage,  satisfactory  results  were  obtained,  and 
the  manager  of  the  mine,  who  writes  the  ai-ticle,  recommends  the  process 
for  Algerian  and  Tunisian  conditions  of  work.  The  Elmore  apparatus  is 
described  and  illustrated,  and  tables  of  resiilts  are  annexed.  A.  R.  L. 

Coking:   of   Coal    at    Low   Temperatures,   with   Special    Reference   to    the 
Properties   and    Composition    of   the    Products. — By   S.    W.    Paer 

and  H.  L.  Olix.     Ball.   Univ.  Illinoi.s,  1915,  vol.  sii..  No.  39,  pages 

Tuis  report  covers  a  series  of  stiidies  made  during  the  period  from  1011 
to  1913  on  the  coking  properties  of  Illinois  coal,  and  is  a  continuation  of  the 
work  described  in  Bulletin  Xo.  60  of  the  University.  Its  distinctive  feature 
has  been  the  use  of  an  apparatus  which  would  yield  the  main  products  of 
coke,  gas,  and  tar  in  quantities  sufficient  for  a  detailed  s-tudy  of  these  pro- 
ducts, and,  to  a  certain  extent,  in  quantities  sufficient  for  a  determination  of 
their  values  by  practical  tests  on  a  commercial  .scale.  In  the  experiments 
described  in  Bulletin  No.  60,  the  apparatus  used  had  a  capacity  of  6  to  8 
pounds  of  coal  at  a  charge.  Notwithstanding  this  limited  capacity,  certain 
fundamental  facts  were  developed,  as  follows:  — 

(a)  The  formation  of  coke  depends  upon  the  presence  of  certain  constitu- 
ents having  a  melting-point  which  is  lower  than  the  temperature  at  which 
decompcsition  or  carbonization  takes  place. 

(b)  Oxidation  of  these  compounds  may  easily  take  place,  and  the  greatest 
coking  effect  is  obtained  where  the  opportunity  for  the  minimum  amount  of 
oxidation  has  occurred.  The  condition  prescribed,  therefore,  is  that  there 
shall  be  the  least  possible  exposure  to  oxidation  either  before  or  diiring  the 
process  of  carbonization. 

(c)  Coals  containing  an  excessive  quantity  of  the  coking  substance  produce 
a  light  porous  coke.  The  texture  of  the  product  may  be  modified  by  use  of 
pressure  and  by  close  packing  of  the  charge,  and  especially  by  mixing  with 
material  which  has  already  passed  through  the  coking  process.  Such  a  mixture 
px'ovides  the  jDhysical  conditions  whereby  the  gases  formed  may  readily  pass 
out  of  the  mass  without  carrying  along  the  cementing  substances. 

(d)  By  the  use  of  temperatures  between  400°  and  500°  Cent.,  all  the  result- 
ing products  are  of  a  type  distinctly  different  from  those  obtained  by  the 
TLsual  high-temperatuie  procedure. 

An  apparatus  was  designed  to  utilize  about  100  pounds  of  coal.  Experi- 
ence in  the  use  of  the  apparatus  indicated  also  the  main  principles  which 
should  be  embodied  in  a  commercial  equipment.  The  coking  process  was 
studied,  and  the  mixture  for  producing  the  best  product  determined.  It 
was  found  that  a  smokeless  fuel  may  be  produced  especially  well  adapted  to 
domestic  purposes,  including  its  use  in  open  grates.  Its  freedom  from  tar 
or  condensable  hydrocarbons  makes  it  easily  adapted  to  the  generation  of 
producer-gas,  thus  affording  a  good  substitute  for  anthracite  coal  in  suction- 
gas  producer  practice. 

In  the  study  of  the  composition  and  properties  of  the  tar,  this  material 
was  found  to  have  a  very  low  content  of  free  carbon,  a  relatively  high  per- 

24       TRANSACTIONS THE  N01?TTI  OF  ENGLAND  INSTITUTE.       [Vol.  Ixvi. 

centage  of  light  boiling  distillate,  and  an  unusually  liigli  content  of  tar  acids 
01-  phenols.  Tlie  latter  fact  is  of  special  interest  to  the  wood-preserving- 

The  following  is  a  summary  of  the  results  of  tho  investigation:  — 

(1)  Coke  of  good  density  and  hardness  may  be  made  by  mixtures  of  semi- 
coke  and  raw  coal,  if  both  are  finely  divided  and  evenly  mixed.  A  variation 
is  noticeable  in  the  quantity  of  such  non-coking  material  that  may  be  in- 
corporated with  different  coals. 

(2)  The  coke  resulting  from  the  low-temperature  process  retains  from 
18  to  22  per  cent,  of  volatile  matter ;  but,  since  it  has  been  heated  above 
400°  Cent.,  there  should  be  none  of  the  tar  constituents  remaining.  The  most 
convincing  test  on  this  point,  as  also  the  best  method  of  arriving  at  a  con- 
clusion as  to  its  adaptability  for  such  work,  was  to  try  out  the  material  in  a 
suction-gas  producer.  The  results  indicated  that  no  clogging  effect  whatever 
resiilts,  thus  showing  the  absence  of  tar  bodies.  The  physical  operation  of 
the  producer,  as  well  as  the  grade  of  the  gas  produced,  was  fully  equal,  if  not 
superior,  to  the  pierformance  of  the  plant  when  anthracite  was  used. 

(3)  The  semi-coke  has  such  an  amount  of  volatile  matter  remaining, 
together  with  the  right  degree  of  coherence,  as  to  make  it  especially  well 
adapted  for  household  use.  It  is  clean  to  handle,  free  from  dust,  and  burns 
without  smoke  or  the  formation  of  soot.  Especially  to  be  noted  in  this 
connexion  is  its  ability  to  retain  a  fire  without  undue  attention  as  to  draughts, 

(4)  The  average  specific  gravity  of  the  tar  is  1,069.  It  is  rich  in  low- 
boiling  distillate  passing  over  at  210°  Cent.  Tliis  product  averages  18  jjer 
cent,  of  the  total.  ■  Tlie  pitch  residue  amounts  to  approximately  30  per  cent., 
and  is  remarkably  free  from  precipitated  carbon. 

(5)  The  adaptability  of  the  tar  for  wood-preservation  processes  seems  to 
be  indicated  by  the  high  percentage  of  tar  acids.  These  constituents  make 
up  from  28  to  30  per  cent,  of  the  crude  material.  The  larger  part,  about 
22  per  cent.,  is  found  in  the  second  distillate  (210°  to  325°  Cent.),  only 
about  7  per  cent,  coming  over  below  210°  Cent. 

(6)  Approximately  10  per  cent,  of  the  crude  tar  is  found  to  be  low-boiling 
distillate  free  from  the  tar  acids  and  suitable  for  use  in  internal-combustion 

(7)  Naphthalene  is  absent.  Tlie  free  carbon  in  the  crude  tar  is  less  than 
2  per  cent.,  and  the  residual  product  after  the  light  distillate  and  heavy  oils 
are  removed  would  be  classed  as  hard  pitch. 

(8)  One  principal  feature  results  from  this  study  of  these  various  sub- 
stances, namely,  that  all  three  of  the  general  divisions  of  coke,  tar,  and  gas 
have  specific  properties  of  an  especially  valuable  sort,  a  conclusion  which 
would  indicate  that  the  process  of  coking  at  low  temperatures  could  be  estab- 
lished successfiilly  on  a  commercial  basis.  .  A.  P.  A.  S. 


Experiments  on  Wire  Ropes. — By  J.  Divis.     Montanist.  Bunds.,  1915,  vol. 
vii.,  pagec  594-598  and  626-629. 

These  experiments  were  made  in  order  to  test  the  modulus  of  elasticity, 
and  the  bending  and  tensile  stresses  of  interwoven  wire  ropes,  for  winding  in 
mines,  and  the  elasticity  of  smooth,  rusty,  and  galvanized  wires  was  deter- 
mined. The   separate  strands  in  an  interwoven  wire   rope  are   known  to  be 


differently  stressed  from  the  complete  rope.  One  rope,  62  feet  long,  used  had 
twelve  strands.  The  weight  on  it  was  increased  from  50  to  350  kilogrammes 
(110  to  770  pounds),  and  it  stretched  about  a  third  of  an  inch  for  each  increase 
of  50  kilogrammes.  Another  rope,  62J  feet  long,  with  seven  strands  and  a 
thickness  of  |  inch  (3  millimetres)  was  found  to  stretch  ^^;  inch  (5'25  milli- 
metres) for  every  66  pounds  (30  kilogrammes)  weight  upon  it.  The  modulus 
of  elasticity  for  ingot-iron  wires  was  detei-mined  at  40,000  pounds;  and  for 
steel  wires,  48,400  i?ounds.  The  wire  ropes  were  next  tested  up  to  breaking- 
jjoint  by  a  weight  suddenly  thrown  on  them.  The  weight  was  8'8  pounds, 
and  the  drop  3^  feet.  Common  iron-wire  rope  broke  at  the  first  jerk;  a  six- 
strand  rope  covered  with  hemp  bore  hundreds  of  jerks  without  giving  way. 
In  the  bending  tests  the  strands  of  the  rope  soon  parted,  and  the  number  of 
turns  needed  to  break  them  was  noted.  One  ro2>e  broke  up  entirely  after  302 
twists;  in  another  the  first  strand  parted  at  the  230th  Ijend,  the  last  at  the 
449th.  The  radius  of  twist  allowed  was  f  inch  (10  millimetres).  The  lengths 
of  rope  used  were  about  62  feet. 

These  three  tests — of  stretching,  sudden  jerk,  and  bending  or  twisting — 
show  why  winding-ropes  sometimes  break  after  being  in  use  a  relatively  short 
time.  The  writer  thinks  that  the  durability  of  a  rope — that  is,  the  number 
of  bends  that  it  vrill  bear  before  breaking — follows  a  parabolic  law  which,  for 
a  rope  of  given  thickness  and  a  given  diameter  of  pulley,  can  be  determined. 
A  definite  ratio  between  these  two  factors  has  been  shown  in  practice  to  exist. 
The  best  test  is,  however,  to  calculate  the  rope  for  tensile  stress,  since  neither 
bending  nor  torsion  stresses  can  be  exactly  determined.  Count  must  be  taken, 
however,  of  these,  becavise,  if  they  are  omitted,  a  larger  factor  of  safety  must 
be  allowed.  Tliis  is  also  necessary  on  account  of  the  "  weaving  angle  "  of 
the  strands,  the  stresses  on  which  are  greater  than  if  the  rope  were  simply 
twisted  together.  E.  M.  D. 

Employment  of  Mechanical   Drills   in  the   Mines  of  Constantina. — By  — . 

FoRTiER.  Bull.  Soc.  Indust.  Min.,  1915,  series  5,  vol.  vii.,  pages  233-259. 
In  Constantina  (Algeria)  and  its  neighbourhood,  zinc,  lead,  and  copper 
were  until  recently  obtained  from  surface-workings.  It  ha.s  now  become  neces- 
sary to  resort  to  underground  mining,  and  the  quality  of  the  ores  won  has  also 
fallen  off.  Since  1909,  mechanical  drilling  has  sui>erseded  hand-work.  In  five 
groups  of  mines  there  are  seventy  portable  pneumatic  drills  in  use,  in  each 
case  fed  by  compressed  air  from  an  installation  at  bank.  Of  these  drills, 
sixty-four  are  of  the  Flottmann,  three  are  of  the  Hardy-Simj^lex,  and  three  of 
the  Ingersoll  type.  Some  other  mines  use  electro-pneumatic  drills  of  the 
Temple-Ingersoll  jiattern,  worked  from  underground  installations.  Under 
suitable  conditions,  the  mechanical  drills  are  found  to  give  better  results 
than  hand-work;  but  their  great  advantage  in  the  Constantina  district  is  that 
they  enable  a  much  larger  output  jjer  man  to  Ije  attained.  Since  the  supply 
of  labour  in  the  district  is  limited,  they  admit  of  much  more  extensive  opera- 
tions being  carried  on  with  the  staffs  available  than  had  been  possible  with 
hand-woi-k.  The  native  workmen  have  taken  readily  to  them,  and  their 
earnings  have  increased  since  the  introduction  of  mechanical  drills.    A.R.L. 

Electrification  of  the   Mines  of  the  Cleveland-Cliffs   Iron   Company. — By 

F.   C.   Stanford.     Journ.   Lake  Superior  Min.   Itist.,  1914,   vol.   xix., 
pages  189-222. 
The   first   electrical    equipment    was   installed    by  the    company   in    1880, 
and  consisted  of  an  arc  lighting  plant  for  the  illumination  of  open-pit  work- 


ings.  In  1894  the  first  electric  underground  locomotive  was  installed,  and  this 
was  followed  b}'  others  in  1898  and  1901,  all  of  which  are  now  in  use  at  the 
Lake  Mine. 

The  principal  generating  station  is  a  hydro-electric  plant  near  Marquette, 
which  has  a  normal  rated  capacity  of  5,600  kilowatts.  Tlie  generating  equip- 
ment consists  of  two  Allis-Chalmers  2,800-kilowatt  2,300-volt  three-phase  60- 
cycle  generators,  direct  connected  to  high-head  turbines.  Each  exciter  is  of 
sufficient  capacity  to  provide  excitation  for  both  units  if  necessary,  and  is 
mounted  in  shaft  extensions  outside  the  main  bearings.  All  circuits  are  con- 
trolled by  solenoid-operated  oil-switches,  which  are  each  placed  in  individual 
brick-and-concrete  compartments,  one  switch  being  provided  for  transformer 
control,  two  for  generator  control,  and  two  for  local  feeders. 

The  principal  mines  of  the  company  are  so  located  that  the  change  from 
steam  to  electric  power,  and  the  use  of  electric  power  for  the  development  of 
new  mines,  have  been  accomplished  without  difficulty  and  with  very  satis- 
factory results,  and  the  new  plant  has  proved  entirely  adequate  to  meet  any 
conditions  that  may  be  expected  in  iron-mining. 

Nineteen  mines  are  now  connected  by  electric  lines,  all  of  which,  with 
the  exception  of  one,  are  either  producing  or  are  under  development.  In 
addition,  the  Pioneer  furnace  at  Marquette  is  connected  to  the  system. 

A.  C. 

Loading  of  Mine  Cag'es  by  Electrical  Means. — By  —  Winteejieter. 
Montanist.  Bunds.,  1915,  vol.  vii.,  pages  677-680. 

The  loaded  tubs  are  run  on  level  rails,  and  are  seized  and  pushed  into 
the  cages  by  a  mechanical  contrivance  worked  by  an  electromotor.  The  latter 
acts  automatically  on  the  tubs  by  a  catch  of  some  kind,  either  a  rack,  a  lever 
which  pushes  the  tub  along,  or  a  carrier.  The  electromotor  runs  sometimes 
in  one  direction  only,  but  is  occasionally  reversible. 

The  method  of  acting  on  the  tubs  by  a  rack  dates  from  1905.  The  rack  is 
driven  by  automatic  gearing  from  a  2-horsepower  motor ;  it  runs  on  rollers, 
and  carries  a  catch  which  pushes  the  tub  into  the  cage.  Another  arrangement 
is  the  Wolff  lever,  on  which  a  4-horse]>ower  electromotor  acts  through  a  cog- 
wheel. The  lever  is  carried  along,  and  drives  the  tub  into  the  cage  in  about 
6  seconds,  the  thrust  being  440  pounds.  The  third  system,  the  Heintz,  is 
that  of  a  carrier  running  on  rails,  and  is  worked  by  a  cord  and  drum.  The 
rotation  of  the  drum  drives  the  carrier  forward  and  with  it  the  tub,  which  is 
pushed  in  front ;  the  carrier  is  brought  back  into  position  by  balance-weights. 
Sometimes  there  is  a  movable  ram ;  at  other  times  the  carrier  is  worked  by 
an  endless  chain,  or  the  rails  are  inclined.  The  action  with  all  these 
mechanisms  is  automatic.  In  a  system  not  yet  much  known,  but  which  the 
writer  thinks  good  in  principle,  and  likely  to  succeed,  the  electromotor  itself 
is  placed  on  the  carrier.  This  method  entails  little  alteration  in  existing 
arrangements,  either  at  bank  or  at  the  pit-bottom.  E.  M.  D. 

Modern  Electrically-driven  Ventilators  in  Mines. — By  —  Wendriner  and 
K.  Ri'TCKERT.  '  Zeitschr.  f.  Berg-,  Hiitt.-  u.  Salincnwes.,  1915,  vol. 
Ixiii.,  pages  246-283. 

The  subject  dealt  with  in  this  paper  is  the  efficiency  of  electric  motors 
driving  ventilators  in  mines,  and  their  capacity  for  varying  the  load.  The 
quantity  of  air  required  for  ventilation  is  determined  by  careful  calculation. 


but  it  does  not  remain  constant:  it  varies  from  time  to  time,  according  to 
the  special  needs  of  the  mine  at  the  moment.  The  air-currents  must  be 
regulated  on  Sundays  and  during  the  layiug-out  of  the  mine,  and  a  reserve  of 
power  is  also  necessary  in  the  ventilation,  as  it  is  impossible  to  say  how  far 
it  may  be  desirable  to  drive  the  levels.  Ventilation  may  be  reduced  either  by 
throttling  the  airways,  or  by  regulating  the  rotary  speed  of  the  electric 
motors.  Tlie  difficulty  is  that  these  motors  can  only  be  worked  economically 
when  driven  at  full  speed.  The  writer  passes  in  review  the  different  methods 
adopted  to  regulate  the  load,  and  thus  the  quantity  of  air  supplied.  Both 
direct-current  and  induction  motors  are  used,  but  the  former  are  not  econo- 
mical unless  the  power  is  supplied  from  a  central  installation.  There  is  less 
loss  of  poMer  with  alternating  current  and  induction  motors;  they  are  less 
costly  and  .simpler,  but  their  efficiency  varies  in  direct  ratio  to  variations  in 
the  speed. 

In  order  to  remedy  this  evil,  several  kinds  of  equalizing  machinery  have 
been  adopted.  The  speed  can  be  controlled  by  changing  either  the  tension, 
or  the  strength  of  the  field,  or  by  swdtching  off  the  brushes  on  the  com- 
mutator. None  of  these  arrangements  is  desirable.  An  alternative  and 
better  method  is  the  cascade  system,  which  constitutes  a  second  motor,  or  a 
combination  of  continuous  current  and  alternating  current.  The  writer  gives 
two  or  three  examples  of  cascade  motoi-s,  and  plots  their  different  efficiencies 
in  a  curve.  A  cascade  motor  of  650  horsepower  with  transformer  is  now 
working   in   a  mine   at  Dortmund. 

The  main  jDnnciple  to  be  kept  in  view,  in  the  choice  of  an  electric  motor 
for  ventilation  in  mines,  is  that  the  quantity  of  air  supplied  and  the  efficiency 
of  the  system  vary  in  direct  proportion  to  the  speed  of  rotation  of  the  motor. 
The  object  aimed  at  is  to  obtain  both  the  maximiim  efficiency  of  the  electric 
plant,  under  the  given  conditions  of  the  mine,  and  the  careful  regulation  of 
the  amount  of  air  supplied.  The  writer  considers  that  the  cascade  system,  by 
which  the  load  can  be  easily  regiilated,  has  a  great  economic  future  before  it, 
and  that  it  best  meets  these  varying  requirements. 

E.  M.  D. 

Solenoid  Cables  with  Induction-coils  for  Telephoning:  in  Mines. — By  W. 

SiEPRAWSKi.     Montanist.  Bunds.,  1915,  vol.  vii.,  pages  474-475. 

The  principle  on  which  the  invention  here  described  is  based  is  that  of 
a  solenoid  cable  which  hangs  loose  in  a  shaft,  and  is  connected  to  an  induc- 
tion-coil, attached  to  the  cage  in  such  a  way  that,  as  the  cage  ascends  and 
descends,  the  induction-coil  is  led  through  and  slips  over  the  solenoid.  The 
cable  can  thus  be  utilized  for  the  transmission  of  telephonic  messages  from 
the  pit-bottom  to  the  surface,  and  vice  versa.  It  consists  of  an  iron  core,  the 
different  strands  of  which  are  isolated  by  a  layer  of  shellac  or  pitch ;  the  wire 
is  wound  round  it  in  a  cylindrical  helix  constituting  the  solenoid,  and  is  stir- 
rounded  with  good  insulating  material  as  a  covering.  The  induction  eoil 
which  encircles  the  solenoid  cable  is  not  closed,  but  is  shaped  like  a  hoi-se- 
shoe,  in  order  that  it  may  slide  the  more  easily  over  the  cable.  In  the  case 
of  a  deep  shaft,  the  cable  should  not  hang  loose ;  it  is  better  to  have  it  held 
in  position  from  the  sides.  The  writer  suggests  that  this  system  of  solenoid 
cable  can  be  adapted  for  military  telephony. 

E.  M.  D. 



Petroleum   and   the    War. — By  A.   Gotselin.        Soc.   Ingen.    Civils   France, 
Proces  Verbal,  1915,  pages  188-207. 

Observing  that  Galicia,  Alsace,  and  Rumania  were  the  chief  sources  of 
Germany's  supply  of  petroleum,  the  author  shows  that  only  the  Rumanian 
supply  is  now  of  much  cousec£uence.  The  Galician  fields  have  suffered  con- 
siderably during  the  war,  and  Alsace  and  Wietz  together  produce  only 
130,000  tons  per  annum.  In  1914,  Rumania  consumed  782,000  tons  of  her 
own    total    production    of    1,783,000    tons.  In    regard    to    storage,    the 

forty  tanks  for  the  reception  of  the  oil  at  the  petroleum  port 
of  Constantza  can  take  about  6,927,600  cubic  feet  (196,250  cubic  metres).  Of 
this  3,530,000  cubic  feet  (100,000  cubic  metres)  are  held  by  the  Germans  and 
882,500  cubic  feet  (25,000  cubic  metres)  by  Americans,  only  four  of  the  tanks 
being  controlled  by  Frenchmen.  Tlie  port  exported  850,000  tons  in  1913,  but, 
owing  to  the  closing  of  the  Dardanelles,  it  exported  only  450,000  tons  in  1914. 
In  order  to  ease  the  railway  traffic,  the  Government  decided  to  lay  three 
Ijipe-lines  from  the  wells  to  the  sea,  and  but  for  the  war  these  would  have 
been  completed  by  the  beginning  of  1915.  One  of  these,  in  part  9  inches 
(22S'6  millimetres)  and  in  pai't  10  inches  (254  millimetres)  in  diameter,  was  to 
convey  a  million  tons  of  crude  petroleum  per  annum,  and  the  other  two  of 
5  inches  (127  millimetres)  in  diameter  were  to  convey  350,000  and  400,000  tons 
of  distilled  petroleum  respectively  per  annum.  The  pipes  were  to  be  sunk 
about  24  to  28  inches  (60  to  70  centimetres)  in  the  earth.  The  cost  of  the 
installation  was  set  at  =£1,000,000  (25,000,000  francs).  The  author  exposes 
the  bribery  and  other  methods  adopted  by  the  Germans  to  obtain  complete 
command  of  the  industry.  _  At  Braila,  a  Germany  company,  the  Credit 
Petrolifer,  had  installed  ten  tanks  of  a  total  capacity  of  22^500  tons.  At 
Giurgevo,  another  German  company,  the  Steana  Romana,  owned  tanks  of 
a  total  capacity  of  10,800  tons. 

A  large  fleet  of  tank  barges  on  the  Danube  and  extensive  works  of  all 
kinds  in  connexion  with  the  industiy  have  been  created  and  financed  by 
Germans.  Galicia's  production  of  petroleum  fell  from  52,000  tons  in  August, 
191'!,  to  19,000  tons  in  October,  1914,  after  which  it  gradually  rose  again  to 
46,800  tons  in  April,  1915.  Much  of  this  was  sent  to  Fiunue,  and  it  was  here 
that  the  Austrian  submarines  probably  obtained  their  supplies. 

A.  R.  L. 

Movements  of    Mang^anese   Ore. — By  A.    de   Keppen.     Co7n.   Cent.   Houill. 
France,  1915,  Circulaire  No.  5046,  pages  1-9. 

The  author  goes  into  the  question  of  the  German  production  and  impor- 
tation of  manganese.  He  finds  that  the  production  of  German  ores  containing 
high  percentages  of  manganese  is  very  small. 

A  German  official  enquiry,  made  with  the  view  of  fixing  a  new  special 
tariff  for  the  carriage  of  manganese  by  rail,  showed  that  in  1912  2,877,995 
metric  tons  of  iron  ore  contaimng  less  than  12  per  cent,  and  300,077  tons  con- 
taining from  12  to  30  per  cent,  were  produced,  while  the  production  of  ores 
containing  more  than  30  per  cent,  of  metallic  manganese,  which  in  3910  had 
amounted  to  474  tons,  had  in  1912  decreased  to  149  tons.  These  latter  were 
obtained  from  small  workings  in  Hesse,  Saxe-Coburg-Gotha,  and  Waldeck. 
Meanwhile  Germany,  having  gradually  become  the  chief  consumer  of  man- 
ganese, imported  680,371  tons  of  it,  worth  about  =£1,400,000  (28,000,000  marks) 




in  1913.  Of  this,  447,000  tons  came  from  Eussia  and  177,638  tons  from  the 
British  East  Indies,  while  27,467  tons  were  sent  bv  Spain,  and  21,873  tons  by 
Brazil.  In  the  same  year  Luxemburg  imported  69,717  tons  of  manganese  from 
Eussia,  42,356  tons  from  the  British  East  Indies,  883  tons  from  Brazil,  and 
15  tons  from  Spain.  It  is  worthy  of  note  that  in  1912  Luxemburg  had  taken 
73,608  tons  from  Eussia  and  Greece  and  56,172  tons  from  the  British  East 
Indies.  A.  E.  L. 

Mineral  Production  of  India  During  1913   and   1914. — By  H.   H.   Hayden. 
Bee.  Geol.  Surv.  India,  1915,  vol.  xlv.,  pages  158-208. 
The  following  table  has  been  compiled  from  the  statistics  contained  in 
this   report,    and    shows   the   quantities    and   values    of   the   more   imijortant 
minerals  produced  during  the  years  1913  and  1914:  — 



Increase  or 






in  value 
over  1913. 



Per  cent. 

Alum,  in  cwts. 





-f     22-5 

Amber,  in  cwts.     . . 





^  844-8 

Bauxite,  in  tons    . . 





-       3-0 

Building  materials, 





-     11-9 

Chromite,  in  tons    . 





+       7-2 

Clay,  in  tons 





-       6-5 

Coal,  in  tons 





+       2-9 

Copper- ore,  in  tons 





-     15-7 

Corundum,  in  cwts, 





-    79-8 

Diamonds,  in  carats 

115  7 




-     55-8 

Garnet,  in  cwts.    . . 





-  273-1 

Gold,  in  ounces 





^       2-0 

Gypsum,  in  tons   . . 





-       8-6 

Iron-ore,  in  tons    . . 





+       2-5 

Jadeite,  in  cwts.*. . 





+     66-4 

Lead  and  lead-ore. 

in  tons    . . 





+     79-0 

Manganese-ore,      in 






-     27-6 

Mica,  in  cwts 





-     31-7 

Monazite,  in  tons    . 





-       1-4 

Ochre,  in  tons 





-     82-8 

Petroleum,  in  galls. 





-       7-3 

Platinum,  in  ounces 





-     34-3 

Euby,  sapphire,  and 

spinel,  in  carats  . 





-      22-3 

Salt   and   rock-salt, 

in  tonsf    . 





-     10-7 

Saltpetre,  in  cwts.  . 





4-     35-7 

Samarskite,  in  cwts. 






Silver,  in  ounces    . . 





-r     75-4 

Steatite,  in  tons    . . 





-     38-3 

Tin  and  tin-ore,  in 






38,203  ' 

-     17-7 

Tungsten-  ore,intons 





-     39-7 

Zinc-ore      . .          . . ' 



8,553  , 


+  120-9 

Export  values.         f  Value  f.o.b.  at  Indian  ports. 

J  Value  without  duty. 
A.  P.  A.  S. 

30       TRANSACTIONS THE  NOiriTI  OF  ENGLAND  INSTITUTE.       [Vol.  Ixvi. 

Supply  of  Mineral  Fuel  to  Paris  Before  the  War:  Importance  of  the 
Port  of  Rouen  for  the  Supply  of  Paris. — By  A.  de  Keppen. 
Com.  Cent.  Hoiiill.  France,  1915,  Circulaire  No.  505G,  pages  1-14. 

Premising  that  the  quantities  of  mineral  fuel  required  by  capitals  like 
Paris,  Petrograd,  Berlin,  and  Vienna  exceed  those  of  agricultural  produce 
and  other  stores,  and  have  to  be  brought  from  greater  distances,  the  author 
calls  attention  to  the  high  importance  of  these  supplies.  The  mineral  fuel 
.supplied  to  the  Deijartment  of  the  Seine  in  1911,  for  which  year  statistics  are 
available,  was  3,005,800  metric  tons  from  France,  1,302,500  tons  from  England, 
698,100  tons  from  Belgium,  and  299,100  from  Germany,  giving  a  total  of 
5,305,500  tons.  Of  the  French  supply,  9807  per  cent,  came  from  the 
Valenciennes  basin.  The  coal  reached  Paris  partly  by  rail  and  partly  by  the 
navigable  waterways.  Of  the  goods  brought  to  Paris  by  the  waterways,  37'8 
per  cent,  was  mineral  fuel.  The  fuel  per  head  of  population  was  about  1'714 
metric  tons.  The  estimated  distribution  of  the  total  was  as  follows  :  — 
1,479,500  tons  for  the  gas  industry,  60,000  tons  for  large-scale  metallurgical 
purposes,  2,300,000  tons  for  other  branches  of  industry,  and  1,071,000  tons  for 
household  use.  Since  the  mines  of  Valenciennes  are  in  the  war  area,  the 
supply  through  the  port  of  Roaien,  90  per  cent,  of  which  comes  from  Great 
Britain,  becomes  all-important.  In  1913,  73-34  per  cent,  of  the  fuel  sent 
through  this  port  to  the  interior  of  France  went  by  water,  and  26"66  per  cent, 
by  rail.  The  great  majority  of  the  supply  was  for  Paris,  which,  indeed, 
takes  78  per  cent,  of  the  coal  sent  by  water  from  Rouen,  as  well  as  more  than 
half  a  million  tons  sent  by  rail.  In  1911,  Rouen  also  received  important 
consignments  of  coal  from  Belgium  and  Germany  by  rail  and  waterway,  and 
transmitted  it  to  the  interior.  A  large  part  of  this  came  by  several  canals, 
which  were  connected  with  the  Belgian  and  German  networks  of  waterways. 

The  author  concludes  his  article  by  drawing  particular  attention  to  the 
importance  of  the  British  supply  and  of  the  port  of  Rouen. 

A.  R.  L. 

Miners'    Wash-and-Change-Houses. — By   Joseph    H.    White.     Bur.    Mines, 
1915,  Technical  Paper  No.  116,  pages  1-27. 

Among  the  investigations  that  the  Bureau  of  Mines  is  directed  by  law  to 
undertake  are  dealing  with  the  health  of  miners  and  the  improvement 
of  sanitary  conditions  at  mines.  Many  mining  companies,  large  and  small, 
are  providing  buildings  where  miners  may  remove  their  soiled  working- 
clothes,  bathe,  and  put  on  clean,  dry  clothing  before  returning  to  their 

Wash-and-change-houses  for  miners  are  required  by  law  in  Arizona, 
Illinois,  Indiana,  Kansas,  Montana,  Oklahoma,  and  Pennsylvania.  In  some 
of  these  States  the  law  reads  that  the  wash-and-change-house  shall  be 
established  only  after  it  has  been  petitioned  for  by  a  certain  number  of  the 
workmen.  Wash-and-change-houses  were  established  in  some  before  the 
passage  of  the  law;  and,  although  not  required  by  law,  they  exist  in 
Alabama,  California,  Colorado,  Kentucky,  Michigan,  Minnesota,  Missouri.. 
Nevada,  New  Jersey,  Texas,  Washington,  West  Virginia,  and  Wyoming. 
Some  of  the  best  wash-and-change-houses  are  to  be  found  in  Michigan, 
Minnesota,  and  Alabama. 

It  has  been  stated  that  the  miners  would  not  and  do  not  take  advantage 
of  wash-and-change-houses  after  they  have  been  erected.     Companies  holding 


back  because  of  this  belief  cau  have  reasonable  assurauce  that  a  modern 
wash-and-change-house  will  be  used  by  a  large  percentage  of  the  men. 
Information  that  has  been  obtained  concerning  several  thousand  miners  who 
were  provided  with  wash-and-change-house  facilities  shows  that  an  average 
of  about  85  per  cent,  of  the  total  number  on  the  pay-roll  used  the  wash-and- 
change-houses  daily.  In  a  large  number  of  the  cases  reported  there  was  a 
fee,  varying  from  2s.  to  4s.  i)er  month,  for  the  use  of  the  wash-and-change- 
house.  One  company  making  a  charge  of  2s.  a  month  for  the  use  of  lockers 
and  the  bath  privileges  claims  that  the  charge  causes  the  men  to  make  better 
use  of  the  facilities  provided.  At  the  outset  there  are  some  who  will  not 
use  it,  as  miners,  particularly  the  older  ones,  take  slowly  to  innovations. 
The  number  of  users,  however,  steadily  increases. 

The  paper  gives  advice  on  the  selection  of  sites  and  plans  of  wash-houses, 
their  construction,  lighting,  heating,  and  equipment. 

A.  P.  A.  S. 

Dimensioning:  of  Coal-mines. — By  Dr.   Barvik.     Montaiiist.   Bunds.,  1915, 
vol.  vii.,  pages  293-295  and  529-531. 

The  Austrian  mining  laws  lay  down  that  the  superficial  area  of  a  mine, 
the  configuration  of  which  should  be  a  right-angled  ijarallelogram,  shall  be 
not  less  than  58,958  square  yards  (45,116  square  metres).  The  breadtli  of  the 
mine  is  not  to  be  less  than  347  feet  (106  metres).  Difficulties  with  mining 
leases  are  caused  by  these  regulations,  and  the  exact  area  cannot  always  be 
determined.  Tlie  writer  discusses  whether  it  is  possible  to  comply  with  them 
at  one  and  the  same  time  by  any  manijDulation  of  the  above  two  values,  and 
comes  to  the  conclusion  that  whole  numbers  can  only  be  obtained  by  reducing 
the  figures  to  millimetres.  Even  this  method  will  give  merely  an  approxi- 
mation to  the  official  stipulations.  The  writer  endeavours  by  calculation 
to  work  out  such  a  value  for  the  superficial  area  of  the  mine  that  every  whole 
number  within  two  limits,  if  taken  for  the  one  dimension,  shall  always 
admit  of  a  corresponding  whole  number  for  the  other. 

E.  M.  D. 

Safety     in    Stone-quarryingr- — By    Oliver    Bowles.  Bur.    Mines,    1915, 

Technical  Paper  No.  Ill,  2)ages  1-48. 

This  paper  descril>es  the  results  of  an  investigation  of  safety  conditions 
in  stone-quarrying — moi'e  esjiecially  in  the  quarrying  of  marble.  Its  pui'pose 
is  to  point  out  the  chief  causes  of  accidents  in  stone-quarries,  and  to  suggest 
preventive  measur'es  and  devices.  Many  of  the  suggestions  are  applicable  to 
all  types  of  rock  excavation,  but  chiefly  relate  to  marble-quarrying.  Accident 
prevention  is  considered  from  three  points  of  view — safety  in  equijinient, 
safety  in  quarrying  methods,  and  safety  through  proper  care.  The  paper 
also  describes  methods  of  first  aid  in  case  of  accident,  and  includes  a  list  of 
typical  quarry  accidents  that  have  come  to  the  writer's  notice. 

A.  P.  A.  S. 



Compiled  by  PERCY    STRZELECKI. 

Table  I. — Summary  of  Explosions  op  Firedamp  and  Coal-dust  in  the 
SEVERAL  Mines-inspection  Divisions  during  1915. 

Minea-inspection  Division. 

Fatal  Accidents. 

Non-fatal  Accidents. 






Lancashire,  North  Wales, 

and  Ireland 

Midland  and  Southern  ... 
Northern  ... 


South  Wales        

York  and  North  Midland 


















Table   I[. — List    of   Fatal   Explosions   of   Firedamp   or   Coal-dust   in 
Collieries  in  the  several  Mines-inspection  Divisions  during  1915. 






No.  of 


Dec.  31,  230 


Glamorgan    ... 

South  Wales... 



Jan.     8,  10-30 

Deans,    No.  3     (Oil- 

Linlithgow    ... 




„     17,  17-0 

Minnie  Pit 


Midland      and 



„    24,  22-30 

Rosshill  (Oil-shale)... 

Linlithgow    ... 




Feb.  17,    7-30 

Bridgeness(No.  2Pit) 

Linlithgow    ... 




Mar.  27,    7-15 






April  26,    7-30 

Duddingston,  No.    3 

Linlithgow    ... 




„     26,  11-0 

Brayton    Domain 
(No.  4  Pit) 

Cumberland  ... 




June  10,    8-30 






July  20,    9-30 

New  Hem  Heath    ... 


Midland  and 



,,    20,  15-45 

Ardeer  East    (No.  4 





Aug.  25,    7-30 

Baads  (No.  42  Pit)  .. 

Edinburgh     ... 




Sept.    6,  22-40 

Blackwell  ("A"  Pit) 


York  and  North 



Oct.     8,    6-0 

Top-o'-th'-Meadow    .. 

Lancashire   ... 

North  Wales, 
and  Ireland 



„    22,    5-55 

Pennant  Hill 


Midland  and 



Nov.  30,      9-0 



Midland  and 







1, 1ST  OK  EXILOSIONS,  1915. 


Table  III.— List  of  Non-fatal  Explosions  of  Firkdamp  or  Coal-dust  in 
Collieries  in  the  several  Mines-inspection  Divisions  during  1915. 

1915.                                   Colliery.                     ! 


Mines-inspection     pN°-°^f 
Division.             Injured. 

Jan.     8,12-10    Milfraen            ' 


South  Wales  .. 


8,14-0      Gilbeitficld       

Lanark  ... 



„         9;  U-30    Seven  Sisters 


South  Wales  ...I 


„      12.    90    1 

Do ' 




.,      13.  19-30  ' 

Blaen-cae-gurwen        ...' 




,.      20,  19-15 

Stourbridge  Kxtension  j 


Midland  and 


.,      26,    8-0 

Blackrigg(No.  3  Pit)... 




.,      27,    5-10 

Calderbank       ' 




..      29,    7-45 

Duffrvn  Amman          ...■ 


South  Wales  ... 


,.      30.  11 -30  1 

Polbeth,    No.   26    (Oil- 




Feb.     5,  22-30 

Varteg  Hill       


South  Wales   ... 


„      17,    40 

Bannockburn   ... 




„      17,    7-0 

Kenmuirhill  (No.  1  Pit) 

Lanark  ... 



„      19,    7-30 





„      24,    4-15 





Mar.     9,  lO'O 



York  and  North 


„      22,    7-0 

Go  van  (No.  5  Pit)       ... 

Lanark  ... 



,.      25.    10 

Brancepeth  (■' B  "  Pit) 




„      30.  15-;i0 





April    1.  12-20 



South  Wales  ... 


1,  17-30 

Ton  Phillip       




6.    0-10 

Corr-tt'e  Yale     




6,    7-30    Aikenhead         




6,  13-45    Lodge  Mill        

York       ...          J.. 

York  and  North 


9,  14-30 

Wentworth  Silkstone.. 




9,  20-0 

Pennant  Hill 


Midland  and 


May    2,  210 


Lanark  ... 



9,    7-30 

South  DuflEryn  Level  ... 


South  Wales  .  . 


„      12,  16-0 





„      16,11-45 

Hartley  Bank 


York  and  North 


„      24,  13-45 


Lanark  ... 



,.      26,    9-15 

Murdostoun  (No.  3  Pit) 

Do.     ... 



„      30,  15-35 





„      31,    8-30 





June    8,  13-45 





„      19,    2-30 

GrifE  (No.  4  Pit) 

Warwickshire  ... 

Midland  and 


„      21,    9-30 

Preston  Links 




„      25,11-0 

Roman   Camp   No.    3 
i        (Oil-shale) 




July     8,    1-0 

Cadley  itill      


Midland  and 


8,  13-30 



York  and  North 
i      Midland 


„      10,  10-0 

New  London    ... 





vol..  LXVr.— 1916. 1916. 

c    E 



Table  III. — Continued. 



County.               1 


No.  of  ' 

July   Ifi,  14  0 


Lanark  ... 


1     „'    17,  10-30 



York  and  North 

„       23.    90 

Newfarm  (Oil-shale)  .. 



„      30,    6-40 

Britain  ... 


York  and  North 

Aug.     1.  12-30 


Lanark  ... 


2,    8-10 




1     „         5,  100 



South  Wales  ... 

6.  140 

Marley  Hill       



„       23,    6-15 



York  ;ind  North 

•i     „      23,  23-30 

Drumbow  (No.  1  Pit)  ,. 




Sept.    1,12-30 



Midland  and 

1,  19-30 




4,    1-0 

Pent  re  (Landore) 


South  Wales  ... 

„      14,  15-20 




■    „      17,12-30 


Lanark  ... 


„      24,  13  30 



York  and  North 

.,      25,    6-30 

Newfarm  (Oil-shale)  ... 



„      29,    7-45 



South  Wales  .. 

Oct.    17,    7-0 

Central  .Silkstone 


York  and  North 

„      17,11-0 




„      20,11-0 

New  London    ... 


York  and  North 

„      22,  12-0 

East  Plean  (No.  4  Pit) 



„       27,  12-45 




„      30,  15-0 

Wei  Lesley 



^ov.     1,    145 


Leicestershire  .. 

Midland  and 

„        1.    6-40 



York  and  North 

8,    6-0 




„        8.11-30 

Bredisholm  (No.  3  Pit) 

Lanark  ... 


9,    3-30 




9,    9-16 

Kenmuirhill  (No.  1  Pit) 



9,    7-20 

Dockra  (Ironstone)     ... 

Ayr        ... 


„      11,    8-0 

Granville  (No.  1  Pit)... 

Derbyshire,  S.  ... 

Midland  and 

„      11,  14-50 

Shut  End         


Midland  and 

„      11,  16-15 


Yorks,  N.R.      .. 


„      19,  17-0 

Caerau  (Ko.  3  Pit)      ... 


South  Wales  ... 

„      20,    9-0 


Brecon  ... 




Dec.     9,    3-40 

Sandwell  Park 


Midland  and 

9,  19-30 




„      29,  1215 


Yorks,  N.R.         . 



Woop  Memorial  Hall,  and  Offices  op  The  North  of  England  Institute  of  Minino 
AND  Mechanical  Engineers,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 























/  161 




f  i3l 




































506  L 












1   , 











































6 18 


















1  , 






1  , 

















































































iniiig  aii^  Pcc|nnJcaI  (^iigbieers. 



ACCOUNTS     FOR     THE     YEAR     1915-1916; 



FOR  THE  YEAR  1916-1917  ; 


Printed  by  Andrew  Reid  &  Company,  Limited,  London  and  NEWCASTLE-uroN-TYNE. 



Annual  Report  of  the  Council,  1915-1916           ...          ...         ...         ...           ..  v 

Annual  Report  of  the  Finance  Committee,  1915-1916            ...         ...         ...  viii 

General  Statement,  June  30th,  1916       ...           ..         ...         ...         ...         ...  ix 

The  Treasurer  in  Account  with  The  North  of  England  Institute  of  Mining 

and  Mechanical  Engineers  for  the  Year  ending  June  30th,  1916  ...  x 
The  Treasurer  of  The  North  of  England  Institute  of  Mining  and  Mechanical 

Engineers  in  Account  with  Subscriptions,  1915-1916     .           ...          ...  xii 

List  of  Committees  appointed  by  the  Council,  1916-1917  ■■  ...  •••  xiv 
Representatives  on  the  Council  of  The  Institution  of  Mining  Engineers, 

1916-1917          xiv 

Officers,  1916-1917 xv 

Patrons            ..'.         ...          ...          ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  x\i 

Honorary  Members  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  xvi 

Members         ...          ...         ...         ...         ...         ...          ...         ...         ...         ...  xvii 

Associate  Members  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...          ...         ...         ...  'xli 

Associates       ...         ...          ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  xliv 

Students          ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  1 

Subscribers     ...         ...         ...         ...         ...          ..         .  ■  li 



ANNUAL  REPOllT  OF  THE  COUNCIL,  1915-1916. 

The  Institute  has  sustaiued  a  great  loss  through  the  death  of 
Mr.  John  George  AVeeks,  who  was  elected  a  member  in  the  year 
18()5,  vserved  on  the  Council  continuously  from  the  year  1877, 
and  was  elected  President  in  1900.  He  contributed  largely  to 
tlie  discussions,  and  took  a  great  interest  in  the  affairs  of  the 

The  Council  also  deplore  the  deaths  of  the  Honourable  Lord 
Ninian  Edward  Crichton-Stuart,  and  Messrs.  Robert  Curweu 
Richmond  Blair,  Georg'e  Dixon,  Oscar  Earnshaw,  Edward 
Maurice  Gregson,  Thomas  John  Muse  and  George  Henry  Hall 
Scott,  who  were  killed  in  ilie  European  War,  and  the  deaths  of 
the  following-  gentlemen  who  died  during  the  year: — Members: 
Philip  Francis  Burnet  Adams,  Thomas  Arnold,  Thomas  Bailes, 
David  Burns,  John  William  Fryar,  Alfred  Edward  Hale, 
AVilliam  Harle,  Talbot  Richard  Lonsdale  and  Marshall  Nichol- 
son. As,sociate  members  :  Colin  Armstrong  Ferguson  and  James 
Kirkley.     Associate:  William  Pattison. 

A  decrease  in  the  membership  has  to  be  reported  for  the  sixth 
year  in  succession.  The  additions  to  the  register,  and  the  losses 
by  death,  resignation,  etc.,  are  shown  in  the  following  table:  — 
























Gain   . . . 








Loss    . . . 








The  membership  for  the  last  six  years  is  shown  in  the  follow- 
ing table :  — 

Year  ended  August  1st.  ISU.  1912.  1913.  1914.  1915.  1916. 

Honorary  members 

...       27 













Associate  members 

...     107 







...     209 







...       43 







...       35 







...  1,342 







The  Coimcil  is  compiling-  a  list  of  members  serving'  with 
His  Majesty's  Forces  at  home  and  abroad,  and,  in  order  to  niake 
the  list  as  complete  as  possible,  will  be  pleased  to  be  advised  of 
any  members  serving-. 

Dr.  J.  B.  Simpson  has  presented  i)ortraits  of  Sir  Humphry 
Davy,  Dr.  W.  lleid  Clanny,  George  Stephenson,  John  Buddie, 
Nicholas  Wood  and  the  Eev.  John  Hodgson,  and  also  a  steel 
mill  used  in  a  pit. 

The  Library  has  been  maintained  in  an  efficient  condition 
during  the  year ;  the  additions,  by  donation,  exchange  and  pur- 
chase, include  400  bound  v^olumes  and  28  pamphlets,  reports, 
etc.;  and  the  Library  now  contains  about  15,709  volumes  and 
585  unbound  pamphlets.  A  card-catalogue  of  the  books,  etc., 
contained  in  the  Library  renders  them  easily  available  for 

Members  would  render  useful  service  to  the  profession  by  the 
presentation  of  books,  reports,  plans,  etc.,  to  the  Institute,  to 
be  preserved  in  the  Library,  and  thereby  become  available  for 

At  the  suggestion  of  Lieut.  H.  Dennis  Bayley,  whose  great 
work  in  connexion  with  the  Red  Cross  and  St.  John  Ambulance 
Associations  is  so  well  known,  during  the  year  the  Institute 
subscribed  £200,  and  the  members  also  contributed  the  sum  of 
£619  towards  a  motor  ambulance  to  be  called  "  The  North  of 
England  Institute  of  Mining  and  Mechanical  Engineers  Ambu- 
lance." The  ambulance  has  been  in  France  for  some  months 

Exchanges  of  Transaetimis  have  been  arranged,  during  the 
year,  with  the  Royal  Society  of  South  Australia,  South  African 
Engineering,  and  the  Northern  Engineering  Institute  of  New 
South  Wales. 

The  lectures  for  colliery  engineers,  enginewrights,  and 
apprentice  mechanics  arranged  to  take  place  at  Ai-mstroug 
College  were  suspended  on  account  of  the  war. 

Mr.  Thomas  Douglas  continues  to  represent  the  Institute  as 
a  Governor  of  Armstrong  College,  and,  Mr.  John  H.  Merivale, 
in  conjunction  with  the  President  (Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener),  repre- 
sentsi  the  Institute  on  the  Council  of  the  College. 

Mr.  Thomas  Edgar  Jobling  continues  to  represent  the  Insti- 
tute upon  the  Board  of  Directors  of  the  Institute  and  Coal  Trade 
Chambers  Company,  Limited. 

The  President  continues  a  Representative  Governor  upon  the 
Court  of  Governors  of  the  University  of  Durham  College  of 
Medicine  during  his  term  of  office. 

The  representatives  of  the  Institute  upon  the  Council  of  The 
Institution,  of  Mining  Engineers  during  the  past  year  were  as 
follows: — His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Northumberland,  Messrs. 
R.  S.  Anderson,  Sidney  Bates,  AV.  C.  Blackett,  W.  Cochran 
Carr,  Benjamin  Dodd,  J.  AV.  Fryar,  T.  Y.  Greener,  Reginald 
Guthrie,  Samuel  Hare,  A.  M.  Hedley-,  T.  E.  Jobling,  J.  P. 
Xirkup,  Philip  Ivirkup,  C.  C.  Leach,  Henry  Louis,  J.  H. 
Merivale,  W.  C.  Mountain,  R.  E.  Ornsby,  Walter  Rowley,  F. 
R.  Simpson,  John  Simpson,  J.  G.  Weeks,  W.  B.  Wilson  and  E. 
Seymour  Wood. 


Under  the  will  of  the  late  Mr.  John  Dag-lish,  fundvS  have 
been  placed  at  the  disposal  of  Armstrong  College  for  founding  a 
Travelling  Fellowship,  to  be  called  the  "  Daglish  "  Fellowship, 
candidates  for  which  must  be  nominated  by  the  Institute.  Tso 
application  was  made  for  the  Fellowship  for  the  year  1916. 

The  Gr.  C.  Greenwell,  gold,  silver  and  bronze  medals  may  be 
awarded  annually  for  approved  papers  '*  recording  the  results  of 
experience  of  interest  in  mining,  and  especially  where  deductions 
and  practical  suggestions  are  made  by  the  writer  for  the  avoidance 
of  accidents  in  mines."     Xo  medal  has  been  awarded  this  year. 

A  prize  has  been  awarded  to  the  writer  of  the  following  paper, 
communicated   to   the  members   during  the   year   1915-1916 : — 

"  The  Influence  of  Incombustible  Substances  on  Coal-dust  Explosions." 
By  Mr.  A.  S.  Blatcliford. 

The  Institute  has  received  a  legacy  of  £500  from  the 
executors  of  the  late  George  May,  the  income  from  which  is  to 
be  used  for  purchasing  a  prize  or  prizes  to  be  given  annually  to 
any  of  its  students  as  the  Council  may  think  fit,  such  prize  or 
prizes  to  be  called  the  "  George  May  "  Prize  or  Prizes. 

jVo  excursion  meetings  have  been  held  during  the  year.  The 
Council  hope  to  re-arrange  tJie  postponed  excursion  to  Eskmeals 
on  the  conclusion  of  the  war. 

During  the  year  Messrs.  James  Wilson,  John  Elvers  and  J. 
Straker  Nesbit  presented  one  or  more  lamps  to  the  collection 
which  the  Institute  are  forming  to  replace  that  destroyed  by  fire 
at  the  Brussels  Exhibition. 

Meetings  of  The  Institution  of  Mining  Engineers  were  held 
in   Leeds  in   September,    1915,   and  in  London   in  June,    1916. 




A  .siateiueiit  of  aecouut.s  for  the  y^ear  ending  June  oOtli,  191G, 
duly  audited,  i.s  submitted  lierewitli  by  the  Finance  Committee. 

Tlie  total  receipts  were  i;2,-"j93  8s.  Of  this  amount  £21  was 
l)aid  as  subscriptions  in  advance,  leaving-  £2, -372  8s.  as  the 
ordinary  income  of  the  year,  as  compared  with  £2,055  Is.  5d. 
in  the  previous  year.  The  amount  received  as  qidinary  subscrip- 
tions for  the  3'ear  was  £1,792,  and  arrears  £202  19s.,  as  against 
£1,96G  lis.  and  £194  17s.  respectively  in  the  year  1914-1915. 
TVansactions  ^sold  realized  £2  iGs.  Gd.,  as  compared  with 
£8  17s.  5d.,  and  the  amount  received  for  interest  on  investments 
was  £417  Us.  Gd.,  as  compared  with  £o9G  15s.  the  previous  year. 

During  the  year  £500  has  been  received  from  the  executors 
of  the  late  Mr.  George  May,  being  the  amount  of  a  legacy  to 
establish  a  "  George  May  Prize  Fund.''  The  Council  api)lied 
this  sum  to  the  purchase  of  191G-1921  Exchequer  Bonds. 

The  expenditure,  including  £200  voted  to  the  Motor  Ambu- 
lance Fund,  was  £2, -370  2s.  7d.,  as  against  £2,271  Os.  5d.  in 
the  previous  j^ear.  Increases  are  shown  in  salaries  and  wages, 
insurance,  rent,  rates 'and  taxes,  heating,  lighting  and  water, 
postages,  telephones,  etc.,  travelling  expenses  and  reporting. 
Decreases  are  shown  in  the  contributions  to  The  Institution  of 
Mining-  Engineers,  furniture  and  repairs,  library  purchases, 
printing-,  stationery,  prizes  for  papers,  and  library  catalogue. 

The  balance  of  income  over  expenditure  was  £2-3  5s.  5d.,  and 
adding-  to  this  the  amount  of  £1,100  14s.  Gd.  from  the  previous 
•  year,  and  deducting  £500  invested  in  the  1925-1945  four-and-a- 
half  ])er  cent.  AVar  Loan,  leaves  a  credit  balance  of  £G2o  19s.  lid. 

The  names  of  40  persons  have  been  struck  oft'  the  membership 
list  in  consequence  of  non-payment  of  subscriptions.  The 
amount  of  subscriptions  written  oft'  was  £214,  of  which  £115  15s. 
was  for  sums  due  for  the  year  1915-191G,  and  £98  4s.  for 

It  is  probable  that  a  considerable  proportion  of  this  amount 
will  be  recovered  and  credited  in  future  years.  Of  the  amount 
previously  written  oft'  £44  18s.  was  recovered  during  the  past 

THOS.   Y.   GREENER,   President. 

August  bill,  1910. 


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Du.  Tiih:  TuKAsriiKK  in  Account  with  The  Nohth  of  England 

roR  the  Year  ending 

June  30tli,  1915.  £     s.  d. 

To  balance  of  account  at  bankers  :  deposit  account  ...  500     0  0 

,,         ,,                    ,,                    „  current  account  ...  520     0  3 

,,        in  Treasurer's  bands  ..,          ...          ...  ...  55   14  3 

1,075   14     6 

JuneSOtb,  1916. 

To  dividend  on  207  sliares  of  £20  eacli  in   tlie  Institute 
and  Coal  Trade  Cbanibers  Company,  Limited,  for 

the  year  ending  June  30th,  1916       289  16  0 

,,   interest  on  mortgage  of  £1,400  with  the  Institute  and 

Coal  Trade  Chambers  Company,  Limited    ...         ...  49     0  0 

„   dividend  on  £340  consolidated  5  per  cent,  preference 
stock    of    the    Newcastle    and    Gateshead     Water 

Company             ...          ...          ...          ...          ...          ...  17     0  0 

,,    dividend  on  £450  ordinary  stock  of  the  Newcastle  aiul 

Gateshead  Gas  Company          ...          ...          ...          ...  19     2  6 

„   interest  on  £500  4A  per  cent.  War  Loan,  1925/1945    ...  22  10  0 

„    interest  on  bank  deposit  account              ...          ...          ...  16  18  6 

„    discount  on  £500  4^  per  cent.  War  Loan,  1925/1945  ...  2  13  6 

417     0     6 

'I'o  sales  oi  Transactions         2  16     6 

To  Subscriptions  for  1915-1916,  as  follows  :— 

605  members (©  £2  2s.  1,270  10  0 

67  associate  members             (S  £2  2s.  140  14  0 

146  associates i®  £1  5s.  182  10  0 

21  students     @  £1  5s.  26     5  0 

14  new  members        @  £2  2s.  29     8  0 

5  new  associate  members    ...         ...         @  £2  2s.  10  10  0 

10  new  associates       @  £1  5s.  12  10  0 

5  new  students         ...         ...         ...         @  £1  5s.  6     5  0 

2  new  subscribing  firms      @,  £2  2s.  4     4  0 

1,682  16  0 

33  subscribing  firms 109     4  0 

1,792     0     0 

Lcxs,  subscriptions  for  current  year  paid  in  advance 

at  the  end  of  last  year  ...  ...  ...  4280 

1,749  12     0 
Add.  arrears  received     ...  ...  ...  ...  ...-       202  19     0 

1,952  11     0 

Add,  subscriptions   paid    in    advance   during   current 

year         21     0     0 

1,973  11     0 

To  George  May  prize  fund 500     0     0 

£3,969    2    6 


Institute  of  Mining  and  Mechanical  Engineeks 
JfNE  30rH,  1916. 


June  30tb,  1916. 
By  salaries  and  wages 
.,  insurance 
,,  rent,  rates,  and  taxes 
.,  heating,  lighting,  etc. 
,,  furniture  and  repairs 
.,  bankers'  charges 
.,  library 

,,  printing,  stationery,  etc.    ... 
,,  postages,  telephones,  etc.  ... 
,,  incidental  expenses 
,,    cleaning  of  hall  and  offices 
,,  travelling  expenses 
.,  prizes  for  papers 
,,  reporting  general  meetings 
,,  library  catalogue     ... 
,.    subscription  to  motor  ambulance  fund   ... 

By  The  Institution  of  Mining  Engineers : 
Calls,  etc. 

Less,  amounts  paid  by  authors  for  excerpts 

By  £500  4i  per  cent.    War    Loan.   1925  1945    (balance   of 

By  balance  of  account  at  bankers  :    deposit  account  ...       250     0     0 

„         ,,  ,,  .,  current  account         ...       323     6     2 

,,        ,,        in  Treasurer's  hands       ...         ...         ...         ...         50  13     9 

£  s. 





477  7 


30  11 


49  9 


30  5 


5  13 


21  0 


10  1 


120  5 


126  1 


69  13 


24  13 


44  12 


4  4 


12  12 


2  5 


200  0 






1,146  6 


4  18 











George  May  prize  fund— amount  on  deposit  at  bank  ... 

623  19  11 
500     0     0 

£3,969    2    6 



Db.  Thb  Tbbasukek  of  The  North  op  England  Institute  of  Mining 

To  824  members, 

51  of  whom  have  paid  life-compositions. 


2  not  included  in  printed  list. 

775  @  £2  2s. 

To     91  associate  members. 

10  of  whom  have  paid  life-compositions. 


@  £2  2s. 

£       s.    d.       £       s.    d. 

To  207  associates, 

1  of  whom  has  paid  a  life-composition. 

20G  @  £1  Ss! 

To  31  students  @  £1  5s. 

To  36  subscribing  firms 

To  14  new  members  "              @  £2  2s. 

To       5  new  associate  members  @  £2  2s. 

To  10  new  associates  @  £1  5s. 

To       5  new  students  @  £1  5s. 

To       2  new  subscribing  firms  @  £2  2s. 

To  arrears,  as  per  balance-sheet,  1914-1915    ... 

Add,  arrears  considered  irrecoverable,  but  since  jiaid 

To  subscriptions  paid  in  advance  during  the  current  year 

1,627   10  0 

170     2  0 

257   10  0 

38  15  0 

119  14  0 

29     8  0 

10  10  0 

12  10  0 

6     5  0 

4     4  0 

321     4  0 

44  18  0 

2,213  11     0 

62  17     0 

366     2     0 
21     0    0 

£2,663  10    0 


Ayo  Mechanical  ExaiNEBBS  in  Account  with  Subsceiptions,  1915-1916.       Cr. 


£       s.   d.        £       s.  d.        £       s.   d. 

1,792     0  0 

By  arrears             202  19  0 

1.994  19  0 
Hy  subscriptions   paid   in  advance    during    the 

current  year      ...         ...         ...         ...         21     0  0 

2     2 


4    4 


10  10 


71     8 



10    0 


0     0 


U     0 

By  605  members,  paid @  £2  2s.  1,270  10  0            

128         ,,  unpaid  ...  @  £2  2s 268  IG     0 

1  „  resigned        ...  @  £2  2s.  

2  .,  excused  payment        @  £2  2s.  

5         „  dead @  £2  2s 

34         „     ■      struck  off  list  @  £2  2s 


By    67  associate  members,  paid  @  £2  2s.      140  14  0           

11         „  „         unpaid         @  £2  2s 23     2     0  

1  „  „        dead  @  £2  2s 2     2     0 

2  „  .,     struck  off  list  @  £2  2s 4     4    0 


By  146  associates,  paid @  £1  5s.        182  10  0            

50         „  unpaid  ...  @  £1  5s 62  10     0 

2         „  resigned         ...  (a  £1  5s.  

4         „  dead  ...         ...         @  £1  5s.  •.  

4         „  struck  off  list  @  £1  5s 


By    21  students,  paid      (g  £1  5s.         26     5  0           

8         „  unpaid  ...  @  £1  5s.  10     0     0  

1         „  resigned  ...  (a  £1  5s.  15     0 

1  „  excused  payment      @  £1  5s.  15     0 


Hy    33  subscribing  firms,  paid  ...          ...       109     4  0            

2  „  ,.       unpaid  4     4     0  

1  ,,  „      excused  payment...  6     6     0 


By    14  new  members,  paid         ...  @  £2  2s.         29     8  0           

By      5  new  associate  members,  paid  @  £2  2s.         10  10  0           

By    10  new  associates,  paid      ...  @  £1  5s.         12  10  0           

By      5  new  students,  paid        ...  @  £1  5s.           6     5  0           

By       2  new  subscribing  firms,  paid  (a  £2  2s.           4     4  0            ' 

(68  12     0 

115  16    0 

64  19    0 

98     4     0 

2.015  19     0      433  11     0       214     0     0 

^ ,^ ' 

£2,663  10    0 





Mr.  Sidney  Bates. 
Mr.   W.  C.  Blackett. 
Mr.   C.  S.  Carnes. 
Mr.  Thomas  Douglas. 
Mr.  T.  E.  FoRSTER. 

Finance  Committee, 

Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener. 
Mr.  T.  E.  JoBLiNG. 
Mr.   C.   C.   Leach. 
Mr.   M.  W.  Parrincton. 
Mr.  John  Simpson. 

Mr.  J.  B.  Simpson. 
Mr.   R.   F.  Spence. 
Mr.   Simon  Tate. 
Mr.  T.  0.  Wood. 

Mr.  Sidney  Bates. 
Mr.   W.  C.  Blackett. 
Mr.  C.  S.  Carnes. 
Mr.  Thomas  Douglas. 
Mr.  T.  E.  Forster. 

Arrears  Committee. 
Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener. 
Mr.  T.  E.  Jobling. 
Mr.  C.  C.  Leach. 
Mr.  M.  W.  Parrington, 
Mr.  John  Simpson. 

Mr.  J.  B.  Simpson. 
Mr.  R.  F.  Spence. 
Mr.  Simon  Tate. 
Mr.  T.  0.  Wood. 

Mr.  R.  S.  Anderson. 

Mr.  J.  B.  Atkinson. 

Mr.  R.  0.  Brown. 

Mr.  Benjamin  Dodd. 

Mr.  Mark  Ford. 

Library  Committee. 

Mr.  T.  E.  Forster. 
Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener. 
Mr.  A.  M.  Hedley. 
Mr.  F.  0.  KiRKUP. 
Mr.  J.  P.  KiRKUP. 

Prof.  Henry  Louis. 
Mr.  W.  C.  Mountain. 
Mr.  F.  R.  Simpson. 
Mr.  John  Simpson. 

Mr.  J.  B.  Atkinson. 
Mr.  C.  S.  Carnbs. 
M  .  T.  E.  Forster. 
Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener. 

Prizes  Committee. 

Mr.  Tom  Hall. 
Mr.  Samuel  Hare. 
Mr.  C.  C.  Leach. 
Prof.  Henry  Louis. 

Mr.  W.  C.  Mountain. 
Mr.  John  Simpson. 
Mr.  Simon  Tate. 
Mr.  E.  Seymour  Wood. 

Selection  and  Editing  of  Papers  Committee. 

Mr.   J.  B.  Atkinson. 
Prof.  P.  Phillips  Bedson. 
Mr.  W.  C.  Blackett. 
Mr.   H.  F.  Bulman. 

Mr.  T.   E.  Forster. 
Mr.  Austin  Kirkup. 
Prof.  G.  A.  L.  Lebour. 
Prof.  Henry  Louis. 

Mr.  W.  C.  Mountain. 
Mr.   W.   0.  Tate. 
Mr.  J.  R.  R.  Wilson. 

N.B.  —The  President  is  ex-officio  on  all  Committees. 




Mr.  R.  S.  Anderson. 
Mr.  Sidney  Bates. 
Mr.  W.  C.  Blackett. 
Mr.  W.  Cochran  Carr. 
Mr.  Frank  Coulson. 
Mr.  Benjamin  Dodd. 
Mr.  T.  Y.  Greener. 
Mr.  Reginald  Guthrie. 

Mr.  Samuel  Hare. 
Mr.  A.  M.  Hedley. 
Mr.  T.  K.  Jobling. 
Mr.  J.  P.  Kirkup. 
Mr.  Philip  Kirkup. 
Mr.  C.  C.  Leach. 
Prof.  Henry  Louis. 
Mr.  J.  H.  Merivale. 

Mr.  W.  C.  Mountain. 
Mr.  R.  E.  Ornsby. 
Mr.  Walter  Rowley. 
Mr.  F.  R.  Simpson. 
Mr.  John  Simpson, 
Mr.  J.  R.  R.  Wilson. 
Mr.  W.  B.  Wilson. 
Mr.  E.  Seymour  Wood. 




OFFICERS,     1916-1917. 

PAST-PRESIDENTS  [ex-offido). 
Sir  LINDSAY  WOOD,  Barb.,  The  Hermitage,  Chester-le-Street. 
Mr.  JOHN"  BELL  SIMPSON,  Bradley  Hall,  Wylani,  Northumberland. 
Mr.  THOMAS  DOUGLAS.  The  Garth,  Darlington. 

Mr.  WILLIAM  ARMSTRONG,  Elmtield  Lodge,  Gosforth,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Mr.  WILLIAM  OUTTERSON  WOOD,  South  Hetton,  Sunderland. 
Mr.  .JOHN  HERMAN  MERIVALE,  Togston  Hall,  Acklington,  Northumberland 
Mr.  THOMAS  EMERSON  FORSTER,  3,  Eldon  Square,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr.  MATTHEW  WILLIAM  PARRIXGTON,  Wearmouth  Colliery,  Sunderland. 
Mr.  WILLIAM  CUTHBERT  BLACKETT,  Acorn  Close,  Sacriston,  Durham. 
Mr.  THOMAS  YOUNG  GREENER,  Urpeth  Lodge,  Beamish,  County  Durham. 

Mr.  FRANK  COULSON,  Shamrock  House,  Durham. 

Mr.  ARTHUR  MORTON  HEDLEY,  Eston  House,  Eston,  Yorkshire. 
Mr.  CHARLES  CATTERALL  LEACH,  Seghill  Hall,  Northumberland. 
Prof.  HENRY  LOUIS,  4,  Osborne  Terrace,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Mr.  FRANK     ROBERT     SIMPSON,     Hedgefield     House,     Blaydon-upon-Tyne, 

County  Durham. 
Mr.  JOHN  SIMPSON,  Follonsby,  Hawthorn  Gardens,  Monkseaton,  Whitley  Bay, 

Nor  t  huniberland. 
Mr.  RICHARD  LLEWELLYN  WEEKS,  Willington,  County  Durham. 

Mr.  JOHN  BOLAND  ATKINSON,  c/o  Mr.  G.  Atkinson,  12,  Grey  Street,  New- 

Mr.  SAMUEL  HARE,  Howlish  Hall,  Bishop  Auckland. 
Mr.  THOxMAS  EDGAR  JOBLING,  Bebside,  Northumberland. 


Mr.  ROBERT  SIMPSON  ANDERSON,  Highfield,  Wallsend,  Northumberland. 

Mr.  SIDNEY  BATES,  The  Grange,  Prudhoe,  Ovingham,  Northumberland 

Mr.  ROBERT  OUGHTON  BROWN,  Newbiggin  Colliery,  Newbiggin-by-the-Sea, 

Mr.  CHARLES  SPEARMAN  CARNES,  Marsden  Hall,  South  Shields. 

Mr.  BENJAMIN  DODD,  Percy  House,  Neville's  Cross,  Durham. 

Mr.  MARK  FORD,  Washington  Colliery,  Washington  Station,  Count}-  Durham. 

Mr.  TOM  HALL,  Ryhope  Colliery,  Sunderland. 

Mr.  AUSTIN  KIRKUP,  Mining  "Office,  Bunker  Hill,  Fence  Houses. 

Mr.  FREDERIC  OCTAVIUS  KIRKUP,  Medomsley,  County  Durham. 

Mr.  JOHN  PHILIP  KIRKUP,  Burnhope,  Durham. 

Mr.  WILLIAM  CHARLES  MOUNTAIN,  8,  Sydenham  Terrace,  Newcastle-upon- 

Mr.  ROBERT  FOSTER  SPENCE,  Backworth,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Mr.  SIMON  TATE,  Trimdon  Grange  Colliery,  County  Durham. 

Mr.  WALKER  OSWALD  TATE,  U.sworth  Hall,  Washington,  Washington  Station, 
County  Durham. 

Mr.  RICHARD  JAMES  WEEKS,  Bedlington,  Northumberland. 

Mr.  JOHN  ROBERT  ROBINSON  \MLSON,  H.M.  Divisional  Inspector  of  Mines, 
Greyfort,  Westfield  Drive,  Gosforth,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Mr.  ERNEST  SEYMOUR  WOOD,  Cornwall  House,  Murton,  County  Durham. 

Mr.  THOMAS  OUTTERSON  WOOD,  Cramlington  House,  Cramlington,  North- 


Mr.  REGINALD  GUTHRIE,  Neville  Hall,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Mr.  JOHN  HERMAN  MERIVALE,  Neville  Hall,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Mr.  ALLAN  CORDNER,  Neville  Hall,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 



AUGUST  5.  191G. 



The  Most  Honourable  the  MARQUESS  OF  LONDONDERRY. 

The  Right  Honourable  the  EARL  OF  DURHAM. 

The  Right  Honourable  the  EARL  GREY. 

The  [light  Honourable  the  EARL  OF  LONSDALE. 

The  Right  Honourable  the  EARL  OF  \YHARNCLIFFE. 

The  Right  Reverend  the  LORD  BISHOP  OF  DURHAM. 

The  Right  Honourable  LORD  ALLENDALE. 

The  Right  Honourable  LORD  BARNARD. 

The  Right  Honourable  LORD  RAVENSWORTH. 

The  Very  Reverend  the  DEAN  AND  CHAPTER  OF  DURHA^L 


*  Honorary  Members  dvn'ing  term  of  office  only. 

Date  of  Election. 

I  JOHN  BOLAND  ATKINSON,  c'o  G.  Atkinson,  12,  Grey  Street, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne         : Aug.    2,  1913 

2*WILLIAM   NICHOLAS  ATKINSON,  I.S.O.,  H.M.  Divisional 

Inspector  of  Mines,  Tintern,  Chepstow  ...  ...  ...  Aug.     4,  1888 

3  RICHARD  DONALD  BAIN,  Aykleyheads,  Durham        June  10,  1911 

1*Prof.  PETER  PHILLIPS  BEDSON,  Armstrong  College,  New- 
castle-upon-Tyne. ,  Transactions,  etc.,  sent  to  c,o  Basil 
Anderton,  Public  Librarj',  Newcastle-upon-Tyn§       ...         ...  Feb.    10,1883 

5  THOMAS  DOUGLAS,  The  Garth,  Darlington  (Past-President, 

MemJter  of  Council) Dec.    14,1912 

6  Prof.  WILLIAM  GARNETT,  London  County  Council  Education 

Office,  Victoria  Embankment,  London,  W.C.  Nov.  24,  1894 

7*Dr.  WILLIAM  HENRY  HA  DOW.  ArmstrongCollege. Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne     Feb.   12,  1910 

8  Sir  HENRY  HALL,  I.S.O.,  Brookside,  Chester     .  June  10,  1911 

9*HUGH    JOHNSTONE,    H.M.   Divisional   Inspector    of    Mines, 

3,  Priory  Road,  Edgbaston,  Birmingham  Oct.    13,1906 

College,  Newcastle-upon-Tj'ne.  Transactions,  etc.,  sent  to 
Radcliffe  House,  Corbridge,  Northumberland  Nov.     1,1879 

11* JOHN     DYER     LEWIS,    H.M.    Inspector    of  Mines,   2,    St. 

Helen's  Crescent,  Swansea  Dec.    11,1909 

12*Prof.  henry  LOUIS,  Armstrong  College,  Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne.  Transactions  sent  to  The  Librarian,  Armstrong 
College,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne     ... 

13*R0BERT  McLaren,  H.M.  Imspector  of  Mines,  Drumolair, 

14*TH0MAS  HARRY  MOTTRAM,  H.M.  Divisional  Inspector 
of  Mines.  74,  Thorne  Road,  Doncaster 

15  DANIEL  JSIURGUE,  Ingenieur  Civil  des  Mines,  54,  Boulevard 
des  Beiges,  Lvons,  France 
BERT    NELSON,    H.M. 
Brook  Green,  London,  W. 

17»ARTHUR  DARLING  NICHOLSON,  H.M.  Divisional  Inspector 
of  Mines,  Astley,  Manchester 

Chief  Inspector  of  Mines,  Mines  Department,  Home  Office, 
Whitehall,  London.  S.W Dec.    11,1909 





















19  Dr.  AUBREY  STRAHAN,  Director  of  the  Geological  Survey   *'"  "*  Election, 
of  Great  Britain,  28,  Jermyn  Street,  London,  S.  W.  ...  ..  Aug.     1,  1914 

20*Prof.  henry  STROUD,  Armstrong  College,  Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne  Nov.     5,  1892 

21  Sir  JETHRO  JUSTINIAN  HARRIS  TEALL,  174,  Rosendale 

Road,  Dulwicli,  London,  S.E.      ...         ...         ...         ...  Aug      1    1914 

22 'Prof.  WILLIAM  MUNDELL  THORNTON,  Armstrong  College, 

Newcastle-upon-Tj'ne  ...  ...  .  Feb     12    1910 

23*  WILLIAM  WALKER,  H.M.  Deputy  Chief  Inspector  of  Mines, 

Mapledene,  Ashtead,  Epsom         ...         ...  .  Oct     14    1905 

24*Prof.  ROBERT  LUNAN  WEIGHTON,  2,  Park  Villas,  Gosforth, 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne         ...         ...  .  ...  April    2    1898 

25* JOHN  ROBERT  ROBINSON  WILSON,  H.M.  Divisional  In- 
spector of  Mines,  Greyfort,  Westfield  Drive,  Gosforth, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne         ...  ...         ...         ...  Aug.     2,  1913 


Marked  *  have  paid  life  composition.  Date  of  Election 

and  of  Transfer. 

1  Abbott,    Henry   Arnold,   H.M.   Inspector  of  Mines,    18, 

Priory  Road,  Sharrow,  Sheffield Feb.    13,1904 

2  Abel,    Walter  Robert,  A  Floor,   Milburn  House,  New- 

castle-upon-Tyne      ...                     Dec.      8,  1906 

3  AcuTT,  Sidney,  Mooi  Plaats,  P.O.  Hatherley,  Transvaal  Dec.    10,  1904 

4  Adair,  Hdbert,  Gillfoot,  Egremont,  Cumberland April    8,  1905 

5  Adams,  George  Francis,  Chief  Inspector  of  Mines  in  India, 

Dhanbaid,  E.I.  Railway,  Manbhum,  Bihar  and  Orissa, 

India Aug.     5,  1905 

6  Adamson,  Thomas,   Colerson  Villa,  Hazaribagh,  Bihar  and 

Orissa,  India Feb.    10,1894 

7  AiNSwoRTH,    Herbert,    P.O.    Box    1553,    Johannesburg, 

Transvaal        Feb.    14,  1903 

8  AiNswoRTH,    John    W.,    Bridgewater    Offices,    Walkden, 

Manchester     ...          ...         ...         ...  Dec.    14,  1895 

9  Aldridge,  Walter  Hull,  c/o  William  B.  Thompson,  14, 

Wall  Street,  New  York  City,  U.S.A. Feb.     8,1908 

10  Allan,  Philip,  Clarke  Street,  Sunshine,  Victoria,  Australia  June  10,  1905 

11  Allison,    J.    J.    C,    Woodland    Collieries,    Butterknowle,  A.M.  Feb.    13,  1886 

County  Durham         M.June     8,1889 

12  Almond,   Charles  Percy,   Coalside,   Southwick,   Sunder-  A.  Oct.     9,  1909 

land       M.  June  13,  1914 

13  Anderson,  Robert  Simpson,  Highfield,  Wallsend,  North-  S.  June    9,  1883 

u.mher\a,nd  (Me77ihe-r  of  Counci/)     ...         ...A.M.Aug.     4,1888 

M.  Aug.    3,  1889 

14  Anderson,    William   Thomas,  P.O.   Box  57,  East  Rand, 

Transvaal         Oct.  12,  1912 

15  Andrews,  Arthur,  Lyndhurst,  Darras  Hall,  Northumber- 

land         Aug.     2,  1902 

16  Andrews,  Edward  William,  Shelbrooke,  Underbill  Road, 

Cleadon,  Simderland     ...                     ...         ...         ...         ...  Aug.    4,  1906 

17*Angwin,    Benjamin,      3,     Penlu    Terrace,     Tuckingmili, 

Camborne         Nov.  24,  1894 

18  Annett,     iiCGH     Clarkson,     Widdrington,     Acklington,  S.  Feb.   15,  1906 

Northumberland  A.  June  20,  1908 

M.  Feb.     8,  1913 

19  Appleby  William  Remsen,  Minnesota  School  of  ]\Iines,  The 

University  of  Minnesota,Minneapolis,  Minnesota,U.S.A.  April  14,  1894 

20  Archer,  William,  Victoria  Garesfield,  Lintz  Green,  County  A.  Aug.     6,  1892 

Durham            ..         M.Aug.     3,1895 

21  Armstrong,  George*  Herbert  Archibald,  Castle  View, 

Chester-le-Street        April   8,  1905 

22  Armstrong.  Henry,  CoUingwood  Buildings,  CoUingwood  A.M.  April  14,  1883 

Street,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne         M.  June     8,  1889 

23  Armstrong,    William,    Elmfield    Lodge,    Gosforth,   New-  S.  April   7,  1S67 

castle-upon-Tyne  (Past-President,  Member  of  Council)  M.  Aug.    6,  1870 


Date  of  Election 
and  of  Transfer. 

24  AsuMORE,  Gkorge  Percy,  95,  Linden  Gardens,  Kensington, 

London,  W Feb.   13,  1897 

25*AsHTON,  Sir  Ralph  Percy,  go  Kilburn,  Brown  and  Com- 
pany, Orient  House,  New  Broad  Street,  London,  E.G.  Aug.    2,  1913 

26  Atkinson,  John  Boland,  c  o  G.  Atkinson,  12,  Grey  Street, 

Newcastle-upon-Tjuie      (Retiring      Vice-President, 

Member  of  Council) Oct.    11,1902 

27  Attwood,     Alfred    Lionel,     Minas     Pefia     del    Hierro, 

Provincia  de  Huelva,  Spain 

28  Avery,    William    Ernest,    Toft   Hill    Cottage,    Birtley, 

County  Durham 

29  Bain,  Richard  Donald,  Aykley heads,  Durham 

30  Bainbridge,   Emerson   Muschamp,  2,  Woodbine  Avenue, 

Gosforth,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne    ... 

31  Barnard,  Robert,  The  Manse,  Armadale,  West  Lothian  .. 

32  Barrass,  Matthew,  Wheatley  Hill  Colliery  Office,  Thorn- 

le}'.  County  Durham  ... 

33  Barrett,   Charles   Rollo,   Whitehill   Hall,   Pelton   Fell, 

County  Durham 

34  Barrett,  Rollo  Samuel,  Brookside,  Seaton  Burn,  Dudley, 


35  Barrs,    Edward,    Cathedral    Buildings,    Newcastle-upon- 


36*Bartholomew,  Charles  William,  Blakesley  Hall,  near 

37  Bartlett,    George    Pilcher,     Theatre     Lane,     Durban, 

Natal,  South  Africa  ...- 

38  Bates,  Sidney,  The  Grange,  Prudhoe,  Ovingham,   North- 

umberland (il/ew6er  o/Co?»ic?7) 

39  Bates,  Thomas  Lionel,  Alfred  Street,  Waratah,  New  South 

Wales,  Australia 

40  Bateson,  Walter  Remington,  P.O.  Box  1051,   Halifax, 

Nova  Scotia    ... 

41  Batey,  John  Wright,  Elmfield,  Wylam,  Northumberland 

42  Bawden,  Ernest  Robson,  Threlkeld  Lead  Mines,  Limited, 

Tin-elkeld,  Penrith 

43  Bayliss,  Ernest  John,  Castello,  5,  Madrid,  Spain 

44  Beard,  James  Thom,  c/o  Coal  Age,  505,  Pearl  Street,  New 

York  City,  U.S. A 

45  Bell,   Joseph  Fenwick,   Eppleton  Hall,   Hetton-le-Hole, 

County  Durham 

46  Bell,  Reginald,  Shildon  Lodge  Colliery,  Darlington 

47  Bell,  Walter,  c/o  Pyman,  Bell  and  Company,  Hull 

48  Bell,  William  Ralph,  Hylton  Colliery,  Sunderland 

49  Bennett,    Arthur    Edgar,    Estacion   de   Cerro  Muriano, 

Provincia  de  Cordoba,  Spain 

50  Bennett,   Alfred   Henry,    The    East   Bristol    Collieries,  A.M.  April  10,  1886 

Limited,  Kingswood  Colliery,  St.  George,  Bristol        ...       M.  June     8,  1889 

51  Benson,  Robert  Seymour,  Teesdale  Iron  Works,  Stockton- 

upon-Tees        April   8,1911 

52  Berkley,  Richard  William,  35,  South  Street,  Durham  ...        S.  Feb.   14,  1874 

A.M.  Aug.     7,  1880 
M.  June    8,  1889 

53,  Earle,  12,  Station   Road,   Hetton-le-Hole,  County 

Durham  April  13,  1912 

54  Bigg- Wither,  Harris,  The  Mount,  Gathurst,  Wigan        ...  Jan.    19,  1895 

55  BiGGE,    Dbnys    Leighton    Selby,    Mercantile   Chambers, 

53,  Bothwell  Street,  Glasgow       June  10,  1903 













March  1, 





































































April  12, 
Dec.  13, 







,  Feb. 








,  Dec. 







Date  of  Election 
and  of  Transfer. 

56  BiGLAND,  Hubert  Hallam,  c/o  J.  H.  Holmes  and  Company, 

19,  Waterloo  Street,  Glasgow         Dec.    14,  1901 

57  Bird,  Edward  Erskixe,  c/o  George  Elliot  and  Company, 

Limited,  16,  Great  George  Street,  Westminster,  London,  A.M.  Aug.    5,  1905 

S.W.      M.Dec.    14,1907 

58*BiRKiNSHAw,    Frederick   Edson,  Marbella,    Provincia  de 

Malaga,  Spain  Dec.    10,  1910 

59  Blackett,    William   Cuthbert,  Acorn    Close,   Sacriston,        S.  Nov.     4,  1876 

Durham  (Past-President,  Member  of  Council) A.M.  Aug.     I,  1885 

M.  June     8,  1889 

60  Blaiklock,  Thomas  Henderson,  The  Flatts,  near  Bishop 

Auckland         April  13,  1901 

61  Blatchford,  William   Hooper,   Greytown,  Natal,  South 

Africa Feb.  10,  1912 

62  Blenner-Hassett,  Gerald,  P.O.  Box  914,  Durban,  Natal, 

South  Africa    ...  Oct.    14,1911 

63  Booth,  Frederic  Lancelot,  Ashington  Colliery,  Ashington,        S.  Feb.   10,  1894 

Northumberland         A.  Aug.    4,  1900 

M.April   8,  1911 

64  Borlase,  William  Henry,  Greenside  Lodge,  Glenridding, 

Penrith ...  Aug.     4,  1894 

65  Bowen,  David,  68,  Prudential  Buildings,  Park  Bow,  Leeds  April   3,  1909 

66  Bowman,    Francis,    Ouston    Colliery    Office,     Chester-le-       A.  June    8,  1895 

Street M.  Feb.    13,  1904 

67*Bracken,    Thomas   Wilson,  40,   Grey   Street,   Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne       ...  Oct.    14,  1899 

68  Braidford.     William,    Jun.,    South  Garesfield  Colliery, 

Lintz  Green,  County  Durham         ...         ...         ...         ...  June  14,  1902 

69  Bramwell,  Hugh,  Great  Western  Collierj^,  Pontypridd    ...         S.  Oct.      4,  1879 

A.M.  Aug.     6,  1887 
M.  Aug.     3,  1889 

70  Breakell,  John  Edwin,  84,   Worple   Road,   Wimbledon, 

London,  S.W.  April25,  1896 

71*Brinell,  JoHAN  August,  Niissjii,  Sweden      June    9,1900 

72  Brooksbank,   Frank,  Kinta  Association,    Limited,    Ipoh, 

Perak,  Federated  Malay  States      April    4,1914 

73  Broome,  George  Herbert,  Wonthaggi,  Victoria,  Australia  Oct.      9,  1897 

74  Brown,  P]dward  Otto  Forster,  708-707,  Salisbury  House,       S.  Dec.    14,  1901 

Finsbury  Circus,  London,  E.C A.Aug.     3,1907 

A.M.  Oct.    12,  1907 
M.  Dec.    14,  1912 

75  Brown,  John,  E.I.R.  and  B.N.R.  Joint  Collieries,  Bokaro       S.  June    8,  1907 

P.O.,  i?'a  Adra,  B.N.  Railwav,  India        A.Aug.    7,1909 

M.  Feb.  11,  1911 

76  Brown,  John  Coggin,  Inspector  of  Mines  iu  Burma,  Tavoy,  A.M.  Dec.    11 ,  1909 

Lower  Burma,  India ...         ...  ..         ...      M.Aug.     7,  1915 

77  Brown,  John  Connell,  Westport  Coal  Company,  Limited, 

Denniston,  BuUer,  New  Zealand   ...         ...         ...         ...  Feb.     8,  1908 

78  Brown,  Myles,  4,  Beaconsfield  Crescent,  Low  Fell,  Gates- 

head-upon-Tyne  ...         ...         ...         ...  June  14,  1913 

79  Brown,  Robert  Oughton,  Newbiggin  Colliery,  New  biggin-        S.  Oct.      8,  1892 

by-the-Sea,  Northumberland  (il/ewifcer  o/Co!()ia7)         ...       A.Aug.    3,1895 

M.  Oct.   12,  190i 

80  Brown,   Ralph  Richardson,  Peking  Syndicate,  Limited, 

Honan,  North  China  Aug.    3,1907 

81  Brown,  W.  For-Ster,  Guildhall  Chambers,  Cardiff S.Aug.     6,1887 

M.  Aug.     5,  1893 

82  Browning,    Walter  .James,     c/o    Rio    Tinto    Company, 

Limited,  Rio  Tinto,  Provincia  de  Huelva,  Spain  ...  Oct.    12,  1907 

83  Bruce,  John,  Hill,  Whitbv       S.Feb.    14,1874 

A.M.  Aug.     7,  1880 
M.  June     8,  1889 

84  Bryham,  William,  Bank  House,  Wigan       Dec.     8,  1900 



85  Bull,    Henry    Matthews,    Gopalichak     Coal    Company, 

Limited,    Bansjora,    E.I.R. ,     Manbhum,     Bihar     and 
Orissa,  India 

86  BuLMAN,  Edward  Hemsley,  New  Kleinfontein  Company, 

Benoni,  Transvaal 

87  Bulman,    Harrison    Francis,   The    North    Cottage,    St. 

George's,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

8S  Bunning,  Charles  Ziethen,  c/o  The  British  Vice-Consul, 
Pandemia,  near  Constantinople,  Turkey 

89  Burchell,  George  B.,  North  Sydney,  Nova  Scotia 

90  BuRFORD,  James  Wilfred,  c'o  Lobitos  Oil-helds,  Limited, 

Lobitos,  Paita,  Peru,  South  America 
91*Burls,  Herbert  Thomas,  15,  Victoria  Street,  Westminster, 

London,  S.W. 
92*BuRN,  Frank  Hawthorn,  9,  Sandhill,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Transactions  sent  to  Pattishall  House,  Towcester 

93  Burne,  Cecil  Alfred,  c'o  The  Astui-iana  Mines,  Limited, 

Covadonga,  Asturias,  Spain 

94  Burnett,  Cuthbert,  17,  Camden  Crescent,  Bath    ... 

95  Burton,  George  Augustus,  Highfield,  Nunthorpe,  York- 


Date  of  Election 
and  of  Transfer. 

April   9,  1904 































































96  Calder,    William,    c'o    International    Russian    Oilfields, 

Limited,   Apsheronskaya,   near    Maikop,    Kuban    Pro- 
vince, South  Russia 

97  Carnegie,    Alfred    Quintin,    31,    Manor    House    Road, 


98  Carnes,  Charles  Spearman,  Marsden  Hall,  South  Shields 

[Member  of  GoHUcil)  ...         ...         ...         ...         

99  Casson,  William  Walter,  St.  Bees,  Cumberland 

100  Chambers,    David    Macdonald,    47,    Inverness    Terrace,  A.M. 

Bayswater,  London,  W.       ...         ...         ...         ...         ...      M. 

101  Chambers,  R.  E.,  Nova  Scotia  Steel  and  Coal  Company, 

Limited,  New  Glasgow,  Nova  Scotia 

102  Channing,    J.    Parke,    42,    Broadway,   New   York    City, 


103*Chappel,    Walter     Richard     Haighton,     Elm     Court, 
Starcross,  Devon 

104  Charleton,  Arthur  George,   5,   Avonmore  Road,  West 

Kensington,  London,  W. 

105  Charlton,  Bernard  Hedley,    Hedley  Hope,    Tow   Law, 

County  Durham 

106  Charlton,  William,  Guisborough,  Yorkshire         

107  Charlton,   William    John,    H.M.    Inspector    of   Mines,       A. 

16,  Brompton  Avenue,  Sefton  Park,  Liverpool  ...      M. 

108  Chater,  Cecil  William,  c/o  T.  Cook  and  Son,   Rangoon, 

Burma,  India  ... 

109  Cheesman,  Edward  Taylor,  Clara  Vale  Colliery,  Ryton,       A. 

Count}' Durham         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...      M. 

110  Cheesman,  Herbert,  Hartlepool 

111  Cheesman,, Nicholas,  228,  Hayden  Road,  Nottingham 

112  Chicken,   Bourn  Russell,  212,  Osborne  Road,  Jesmond, 


113  Church,  Robert  William,  Government  of  India  Railway        S. 

Board,  Secretariat  Buildings,  Calcutta,  India   ...         ...       A. 

114  Claghorn,  Clarence  R.,  Durham,  King  County,  Wash- 

ington, U.S.A. 

115  Clark,  Henry,  Stockton  Forge,  Stockton-on-Tees 

116  Clark,  Robert,  Bracken  Road,  Darlington  ... 

Aug.  2,  1913 

Oct.  11,  1902 

Aug.  1,  1891 
Aug.  5,  1905 
Oct.  8,  1904 
June  12,  1909 

June  9,  1900 

April  25,  1896 

Feb.  14,  1903 

Aug.  6,  1892 

April  12,  1913 
Feb.  12,  1898 
April  12,  1902 
Aug.  7,  1909 

April  13,  1912 
Aug.  2,  1890 
Aug.  6,  1892 
Aug.  6,  1892 
Dec.  8,  1900 

Dec.  12,  1903 

,  Dec.  9,  1905 

Aug.  3,  1907 

Oct.  12,  1907 

Aug.  5,  1899 
April  8,  1899 
Feb.  15,  1896 



117  Clark.   Robert   Blenkinsop,  Springwell   Colliery,  Gates- 


118  Clark,    William    Henry,    Ferulea,     100,    Crouch    Hill, 

Horiisey,  London,  N. 

119  Clifford,  Edward  Herbert.  Rand  Club,  Johannesburg, 

Transvaal         ...         ...         ...         ...         

120  Clifford,   William,  North  Park,  near  Jeannette,   Penn- 

sj'lvania,  U.S.A. 

121  Climas,  Arthur  Bertram,  6,  Park  Bean,  St.  Ives,  Cornwall 

122  Clive,  Lawrence,    H.M.  Inspector  of  Mines,    Springfield 

House,  Newcastle,  Staffordshire... 

123  Clothier,  Henry  William,  3,   Park   Villas,  The  Green, 

Wallsend,  Northumberland 

124  Clough,  Edward  Stokoe,  Bomarsund  House,  Bomarsund, 

Bedlington,  Northumberland 

125  Clough,  James.  Bomarsund  House,  Bomarsund,  Bedlington, 


126  Cochrane,  Brodie,  Hurworth  Old  Hall,  near  Darlington  ... 

127  Cochrane,  Robert  Willi.^m,  Somerset  House,  Whitehaven 

128  Cock,  Ben,  Woodbine,  Beacon  Hill,  Camborne 
129*CoLLiNS,  Hugh  Brown,  Auchinbothie  Estate  Office,  Kil- 

macolm,  Renfrewshire 

130  Collins,  Victor  Buyers,  Lewis  Street,  Islington,  via  New- 

castle, New  South  Wales,  Australia 

131  CoLQUHOUN,  Thomas  Gr.ant,  28,  Sylvan  Road,  Exeter 

132  CoMMANS,    Robert    Edden,   Speer   Road,    Thames   Dilton, 

Surrey  ... 

133  Comstock,   Charles   Worthington,   514,   First    National 

Bank  Building,  Denver,  Colorado,  U.S.A. 

134  Cook,  George,  H.M.  Inspector  of  Mines,  Oakbank,  White- 

haven   ... 

135  Cook,    Joseph,     Washington    Iron     Works,    Washington. 

County  Durham 

136  Cook,  James  Falshaw,  Washington  Iron  Works,  Washing- 

ton, County  Durham 

137  Cook,  John  Wat.son,  Binchester  Hall,  Bishop  Auckland... 

138  Cooke,    Henry   Moore   Annesley,    The   Ooregum   Gold- 

mining  Companj'  of  India,    Limited,   Oorgaum,  Kolar 
Gold-field,  Mysore,  India      .. 

139  Cooksey,     Wilfrid,     East    Indian     Railway     Collieries, 

Giridih,  E.I. R.,  Bihar  and  Orissa,  India... 
140*Coppee,   Evence,    103,   Boulevard  de  Waterloo,   Brussels, 

141  Corbett,  Vincent  Charles    Stuart   Wortley,    Chilton 

Moor,  Fence  Houses  ... 

142  Cothay,   Frank   Hernaman,   7,  Valebrooke,   Sunderland 

143  CouLSON,  Frank.  Shamrock  House,  Durham   (President, 

Member  of  CouncH)    ...         ...         

144  Couves,  Harry  Augustus,  Tovil,  Westfield  Avenue,  Gos- 

forth,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

145  Co\\-ell,  Edward,  Horden  Colliery,  Horden,  Sunderland  ... 

146  CowELL,  Joseph  Stanley,  Vane  House,  Seaham  Harbour, 

County  Durham  

147  CoxoN,  William  Bilton,  Seaton  Hill,  Boosbeck,  Yorkshire 

148  Cragg,   James  Hor.\ce  M.aitland,  3,    Ilford  Road,  High 

West  Jesmond,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne     ... 

149  Craster,    Walter    Spencer,    P.O.    Box    336,    Salisbury, 

Rhodesia,  South  Africa 

Date  of  Election 
and  of  Transfer. 

S.  May  3,  1873 

M.  Aug.  4,  1877 

April  28,  1900 
S.  Oct.  13,  1894 
A.  Aug.  6,  1898 
M.  April  8,  1911 

Feb.  9,  1895 
Dec.  10,  1910 

Aug.  2,  1913 

June  12,  1909 

A.  Feb.  14,  1903 

M.  April  8,  1911 

S.  April  5,  1873 

A.M.  Aug.  3,  1878 

M.  June  8,  1889 

Dec.   6,  1866 

Aug.  1,  1914 

June  11,  1910 

April  14,  1894 

June  11,  1904 
Dec.  14,  1898 

Nov.  24,  1894 

June  10,  1905 

S.  Aug.  2,  1902 

A.  Aug.  5,  1905 

M.  Feb.  10,  1912 

Oct.   9,  1897 





















•  Aug. 
















Dec.  12,  1908 

S.  Feb.  12,  1898 

A.  Aug.  2,  1902 

M.  Feb.  12,  1910 

Aug.  6,  1910 

Dec.   8,  1900 



150  Craven,  Robekt  Henry,  The  Libiola  Copper-mining  Com- 

pany,  Limited,  .Sestri  Levante,  Italy 

151  Crawford,  James  Mill,  Denehuist,  Ferry  Hill      

152  Crawford,     Thomas,     Eighton    Banks,    Gateshead-upon- 


153  Crookston,  Andrew  White,  188,  St.  Vincent  Street,  Glas- 

gow        :        

154  Crosby,  Arthur,  Douglas  Colliery,  Limited,  Mine  Office, 

Crown-Douglas  Junction,  Balmoral,  Transvaal  .. 

155  Croudace,  Francis  Henry  Lambtox,  The  Lodge,  Lambton, 

Newcastle,  New  South  Wales,  Australia 

156  Croudace,    Sydney,    Wallsend    Colliery,    Wallsend,    New 

South  Wales,  Australia 

157  Cruz    y     Diaz,     Emiliano    de    la,    Director-General    de 

I'Empresa     Minas     et      Minerales,      Limited,      Ribas, 
Provincia  de  Gerona,  Spain  .. 

158  CuLLEN,  Daniel,  P.O.  Box  4.352,  Johannesburg,  Transvaal 

159  Cullex,  Matthew,  The  Clydesdale  (Transvaal)  Collieries, 

Limited,  Springs,  Transvaal 

160  CuMMiXGS,  JoHX,  Hamsterley  Colliery,  County  Durham    ... 

IGl  Curry,   George  Alexander,  Thornley  House,  Thornley, 

County  Durham 
102  Curry,  Michael,  Cornsay  Colliery,  Durham  

Date  of  Election 
aud  of  Transfer. 

Feb.  11,  1905 

Feb.  14,  1903 

A.  Dec.  8,  1906 

M.  Dec.  12,  1914 

Dec.  14,  1895 

A.M.  Aug.  7,  1897 

M.  April  12,  1902 

June  8,  1907 

June  8,  1907 

June  14,  1902 
Dec.  11,  1909 

Feb.  12,  1910 
A.  Aug.  2,  1902 
M.  Dec.  U,  1907 

Oct.  12,  1907 
Aug.  6,  1898 

1G3  D.vkers,  William  E,obson,  Tudhoe  Colliery,    Spennymoor  A.M.  Oct.    14,  1882 

M.  Aug.    3,  1889 

164  D.AN,    Takujia,  Mitsui   Mining   Company,    1,   Suruga-cho, 

Nihonbashi-ku,  Tokyo,  Japan        April  14,  1894 

165  Darlington,  Cecil  Ralph,   Whitegate,  Lightwoods  Hill, 

Birmingham Dec.    10,  1910 

166  Darlington,  Ja.mes,  Black  Park  Colliery,  Chirk,  Ruabon       S.  Nov.     7.  1874 

M.  Aug.    4,  1877 

167  Davidson,  Allan  Arthur,  c'o  F.  F.  Fuller,  638,  Salisbury 

House,  London  Wall,  London,  E.C April  13,  1907 

168  Davidson,   Christopher  Cunnion,  Hardheads,  Egremont, 

Cumberland Oct.    10,  1908 

169  Davies,  David,  Cowell  House,  Llanelly         Dec.     9,1899 

170  Davies,  William,  230,  Halliwell  Road,  Bolton       Dec.     9,1911 

171  Davie.'^,  William  Stephen,  Maesydderwen,  Tredegar      ...  Feb.    14,  1903 

172  Daw,     Albert     William,     11,    Queen    Victoria    Street, 

London,  E.C June  12,  1897 

173  Daw,  John  W.,   cb   Millers,   Limited,  Axim,  Gold  Coast 

Colony.  West  Africa  Dec.    14,1895 

174  Dean,  Harry,  Eastbourne  Gardens,  Whitley  Bay,  North- 

umberland      ...  June  10,  1905 

175  Dean,  John,  The  Wigan  Coal  and  Iron  Company,  Limited, 

Wigan  ...         Feb.   13,  1904 

176  Dean,  Samuel,  Delagua,  Colorado,  U.S. A Oct,    13,  1906 

177  Dew,  James  Walter  Henry,  8,  Laurence  Pountney  Hill, 

Cannon  Street,  London,  E.C June  10,  1911 

178*Dewhurst,  John  Herbert,  28  and  29,  Threadneedle  Street, 

London,  E.C April   2,  1898 

179  Dietzsch,    Ferdinand,   c/o  Miss  P.   Dietzsch,  7,  Emanuel 

Avenue,  Acton,  London,  W.  ...         ...         ...         ...  Aug.    5,1899 

180*DiNGWALL,  William  Burleston-Abigail,   P.O.  Box  179, 

San  Antonio,  Texas,  U.S.A.  ..  Aug.     4,1900 

1S1*Ditmas,  Francis  Ivan  Leslie,  The  Old  Rectory,  Hammer-       A.  June  11,  1898 

wich,  Lichfield  M.  June  14,  1902 

182  Dixon,  Clement,  P.O.  Box  305,  Bulawayo,  Rhodesia,  South 

Africa Dec.    14,  1912 

Dixon,    David   Watson,   Lumpsey  Mines,  Brotton,  Vork- 
IS.S  shire       Nov.    2,  1872 



184  Dixon,  George,  Sejooah  Colliery,  Sijua  Post  Office,  E.I.R., 

Manbhum,  Bihar  and  Orissa,  India  ...         

185  Dixox,  Joseph  Armstrong,   Shilbottle  Collierj^,  Lesbury, 


186  Dixox,  WiLLi.-^M,  Park  House,  Bigrigg,  Cumberland 

187  DoBB,  Thomas  Gilbert,  Brick  House,  \Vestleigh,  Leigh  ... 

188  DoDD,  Benjamin,   Percy  House,  Neville's   Cross,  Durham 

{Memhtr  of  Council)   ... 

189  Donald,    William    E.,    Redburn    House,    Bardon    Mill, 

190*DoNKiN,    William,  19,   Hosack   Road,    Balham,    London, 

S.W A. 

191  DoRMAND,  Ralph  Brown,  Cambois  House,  Cambois,  Blyth 

192  Douglas,   Arthur  Stanley,  Bearpark    Collierj',    Durham 

193  Douglas,  James,  99,  John  Street,  New  York  City,  U.S.A. 

194  Douglas,    Matthew   Heckels,    Stella   House,    Low    Fell,  A 


195  Dover,  Thomas  William,  Sherburn  Colliery,  Durham 

196  Draper,  William,  Silksworth  Colliery,  Sunderland 

197  Dunkerton,  Ernest  Charles,  53,  Grosveaor  Place,  New- 


198  Dunn,  Georoe  Victor  Septimus,  Uaroo  Lead  Mines,  via 

Onslow,  Western  Australia 

199  Dunn,  Thomas  Bowman,  c,o  J.  Dunn  and  Stephen,  Limited, 

21,  Bothwell  Street,  Glasgow 

200  Eastlake,   Arthur     William.   Grosmont,   Palace    Road, 

Streatham  Hill,  London,  S.W. 

201  Ede,  Henry   Edward,  Rectory  Chambers,  Norfolk  Row, 


202  Edmond,  Francis,  Moorland  House,  Haigh,  Wigan 

203  Edwards,    Edward,    Ystradfechan,    Treorchy,    Rhondda, 


204  Edwards,  Herbert  Francis,  104,  Stanwell  Road,  Penarth 

205  Edwards,  Owain  Tudor.  Fedwhir,  Aberdare 

206  Edwards,     William     John,     10,     Cartwright    Gardens, 

Russell  Square,  London,  W.C. 

207  Eliet,    Francis    Constant    Andre    Benoni     Elie    du, 

Commissaire  des  Mines,  Service  des  Mines  le  Nouvelle 
Caledonie,  a  Noumea,  New  Caledonia 
208*Elsdon,    Robert    William    Barrow,    go    Anglo    South 
American   Bank,    Reconquista  No.   78,   Buenos  Aires, 
Argentine  Republic,  South  America 

209  Eltringham,      George,    tlltringham     Colliery,     Prudhoe, 

Ovingham,  Northumberland 

210  Embleton,    Henry    Cawood.    Central    Bank     Chambers, 

Leeds    ... 

211  Englesqueville,  Rene    d',  2,  Alices  Boufflers,  Bayonne, 

France  ... 

212  English,  John,  North  Leam,  Felling,  Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

213  English,  William,  Ferneybeds  Colliery,  Morpeth   .. 

214  EsKDALE,    John,    Ashington  Colliery,    Ashington,  North- 

umberland      ...         

215  Etherington,   John,  39a,   King  William   Street,  London 

Bridge,  London,  E.C.  ...         ...         ...         ...         ••• 

216  Evans,  John,  Great  Cobar,  Limited,  Lithgow,  New  South 

Wales,  Australia 

217  Evans,    John*    William,     Woodlands     House,    Loughor, 


Date  of  Election 

and  of  Transfer. 


,  June  13,  1896 


.  Aug.     6,  1904 


.  Dec.     8,  1906 

Dec.    14,  1901 

April  10,  1897 

Dec.      8,  1894 


May     3,  1866 


.  Aug.     1,  1868 

Oct.   14,  1905 


,  Sept.    2,  1876 


Aug.     1,  1885 


,  June     8,  1889 


.  Dec.     9,  1893 


.  Aug.    3,  1901 

Feb.   13,  1904 

Oct.    14,  1899 


.  Aug.    2,  1879 


,  Aug.     3,  1889 

April   4,  1914 


.  Dec.    14,  1889 


.  Dec.   12,  1903 

Feb.     9,  1907 

June  20,  1908 

Aug.     6,  1910 

June  11,  1892 

July  14,  1896 

Dec.    10,  1910 

Feb.     9,  1895 

Oct.    12,  1901 

Aug.     4,  1906 

June  13,  1914 

Aug.     3,  1901 

April  13,  1901 


Dec.     8,  1894 


Aug.     2,  1902 

April  14,  1894 

Feb.    8,  1908 

Dec.     9,  1899 

Dec.    14,  1907 


Oct.    11,  1902 


Aug.  3,  1912 

Dec.     9,  1893 

Aug.     1,1914 

April    8,  1911 



218  Fairbrotiier,   Charles   James,    The    Durban    Navigation 

Collieries,  Dannliauscr,  Natal,  SouLli  Africa      

219  Falcon,  Michael,  Ebbw  Vale,  Monmouthshire       

220  Fallins,  James,   Abermain  Colliery,  Aberniain,  via  West 

Maitland,  New  South  Wales,  Australia  ... 

221  Fawcett,  Edward  Stoker,  Battle   Hill   House,   Walker, 

222*Fenwick,  Barnabas,  66,  Manor  House  Road,  Newcastle- 

223  Fergie,  Charles,  704,  Upper  Mountain  Street,  Montreal, 

Quebec,  Canada 

224  Ferguson,  James,  The  Cedars,  High  Wycombe       

225  Fevre,  Lucien  Francis,  91,  Rue  Saint  Lazare,  Paris,  IX", 

France  ...         ...         

226  Field,  Benjamin  Starks,  Layabad  Colliery,  Kusunda  P.O., 

E.I.R.,  Manbhum,  Bihar  and  Orissa,  India 

227  Fisher,   Edward   Robert,    Wansbeck,   Ammanford,   Car-  A 

marthenshire    ... 

228  Fisher,      Henry     Herbert,     Alta     Gi-acia,     F.C.C.A., 

Argentine  Republic,  South  America        

229  Fleming,   Henry  Stuart,  1,  Broadway,  New  York  City, 


230  Fletcher,  Lancelot  Holstock,  Allerdale  Coal  Company,  A, 

Limited,  Colliery  Office,  Great  Clifton,  Workington     ... 

231  "Fletcher,  Walter,  The  Hollins,  Bolton       

232  Ford,    Mark,  Washington  Colliery,  Washington  Station, 

County  Dnrha.m  (Jlemher  of  Coiiuci/) 

233  Forster,  Alfred  Llewellyn,  Newcastle   and  Gateshead 

Water    Company,    Engineer's    Office,    Pilgrim    Street, 

234  Forster,    Charles,    Earls    Drive,    Low   Fell,    Gateshead- 


235  Forster,      John      Henry     Bacon,     Whitworth     House, 

Spennymoor    ... 

236  Forster,    Joseph    William,    P,0.    Box   56,    East   Rand, 


237  Forster,  Thomas  Emerson,  3,  Eldon  Square,   Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne  (Past-President,  Member  of  Council)         ...  A. 

238  Foster,     William    Burn,    Easington     Colliery,     County 


239  Fryar,  Mark,  Denby  Colliery,  Derby  


240  Fryer,  George  Kellett,  Woodhouse,  Whitehaven 

241  FuTERS,  Thomas  Campbell,  17,  Balmoral  Gardens,  Monk- 

seaton,  Whitley  Bay,  Northumberland 

242  Galloway,  Thomas  Lindsay,  Kilchrist,  Campbeltown 

243  Gard,   Irving   Rider,   c/o    Columbia    River    Coal   Dock 

Company,  North  Portland,  Oregon,  U.S.A. 

244  Garrett,   Frederic   Charles,  Armstrong   College,  New- 


245  Gibson,  James,  Geldenhuis   Deep.  Limited,    P.O.  Box  54,  A.M. 

Cleveland,  Transvaal  ...         M. 

246  Gibson,  Richard,  Seaham  No.  1  Colliery,  West  Wallsend, 

Newcastle,  New  South  Wales,  Australia  

247  GiFFORD,  Henry  J. ,  The  Champion  Reef  Gold-mining  Com- 

pany of  India,  Limited,  Champion  Reefs  P.O.,  Mysore, 
India     ...         ...         

Date  of  Election 
and  of  Transfer. 

Feb.  8,  1908 
.  Oct.  12,  1912 

Oct.  13,  1894 
,  Aug.  4,  1900 
.  June  1,  1912 

Oct.  10,  1914 
June  11,  1892 
Aug.  6,  1904 

Aug.  2,  1866 

Dec.  9,  1893 
Dec.  12,  1896 

Feb.  8,  1908 
Aug.  2,  1902 
Aug.  3,  1907 
June  14,  1913 
Aug.  2,  1884 
Aug.  3,  1S89 

Oct.   8,  1904 

June  10,  1905 
April  14,  1888 
June  8,  1889 
Dec.  14,  1895 

Aug.  3,  1895 

June  8,  1901 

April  9,  1910 

Nov.  24,  1894 

Aug.  7,  1897 

,  Feb.  10,  1900 

Feb.  13,  1904 

Oct.  7,  1876 
Aug.  1,  1885 
June  8,  1889 

Oct.  14,  1911 

Oct.  7,  1876 

Aug,  4,  1883 

.lune  8,  1889 

Dec.  14,  1901 

Aug,  6,  1904 

Sept,  2,  1876 

Dec.  12,  1914 

April  13,  1912 
Dec.  9,  1899 
Feb.  13,  1904 

Aug.  5,  1911 
Oct.  14,  1893 



248  GiLCiiBiST,  James,  12,  Park  Roa.l  North,  Middlesbrough  ... 

249  Gill,  David  Fritz,  36,  Lovvther  Street,  Whitehaven 

250  GiLL.MAX,   Glstave,   Aguilas,   Proviucia  de  Murcia,  Spain 

251  Glass,  Robert  William,  Axwell  Park  Colliery,  Swalwell, 

County  Durham 

252  GoNlNON,     Richard,    Menzies     Consolidated    Gold-mines, 

Limited,  Menzies,  Western  Australia 

253  GooDwix,  William  Lawjon,  School  of  Mining,   Kingston, 

Ontario,  Canada 

254  GocLDiE,  Joseph,  62,  Standard  Bank  Chambers,  Johannes- 

burg, Transvaal 

255  Graham,  Edward,  Jun.,  Bedlington  Colliery,  Bedlington, 


256  Gray,  Edmuxd,  150,  Tudhoe  Colliery,  Spennymoor 

257  Greaves,   William  ..         ...         ...         

258  Geeex,  John  Dami-ier,  Riversdale,  Hlobane,  Natal,  South  A 

Africa ...         ...         

259  Greener,   Herbert,  West  Lodge,  Crook,  County  Durham 

260  Greexer,  Thomas  Young,  Urpeth  Lodge,  Beamish,  County 

Durham  (Past-Pkesident,  Jf ember  of  Council)  ..  ...  A, 

261  Greener,  William  James,  c  b  Bird  and  Company,  Char- 

tered Bank  Buildings,  Calcutta,  India    ... 

262  Green  WELL,  Allan,  Supervision  of  Supplj'  and  Distribution 

of  Coal,  New  Government  Offices,  Great  George  Street, 
Westminster,  London,  S.  W. 

263  Greenwell,  Alan    Leonard   Stapylton,  Eldon  Colliery, 

Bishop  Auckland 

264  Greenwell,    George    Cle.mentson,   Beechfield,    Poyuton, 


265  Greenwell,  George  Harold,  Woodside,  Poynton,  Stock- 

port                ...         

266  Gregson,  George  Ernest,  13,  Harrington  Street,  Liverpool 

267  Grey,  John  Neil,  c'o  Nawortli  Coal  Company,   Limited, 

Hallbankgate  Offices,  Brampton,  Carlisle 

268  Griffith,  Thomas,  Maes  Gwyn,  Cymmer,  Porth,  Rhondda, 


269  Griffith,  William,  Waterloo  House,  Aberystwyth 

270  Grose,  Frank,  Carlton  Terrace,  Truro  l!oad,  St.  Austell 
271*Grundy,  James,  Ruislip,  Teignmouth  Road,  Cricklewood, 

London,  N.W.  Traiviactions  sent  to  The  Secretary, 
Mining  and  Geological  Institute  of  India,  Calcutta, 
India     ... 

272  GcMMERSON,    James   M.,   7,   Denehurst    Gardens,    Acton,  A, 

London,  W.     ... 

273  Guthrie,  James  Kenneth,  Coal  Trade  OflBces,  Newcastle- 


Date  of  Election 
and  of  Traosfer. 

June  13,  1914 
Dec.  12,  1914 
Aug.  2,  1902 
June  10,  1S99 
Aug.  1,  1903 
Oct.    12,  1907 

June  10,  1906 

Feb.    11,  1899 

Aug.     5,  1893 

Aug.  1, 
June  19, 
April  12, 
Dec.  14, 
Aug.  2, 
Feb.  13, 
Julv  2. 
Aug.  2, 
June     8, 


274  Haas,  Frank,  Fairmont,  West  Virginia,  U.S.A 

275*Haddock,    William  Thomas,  Tweefontein  Colliery,  P.O.       S. 
Minnaar,  Transvaal  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...A.M. 


276  Haggie,  John  Douglass,  W^albottle   Colliery,  Newcastle- 


277  Hailwood,  Ernest  Arthur,  The  Towers,  Churwell,  Leeds 

278  Haines,   Charles    George    Padfield,   9,   Picton  Place, 

Swansea  .. 

279  Hall,  John  Charles.  Black  Boy  Colliery,  Bishop  Auckland      A. 


280  Hall,  Joseph  John,  Ashington  Colliery,  Ashington,  North- 


June  11,   1910 

Aug.  4,  1900 
Oct.  8,  1898 
Aug.  5,  1905 
Dec.  14,  1907 
March  6,  1869 
Aug.  3,  1872 
Dec.  12,  1903 
Aug.  4,  1906 
April  8,  1911 
Aug.  7,  1915 
June  10,  1905 
Feb.   10,  1912 

April  9,  1904 
Dec.  9,  1893 
April   9,  1910 

June  13,  1896 
June  10,  1899 
Dec.    12,  1903 

Dec.   14,  1912 

Oct.  14,  1911 
Oct.  7,  1876 
Aug.  1,  1885 
June  8,  1889 

Dec.  11,  1909 
April  12,  1913 

Oct.  8,  1910 
Dec.  14,  1889 
Aug.  3,  1895 

Dec.  10,  1904 




















Hall,  Josei'U   Percival,   Talbot  House,  Birtley,  County 

Hall,    Robert 

William,    Fairlawn,    Leeholme,    Bishop 

Hall,  Tom,  Ryhope  Colliery,  Sunderland  (J/ewfee/'  of  Council) 
Hallas.  George  Hexry.  Claremont,  Huyton,  Liverpool  ... 


Hallimond,  William  Tasker,  P.O.  Box  5191,  Johannes- 
burg, Transvaal 

Hamilton,  James,  Blackhills  Road,  Horden,  Sunderland  ... 

Hance,  Henry  Malkin,  c  o  Grindlay  and  Company,  54, 
Parliament  Street,  London,  S.W. 

'Hancock,  Henry  Lifsox,  Wallaroo  and  Moonta  Mining  and 
Smelting  Company',  Limited,  Moonta  Mines,  South 

Hands,  John,  go  Huttenbach  Brothers  and  Company, 
Kuala  Lumpur,  Federated  Malay  States 

Hann,  Robert,  Jan.,  Harton  House,  Harton  Colliery, 
South  Shields  

Hannah,  David,  14,  Marine  Parade,  Penarth 

Hare,  George,  Westerton  CoUiei-y,  Bishop  Auckland 

Hake.  Samuel,  Howlish  Hall,  Bishop  Auckland  (Retiring 

Vice-President,  Jl/t»i/*er  q/ CoH»c?7) 
Harle.  Peter,  South  Grange,  Shincliffe,  Durham   ... 
Harle,  Robert  Alfred,  The  Hermitage,  West  Maitland, 

New  South  Wales,  Australia 
Harris,  David      A 

Harrison,  Charles  Augustus,  Oakerlands,  Hexham 
Haselden,  Arthur,  Linares,  Provincia  de  Jaen,  Spain     ...  A 

"^Hawker,  Edward  William,  Eagle  Chambers,  Pirie  Street, 

Adelaide,  South  Australia 

Hawkins,  Thomas  Spear,  c  o  The  St.  John  del  Rey  Mining 

Company,  Limited,    Villa  Nova   de   Lima,   Estado  de 

Minas,  Brazil,  South  America 
Hay,   Douglas,  H.M.  Inspector  of  Mines,  34,  Old  Elvet, 

Hedley,  Arthur  Morton,  Eston  House,  Estou,  Yorkshire 

(Vice-President,  il/e?«/>er  o/CoH?ici7)      

Hedley,  Morton,  Medomsley,  County  Durham 



Date  of  Election 
and  of  Transfer. 


9,  1897 
2,  1902 
9,  1909 
13,  1902 
June  8,  1907 
.lune  8,  1889 
Oct.  7,  1876 
Aug.  4,  1883 
June  8,  1889 

Dec.  14,  1889 
Oct.  10,  1908 

Oct.  12,  1907 

Dec.  14,  1895 
Dec.  14,  1912 

Oct.  14, 
Feb.  9, 
Feb.  12, 
Dec.  14, 
Aug.  2, 
Aug.  1, 
Oct.  8, 
April  14, 
Oct.  12, 
June  12, 
April  13, 
June  21, 
Dec.  11, 
April  2, 


Oct.  12,  1895 

Aug.  6,  1904 


304  Hedley,  Septimus  H.,  Langholme,  Roker,  Sunderland 

305  Henderson,  Charles,  Cowpen  Colliery  Office,  Blyth 

306  Henderson,  William,  Alston  House,  Littletown,  Durham 

307  Hendy,  John  Cary  Baker.  Etherley,  ?7«  Darlington 

308  Henriksen,  Gudbrand,  Inspector  of  Mines,  Minde,  near 

Bergen,  Norwaj^ 

309  Herdman,  William,  St.  John's  Chapel,  County  Durham  .. 

310  Heron,  George   Patrick,  Pont   Head   House,    Leadgate, 

County  Durham 

311  Herrmann,  Henry  J.  A.,  a   Ain-Sedjera,  par  Lafayette, 

Algeria...  ...         

312  Heslop,     Christopher,     Woodside,     Marske    Mill    Lane, 

Saltl)urn-by-the-Sea  ... 

313  Heslop,  Michael,  Rough  Lea  Colliery,  Willington,  County 


314  Heslop,     Septimus,     New    Beerbhoom     Coal     Company, 

Limited,  Asansol,  E.I.R.,  Burdwan,  Bengal,  India 












14,  1912 
24,  1894 

12,  1903 

13,  1909 

2,  1913 

15,  1879 
1,  1885 

3,  1889 
9,  1899 
7,  1909 

14,  1893 

Aug.  6,  1904 
April  11,  1908 

April  8,  1911 


10,  1898 

1,  1868 

2,  1873 
10,  1894 

June  21,  1894 
Oct.  12,  1895 


315  Heslop.    Tuumas.    Randolph    Colliery.  Evenwood.  Bishop 


316  Heslop,  W.aedle,  8,  Beech  Grove  Road,  Newcastle-upon- 


317  Heslop,   Willla.m  Taylor,  St.  Georges  Colliery,  Hatting 

Spruit,  Natal,  South  Africa 
31S  Hewlett.  Alfred.  Ha-seley  Manor,  ^\■arwick 

319  Hewlett,  Alfred,  The  Cossall  Colliery  Company,  Limited, 

Cossall,  near  Nottingham    ... 

320  Hewlett,   Erne,   Ammanford  Colliery  Company,  Limited, 

Ammanford,  Carmarthenshire 

321  HiGSoy,  Jacob,  Rossland,  Northwood,  Middlesex    ... 

322  Hill,    Frank    Cyril    Gibson,    Oakdene,    Oxford    Road, 

Moseley,  Birmingham 

323  Hill,  William.  The  White  House,  Uordon,  Tamworth     ... 

324  Hilton.    Thomas   Worthington,    Wigan    Coal   and   Iron 

Company,  Limited,  Wigan  ... 

325  HiNDMARSH,  Joseph  Parker,  Corrimal,  South  Coast,  New 

South  Wales,  Australia 

326  HiNDSON,  Thomas,  Framwellgate  Colliery,  Durham 

327  HoDGKiN,  Jonathan  Edward,  .Shelleys,  Darlington 

328  Hogg,  John,  Jun.,  154,  Prcspect  Terrace.  Eston,  Yorkshire 

329  Holland,  Charles  Henry,  P.O.  Box  415,  Auckland,  New 


330  Holliday.  Martin  Fop^ter.  Park  House.  Durham  ... 

331  Holliday,  Normax  Stanley,  Boyne  Villa,  Langley  Moor, 


332  HoLiiAN,  Nicholas,  The  Gibraltar  Consolidated  Gold-mines, 

Limited,  .'^heppardstown,  New  .South  Wales,  Australia 

333  Hood,  George,  9,  Agents  Terrace,  Boldon  Colliery,  Covmty 


334  Hood,   William  Walker,   Tredean.  near  Chepstow 

335  Hooper,  Albert  Henry,  29,  Station  Road,  Keswick 

336  Hooper,  James  Augustus,  Springfield,  Lydney      

337  HopwooD,  Howell  Arthur,  Directeur  du  District  Lusanga, 

Huileries  du  Congo  Beige,  S. A.,  Kinshasa,  Belgian 
Congo.  Transaction^  sent  to  Henley,  New  Chelsfield, 
Orpington,  Kent 

338  HopwooD,  William,  Vron  Haul,  Buckley,  Chester 

339  HoRNSBY,   Demster,  Choppington   Colliery,   Choppington, 


340  HoRSwiLL,  Frederick  J.,  1070,  Sixteenth  Street,  Oakland, 

California,  U.S.A. 

341  Hoso,     Shoxosuke,      The     Matsushima     Colliery,     West 

Sonokigtin,  Nagasaki,  Japan 

342  HoTCHKis,  Daniel,  Coal  Cliff  Collieries,  Limited,  Clifton, 

New  South  Wales,  Australia 

343  Howes,  Frank  Tippett,  St.  Michaels'  House,  Brunswick 

Road,  Gloucester 

344  HowsoN,    Charles.    Mainsforth,    Ferry   Hill  

345  Hoyle,  Harry  Patrick,  Belmont  House,  Durham 

346  Humble,  Ernest,  Killingworth  Colliery,  West  Wallsend, 

New  South  Wales,  Australia 

?A~t   Humble,   John   Norman,    West   Pelton   House,    Beamish, 
County  Durham 

348  Humble,  William,  Lawson  Street,  Hamilton,  Newca.stle, 
New  South  Wales,  Australia 

Dace  of  Election 
and  of  Transfer. 

S.  Oct.   2,  1880 

A.  .M.  Aug.  4,  1888 

M.  Aug.  3,  1889 

S.  Dec.  10,  1904 

A.  Axig.  7,  1909 

M.  June  14,  1913 

Aug.  3,  1895 
March  7,  1861 

June  20,  1908 

Oct.  10.  1896 
Aug.  7,  1S62 

April  9,  1910 

A.M.  June  9,  1883 

M.  Aug.  3,  1889 

Aug.  3, 


June  20, 


Dec.   9, 


Dec.  13, 


Dec.  11, 


April.,  9, 


May  1, 



April  10, 



Feb.  13. 


Dec.  11, 


Dec.  14, 


April  9, 


t  eb.  8, 


Dec.  12, 


Oct.  12, 


Aug.  3, 



.  Feb.  12, 



.  Feb.  10, 


Oct.  14, 


April  11, 


June  20, 



Dec.  10. 



Oct.  14, 



Dec.  14, 



,  Aug.  4, 



June  >, 


Dec.  1-2, 



Feb.  14, 



,  Aug.  3, 



April  11, 



Aug.  2, 



Aug.  5, 



,  Feb.  10, 


Oct.  14, 

,  1893 



349  HuMPHRis,  Henry,  Blaenau  Festiniog  

350  Hunter,  Christopher,  Cowpeu  Colliery  Office,  Blyth 

351  Hunter,  Joseph  Percy,  7,  Elmfield  Road,  Gosforth,  New- 


352  Hunter,  Robert,  Gympie,  Queensland,  Australia  ... 

353  Huntley,    John   Johnson,   54,  Beacon  Street,  Low  Fell,  A, 


354  Hurst,  George,  Lauder  Grange,  Corbridge,  Northumber- 


355  Hutchinson,  George  Weymouth,  Greensburg,  Westmore- 

land County,  Pennsylvania,  U.S.A. 

356  HuTTON,   John    George,    Bai'field,    East    Maitland,    New 

South  Wales,  Australia 

357  Hylton,  Frederick  William,  Ryhope  Colliery,  Sunderland 

358  I'Anson-Robson,  William  Leonard,  Emerson  Chambers, 

Blackett  Street,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

359  Ide,  Kenroku,  Imperial  University,  Kioto,  Japan 

360  Inskipp,  Dudley  James,  1,  Broad  Street  Place,  London,  E.C. 

361  Jackson,  Edgar  Arthur,   Clipsley   Lodge,   Haydock,  St. 

Helens  ... 

362  Jackson,  Walter  Geoffrey,  Bramham  Hall,  Boston  Spa, 


363  Jacobs,    Montagu,    25,    Mapesbury    Road,    Cricklewood, 

London,  N.W.         ...  ...  ...  

364  Jameson,  John  Raine,  Chilton  Hall,  Ferry  Hill 

365  Jamieson,  John  William,  South  Hetton,  Sunderland 

366  Jarvie,  James,  Kembla  Heights,  near  WoUongong,  New 

South  Wales,  Australia 

367  Jefferson,  Frederick,  Whitburn  Colliery,  South  Shields 
36S  Jeffreys,  James  Henry,  Umtali,  Rhodesia,  South  Africa   .. 

369  Jenkins,   William,  Ocean  Collieries,  Treorchy,   lihondda, 

Glamorgan       ...         ...         ...         ...         

370  Jennings,  Albert,  12,  Swinburne  Road,  Darlington 

371  J  EPSON,  Henry,  The  Peth,  Durham    

372*JoBLiNG,      Thomas      Edgar,      Bebside,     Northumberland 

(Retiring  Vice-President,  Member  of  Council)  ...  A. 

373*JoHNS,   John  Henry,  Thorsden,  Guildford  Road,  Woking 

374  Johnson,    Edward,    Washington  Hotel,   Porth,  Rhondda, 


375  Johnson,    Henry    Howard     

376  Johnson,    James,    Boldon   Lodge,    East    Boldon,    County 


377  Jones,    Clement,     Neath    Colliery,     Neath,  New    South 

Wales,  Australia 

378  Jones,  Evan,  Plas  Cwmorthin,  Blaenau  Festiniog 

379  Jones,  Jacob   Carlos,   WoUongong,   New   South    Wales, 

Australia  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         

380  Jones,    Thomas,   5,   Little   George    Street,    Westminster, 

London,  S.W.  

381  Joynes,  John  James,  Ferndale,  Lydbrook,  Gloucestershire 

382  Karashima,  Asahiko,  Engineering  Department,  The  Mitsui 

Bussan  Kaisha,  Limited,  Surugacho,  Tokio,  Japan 

383  Kayll,  Alfred  Charles,  Gosforth,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne 

384  Kellett,  Matthew  Henry,  Eldon,  Bishop  Auckland     ... 

Date  of  ElectioD 
and  of  Transfer. 

Oct.  13,  1900 
A.  Dec.  10,  1892 
M.  Dec.  12,  1903 
A.  April  8,  1911 
M.  Dec.  12,  1914 
June  14,  1902 
M.  Dec.  14,  1912 
M.  April  12,  1913 
S.  April  14,  1883 
M.  Aug.  1,  1891 




























June  13, 

















June  20, 







■  Aug. 




,  June 








•  Aug. 




.  June 



June  21, 









•  Aug. 




:.  Dec. 






















.  Oct. 




■  Aug. 








,  Aug. 





385  Kelsick,  Robert,  Aberdare  Colliery,  Cessnock,  New  South 

Wales,  Australia 

386  Kenxaway,      Thomas      William,      Killingworth,      near 

Newcastle,    New  South  Wales,  Austialia 

387  Kennedy,  Percy  Joseph  Emkrson,  4,  St.  Nicholas'  Build- 

ings, Newcastle-upon-Tyne     ... 

388  Kii)D,  Thomas,  Jun.,  Linares,  Provincia  de  Jaen,  Spain    ... 

389  KiRBY,  Matthew  Robson,  16,  Old  Elvet,  Durham 

390  Kirk,     Alfred     Edwix,    Aberdare     Extended    Colliery, 

Cessnock,  New  South  Wales,  Australia  ... 

391  KiRKBY,  William,  c  o  Aire  and  Calder  Navigation,  Leeds  A, 

392  KiRKUP,  Austin,  Mining  Office,  Bunker  Hill,  Fence  Houses 

(^[emher  of  Council)  ...         ...  ...         ... 

393  KiRKUP,  Frederic  Octavius,  Medomsley,  County  Durham 

(Member  of  Council)...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...   A 

394  KiRKUP,  John  Philip.  Burnhope.  Durham  [Memher  of  Council) 

395  KiRKUP,  Philip,  Leafield  House,  Birtley,  County  Durham 


Date  of  Election 
and  of  Transfer. 

June     1,  1912 

Aug.     6,  1910 

June  11,  1910 
Aug.  3,  1895 
June  9,  1900 
Aug.  1,  1903 
Oct.    12,  1907 

396  KiRSOPP,  John,  Jun.,  Fairholme,  Gateshead-upon-Tyne 

397  Kirton,  Hugh,  Kimblesworth  Colliery,  Chester-le-Street 

398  Kitchin,    James  Bateman,  Luchana,   Egremont,  Cumber- 


399  Klepetko,    Frank,   80,    Maiden    Lane,    New    York    City, 


400*Knowles,  Robert,  Ednaston  Lodge,  near  Derby 

401  KoNDO,     R. ,    CO    Furukawa    Mining    Office,    1,    Icchome 

Taesucho,  Kojimachi,  Tokj'o,  .Japan 

402  Korte,  Christian,  10,  Avenue  Crescent,  Harehills  Avenue, 

Leeds    ... 
403*KwANG,    KwoNG   Yung,    Lincheng   Mines,    Lincheng,    r«Vt 
Peking,  North  China 

404  Lacey,  Frank  Philip  Sleioh  

405  Laird,  John,  c/o  Cia  Paulista-de-Aniagens,  51a,  Rua  Sao 

Bento,  Sao  Paulo,  Brazil,  South  America 

406  Lancaster,  John,  Dunchurch  Lodge,  Rugbj^ 

407  L.A.NCASTER,  JoHN,  Aucheuheath,  Hamilton    ... 
408*Landero,  Carlos  F.  de,  P.O.  Box  226,  Guadalajara,  Jalisco, 

409  Langslow-Cock,    Edward    Arthur,   Chief    Inspector    of 

Mines,  Naraguta,  Bauchi  Province,  Northern  Nigeria, 

West  Africa 
410*Laporte,    Henry.    151,  Chaussee   de    Charleroi,    Brussels, 


411  Lathbury,  Graham  Campbell,  Giridih,  E.LR.,  Bihar  and 

Orissa,  India   ... 

412  Latimer,  Hugh,  32,  Woodlands  Terrace,  Darlington 

413  Lawn,  James  Gunson,  c/o  The  Standard  Bank  of   South 

Africa,  Limited,  10,  Clement's  Lane,  Lombard  Street, 
London,  E.C.  ...     '     ... 

414  Lawson,    William,    23,    Ballast    Point    Road,    Balmain, 

Sydney,  New  South  Wales,  Australia     ... 

415  Leach.    Charles    Catterall,    Seghill    Hall,  Northumber- 

land (Vice-President,  Memher  of  Council)